The Microbiome in Prenatal and Neonatal Life clarifies that the microbiome in the maternal fetal unit and immediate changes that occur as new microbes are acquired postnatally play major roles in subsequent health and disease. Rapidly developing technologies for multi-omic analyses and systems biology are shifting paradigms in both scientific knowledge and clinical care with regard to this topic. In essence, we are changing the idea that newborns emerge from sterile environments. As such, in-utero colonization may have impacts on the development of immunity and metabolism that, with epigenetic modifications, will lead to diseases in later life.
In addition, the microbial profile that develops during and after birth depends on mode of delivery, type of feeding (human milk versus formula), and various other environmental factors to which the newborn is exposed.
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Table of Contents1. Multi-omic effects on gametes and the early developing fetus
2. The Prenatal Microbiome: is the In-Utero Environment Sterile?
3. The Microbiome during Pregnancy: Putative Effects on the Developing Fetus
4. Delivery Mode (C-section vs. Vaginal) and the Developing Microbiome
5. Development of the Microbiome and multi-omics in the Preterm Infant: Effects of the NICU Environment, Diet, Stress, Drugs, and Maternal Factors
6. The Human Milk Microbiome and Metabolome: Effects on the Newborn and Infant
7. Environmental Effects on the Developing Microbiome in the Fetus in Infancy
8. The Skin Microbiome and Effects on Health and Disease
9. The Developing Microbiome and the Brain
10. The Developing Microbiome and the Lung
11. The Developing Microbiome and the Heart