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Current Advances in Breast Cancer Research: A Molecular Approach

  • ID: 5026206
  • Book
  • April 2020
  • Region: Global
  • Bentham Science Publishers Ltd
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Breast cancer is a recognized disease around the world with varying patient outcomes based on the type of breast cancer, access to healthcare and other factors. Survival rates for breast cancer are significantly lower in metastatic cases than in localized cases. Early diagnosis and effective treatments for the efficient management of breast cancer are now in demand, as they help to prolong patient life. There have been many breakthrough developments in the molecular biology of breast cancer research in recent times. Advancements in diagnostic techniques (imaging and biomarker detection) for breast cancer have improved the screening of the disease and have improved patient outcomes. Despite these enhancements, the disease is still lethal for patients and the search for a cure requires a complete understanding of the disease.

Current Advances in Breast Cancer Research: A Molecular Approach presents a comprehensive overview of current basic and translational research on the subject. The 14 chapters of the book give emphasis to current knowledge about breast cancer, ongoing challenges, and innovative research findings by different research groups. Readers will find detailed information about breast cancer biology, genetics, clinical diagnostics and treatments. Additional information for advanced readers in life sciences, such as techniques relevant to genomics (including genetic fingerprinting), proteomics, metabolomics and medicine (such as imaging and molecular diagnostics) is also provided. The combination of both basic and advanced information makes this book a useful reference to the student and researcher, alike, seeking an understanding of breast cancer at a molecular level.

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Chapter 1 Breast Cancer: A Global Burden

  • Brij Nath Tewari and Sanjay Mishra
  • Introduction
  • Statistics at a Glance: the Burden of Cancer Worldwide
  • A Brief History of Breast Cancer
  • Types of Breast Cancer
  • Grading and Molecular Subtypes of Breast Cancer
  • Breast Cancer Grading
  • Breast Cancer Molecular Subtypes
  • Luminal A
  • Luminal B
  • Basal-Like
  • Her2 Enriched
  • Signs, Symptoms and Risk Factors of Breast Cancer
  • Risk Factors of Breast Cancer
  • Age
  • Geographical Variation
  • Previous Benign Breast Cancer
  • Age at Menarche and Menopause
  • Oral Contraceptives
  • Breast-Feeding
  • Breast Density
  • Family History of Breast Cancer
  • Personal History of Breast Cancer
  • Genetic Risk Factors
  • Radiation
  • Tobacco
  • Alcohol
  • Diet
  • Hormonal Risk Factor
  • Tumor Markers
  • Types of Molecular Markers
  • Diagnostic Markers
  • Prognostic Markers
  • Predictive Markers
  • Companion Diagnostic Markers
  • Current Diagnosis and Treatments of Breast Cancer
  • Screening and Diagnosis of Breast Cancer
  • Mammography
  • Overdiagnosis of Breast Cancer
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Breast Ultrasound
  • Pet Scan
  • X-Rays
  • Biopsy
  • Breast Cancer Treatments
  • Surgery
  • Limitations
  • Radiation Therapy
  • Internal Radiation Therapy
  • Limitations
  • Systemic Therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Hormonal Therapy
  • Targeted Therapy: Therapy Intended at Her2
  • Other Targeted Drugs
  • Summary and Concluding Remarks
  • Consent for Publication
  • Conflict of Interest
  • Acknowledgement
  • References

Chapter 2 Current Imaging Techniques in Breast Cancer: An Overview

  • Garima Suman and Anurima Patra
  • Introduction
  • Anatomy of Breast
  • Clinical Diagnosis of Bc
  • Why Imaging?
  • Radiological Modalities Used in Bc Detection
  • Mammography
  • Ultrasonography
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Positron Emission Tomography
  • Computed Tomography
  • Screening of Bc
  • Acr Bi-Rads
  • Image Guided Breast Intervention
  • Pre-Operative Localization
  • Image-Guided Breast Lesion Biopsy
  • Other Applications
  • Recent Advances in Breast Imaging
  • Digital Breast Tomosynthesis
  • Advances in Breast Ultrasonography
  • Computer-Aided Detection
  • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
  • Limitations, Drawbacks, and Summary
  • Consent for Publication
  • Conflict of Interest
  • Acknowledgements
  • References

Chapter 3 An Overview of Genetic, Proteomic and Meta-Bolomic Biomarkers in Breast Cancer

  • Tarjani Agrawal
  • Introduction
  • Biomarkers
  • Limitations of Current Bc Screening Techniques and the Potential Role of Biomarkers
  • Integration of Biomarkers Into Current Diagnostic Paradigms
  • Commonly Utilized Cancer Biomarkers for Bc
  • Established Biomarkers
  • Estrogen and Progesterone Receptors
  • Mutation in the Er Gene
  • Her2
  • Genomic Biomarkers for Bc
  • Highly Penetrant Bc Genes
  • Brca1 and Brca2
  • Tp53
  • Cdh1
  • Pten
  • Stk11
  • Moderate Penetrance Bc Genes Or Biomarkers
  • Chek2
  • Atm
  • Palb2
  • Rad51C and Rad51D
  • Low Penetrant Polygenes
  • Other Genetic Biomarkers
  • Pik3Ca Mutation
  • Mitotic Arrest Deficient Like 1
  • Methylation of Paired-Like Homeodomain 2
  • Lin28
  • Cytochrome P450 2D6 Polymorphism
  • Circulating Tumor Cells and Circulating Free Tumor Dna
  • Gene Expression Profiles and Bc Subtypes
  • Nucleic Acid Biomarkers - Dna Sequencing
  • Nucleic Acid Biomarkers - Rna Expression Profiling
  • Epigenetics
  • Microrna
  • Microarray-Based Multigene Assays
  • Oncotype Dx ®
  • Mammaprinttm
  • Prosigna ®
  • Endopredict ®
  • Bc Index
  • Genomic Grade Index
  • Postgenomic Era: Proteomics
  • Proteomics in Bc
  • Ki67
  • Cyclin D
  • Cyclin E
  • Carcinoembryonic Antigen
  • Upa and Pai-1 [Proteomics]
  • Mammostrat ®
  • Ihc4
  • Dtectdx™ Breast Serum Biomarker Test
  • Mass Spectrometry-Based Protein Profiling Studies
  • Chaperons
  • Antibody Microarray
  • Cancer Autoantibodies
  • Metabolites and Metabolomics
  • Metabolic Profile of Bc
  • Metabolomics and Bc Chemoresistance
  • Summary and Conclusion
  • Consent for Publication
  • Conflict of Interest
  • Acknowledgements
  • References

Chapter 4 Recent Proteomics Development for Biomarker Detection in Breast Cancer

  • Gatha Thacker
  • Introduction
  • Key Proteomics Techniques Applied in Biomarker Identification
  • Gel Based Methods
  • Mass-Spectrometry  Based Methods
  • Label-Free Methods
  • Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight
  • Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight
  • Lc-Ms
  • Multiple Reaction Monitoring
  • Labeling-Based Ms Quantitation Methods
  • Isotope-Coded Affinity Tags
  • Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation
  • Antibody and Affinity-Based Methods
  • Biological Samples Suitable for Proteomics Studies
  • Current Breast Cancer Biomarker Protein Profiling Studies
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Implications
  • Consent for Publication
  • Conflict of Interest
  • Acknowledgements
  • References

Chapter 5 Deregulation of Enzymatic Post-Translational

  • Modifications in Breast Cancer
  • Lokesh Baweja, Neha Rajoria and Shankar Suman
  • Introduction
  • Post Translational Modifications of Proteins
  • Glycosylation
  • Phosphorylation
  • Sumoylation
  • Ubiquitination
  • Methylation
  • Dna Methylation and Histone Modifications in Breast Cancer Development
  • Lipidation
  • Acylation
  • Adenosine Diphosphate -Ribosylation
  • Oxidative Stress Mediated Regulation of Protein Modification In
  • Breast Cancer
  • Conclusion and Future Perspectives
  • Consent for Publication
  • Conflict of Interest
  • Acknowledgement
  • References

Chapter 6 Genomic Fingerprint of Molecular Mechanisms of Breast Carcinogenesis

  • Akanksha Nigam and Shivam Priya
  • Introduction
  • Risk Factors
  • Age
  • Family History
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Hormonal Factors
  • Lifestyle
  • Genetic Fingerprints of Breast Cancer
  • Brca1 Or Brca2 Mutation
  • Her2 Expression in Breast Cancer
  • Estrogen Receptor Expression in Breast Cancer
  • Progesterone Receptor Expression in Breast Cancer
  • Sustaining Proliferative Signaling
  • Chemoresistance
  • Genes Involved in Chemoresistance
  • Microrna and Chemo-Resistance
  • Tumor Microenvironment
  • Role of Chemokines in Tme
  • Role of Cancer-Associated Fibroblast in Tme
  • Involvement of Immune Compartments in Tme
  • Splicing Factors and Breast Cancer
  • Environmental Contaminates
  • Bisphenol-A and Parabens
  • Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon
  • Heavy Metals
  • Summary and Concluding Remarks
  • Abbreviations
  • Consent for Publication
  • Conflict of Interest
  • Acknowledgements
  • References

Chapter 7 Perspectives of Deregulated Metabolism in Breast Cancer

  • Shankar Suman
  • Introduction
  • Genomic Alterations in Metabolic Reprogramming of Bc
  • Epigenetic Modifications
  • Oncogenic Regulators
  • Carbohydrate Metabolism
  • Lipid Metabolism in Bc
  • Amino Acid Metabolism
  • Nucleotide Metabolism in Bc
  • Metabolic Alterations Mediated Molecular Carcino-Genesis
  • Hypoxia
  • Glucose Transporters
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  • Garima Suman
  • Sanjay Mishra
  • Shankar Suman
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