Management of Concentrate from Desalination Plants provides an overview of the alternatives for managing concentrate generated by brackish water and seawater desalination plants, as well as site-specific factors involved in the selection of the most viable alternative for a given project, and the environmental permitting requirements and studies associated with their implementation. The book focuses on widely used alternatives for disposal of concentrate, including discharge to surface water bodies; disposal to the wastewater collection system; deep well injection; land application; evaporation; and zero liquid discharge.
Direct discharge through new outfall; discharge through existing wastewater treatment plant outfall; and co-disposal with the cooling water of existing coastal power plant are thoroughly described, and design guidance for the use of these concentrate disposal alternatives is presented with engineers and practitioners in the field of desalination in mind. Key advantages, disadvantages, environmental impact issues, and possible solutions are presented for each discharge alternative. Easy-to-use graphs depicting construction costs as a function of concentrate flow rate are provided for all key concentrate management alternatives.
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1. Introduction 2. Concentrate Sources and Characterization 3. Surface Discharge of Concentrate (Discharge to Fresh Surface Waters, Oceans and Bays) 4. Discharge to Sanitary Sewer 5. Deep Well Injection 6. Land application 7. Evaporation ponds 8. Zero liquid discharge concentrate disposal systems 9. Beneficial use of concentrate by-products 10. Regional concentrate management
Nikolay Voutchkov has over 25 years of experience in the field of desalination and water reuse as an independent technical advisor to public utilities implementing large desalination projects in Australia, USA, and the Middle East; and to private companies and investors involved in the development of advanced membrane technologies. He has extensive expertise with all phases of project delivery: from conceptual scoping, pilot testing and feasibility analysis; to front-end and detailed project design; permitting; contractor procurement; project construction and operations oversight/asset management. For over 11 years he served as a Chief Technology Officer and Corporate Technical Director for Poseidon Resources, a private company involved in the development of the largest seawater desalination projects in the USA. Mr. Voutchkov has co-authored 11 books on membrane water treatment and desalination, including technology and design guidelines for the American Water Works Association. In recognition of his research and engineering efforts in the field of seawater desalination, he received a number of prestigious awards from the WateReuse Research Association, the International Desalination Association, the International Water Association, and the American Academy of Environmental Engineers.