+353-1-416-8900REST OF WORLD
+44-20-3973-8888REST OF WORLD
1-917-300-0470EAST COAST U.S
1-800-526-8630U.S. (TOLL FREE)

PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core - Global Strategic Business Report

  • PDF Icon

    Report

  • 196 Pages
  • March 2024
  • Region: Global
  • Global Industry Analysts, Inc
  • ID: 5140061

Global PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core Market to Reach $112.9 Million by 2030

The global market for PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core estimated at US$57.1 Million in the year 2022, is projected to reach a revised size of US$112.9 Million by 2030, growing at a CAGR of 8.9% over the analysis period 2022-2030. Aerospace & Defense, one of the segments analyzed in the report, is projected to record 10.8% CAGR and reach US$36.3 Million by the end of the analysis period. Taking into account the ongoing post pandemic recovery, growth in the Wind Energy segment is readjusted to a revised 9.6% CAGR for the next 8-year period.

The U.S. Market is Estimated at $15.4 Million, While China is Forecast to Grow at 12.5% CAGR

The PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core market in the U.S. is estimated at US$15.4 Million in the year 2022. China, the world's second largest economy, is forecast to reach a projected market size of US$25.4 Million by the year 2030 trailing a CAGR of 12.5% over the analysis period 2022 to 2030. Among the other noteworthy geographic markets are Japan and Canada, each forecast to grow at 6.4% and 7% respectively over the 2022-2030 period. Within Europe, Germany is forecast to grow at approximately 7% CAGR.

Select Competitors (Total 46 Featured) -

  • 3A Composites
  • BASF SE
  • Cashem Advanced Materials Hi-tech Co., Ltd.,
  • Diab Group
  • Evonik Industries AG
  • Jiaxing Sky Composites Co., Ltd.
  • SABIC (Saudi Basic Industries Corporation)
  • Solvay SA
  • Zotefoams PLC

What's New?

  • Special coverage on Russia-Ukraine war; global inflation; easing of zero-Covid policy in China and its `bumpy` reopening; supply chain disruptions, global trade tensions; and risk of recession.
  • Global competitiveness and key competitor percentage market shares
  • Market presence across multiple geographies - Strong/Active/Niche/Trivial
  • Online interactive peer-to-peer collaborative bespoke updates
  • Access to digital archives and Research Platform
  • Complimentary updates for one year

Frequently Asked Questions about the Global Market for PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core

What is the estimated value of the Global Market for PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core?

The Global Market for PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core was estimated to be valued at $57.1 Million in 2022.

What is the growth rate of the Global Market for PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core?

The growth rate of the Global Market for PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core is 8.9%, with an estimated value of $112.9 Million by 2030.

What is the forecasted size of the Global Market for PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core?

The Global Market for PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core is estimated to be worth $112.9 Million by 2030.

Who are the key companies in the Global Market for PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core?

Key companies in the Global Market for PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core include 3A Composites, BASF SE, Cashem Advanced Materials Hi, tech Co., Ltd., Diab Group, Evonik Industries AG, Jiaxing Sky Composites Co., Ltd., SABIC (Saudi Basic Industries Corporation), Solvay SA and Zotefoams PLC.

Table of Contents

I. METHODOLOGYII. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1. MARKET OVERVIEW
  • Influencer Market Insights
  • World Market Trajectories
  • PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core - Global Key Competitors Percentage Market Share in 2022 (E)
  • Impact of Covid-19 and a Looming Global Recession
  • Competitive Market Presence - Strong/Active/Niche/Trivial for Players Worldwide in 2022 (E)
2. FOCUS ON SELECT PLAYERS3. MARKET TRENDS & DRIVERS
4. GLOBAL MARKET PERSPECTIVE
  • Table 1: World Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core by Geographic Region - USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America, Middle East and Africa Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ for Years 2022 through 2030 and % CAGR
  • Table 2: World Historic Review for PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core by Geographic Region - USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America, Middle East and Africa Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ for Years 2014 through 2021 and % CAGR
  • Table 3: World 16-Year Perspective for PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America, Middle East and Africa Markets for Years 2014, 2023 & 2030
  • Table 4: World Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Aerospace & Defense by Geographic Region - USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America, Middle East and Africa Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ for Years 2022 through 2030 and % CAGR
  • Table 5: World Historic Review for Aerospace & Defense by Geographic Region - USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America, Middle East and Africa Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ for Years 2014 through 2021 and % CAGR
  • Table 6: World 16-Year Perspective for Aerospace & Defense by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America, Middle East and Africa for Years 2014, 2023 & 2030
  • Table 7: World Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Wind Energy by Geographic Region - USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America, Middle East and Africa Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ for Years 2022 through 2030 and % CAGR
  • Table 8: World Historic Review for Wind Energy by Geographic Region - USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America, Middle East and Africa Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ for Years 2014 through 2021 and % CAGR
  • Table 9: World 16-Year Perspective for Wind Energy by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America, Middle East and Africa for Years 2014, 2023 & 2030
  • Table 10: World Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Sporting Goods by Geographic Region - USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America, Middle East and Africa Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ for Years 2022 through 2030 and % CAGR
  • Table 11: World Historic Review for Sporting Goods by Geographic Region - USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America, Middle East and Africa Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ for Years 2014 through 2021 and % CAGR
  • Table 12: World 16-Year Perspective for Sporting Goods by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America, Middle East and Africa for Years 2014, 2023 & 2030
  • Table 13: World Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Transportation by Geographic Region - USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America, Middle East and Africa Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ for Years 2022 through 2030 and % CAGR
  • Table 14: World Historic Review for Transportation by Geographic Region - USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America, Middle East and Africa Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ for Years 2014 through 2021 and % CAGR
  • Table 15: World 16-Year Perspective for Transportation by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America, Middle East and Africa for Years 2014, 2023 & 2030
  • Table 16: World Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Other Applications by Geographic Region - USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America, Middle East and Africa Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ for Years 2022 through 2030 and % CAGR
  • Table 17: World Historic Review for Other Applications by Geographic Region - USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America, Middle East and Africa Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ for Years 2014 through 2021 and % CAGR
  • Table 18: World 16-Year Perspective for Other Applications by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for USA, Canada, Japan, China, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America, Middle East and Africa for Years 2014, 2023 & 2030
  • Table 19: World PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core Market Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ for Years 2014 through 2030
III. MARKET ANALYSIS
  • UNITED STATES
  • PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core Market Presence - Strong/Active/Niche/Trivial - Key Competitors in the United States for 2023 (E)
  • Table 20: USA Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core by Application - Aerospace & Defense, Wind Energy, Sporting Goods, Transportation and Other Applications - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ for the Years 2022 through 2030 and % CAGR
  • Table 21: USA Historic Review for PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core by Application - Aerospace & Defense, Wind Energy, Sporting Goods, Transportation and Other Applications Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ for Years 2014 through 2021 and % CAGR
  • Table 22: USA 16-Year Perspective for PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core by Application - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Aerospace & Defense, Wind Energy, Sporting Goods, Transportation and Other Applications for the Years 2014, 2023 & 2030
  • CANADA
  • Table 23: Canada Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core by Application - Aerospace & Defense, Wind Energy, Sporting Goods, Transportation and Other Applications - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ for the Years 2022 through 2030 and % CAGR
  • Table 24: Canada Historic Review for PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core by Application - Aerospace & Defense, Wind Energy, Sporting Goods, Transportation and Other Applications Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ for Years 2014 through 2021 and % CAGR
  • Table 25: Canada 16-Year Perspective for PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core by Application - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Aerospace & Defense, Wind Energy, Sporting Goods, Transportation and Other Applications for the Years 2014, 2023 & 2030
  • JAPAN
  • PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core Market Presence - Strong/Active/Niche/Trivial - Key Competitors in Japan for 2023 (E)
  • Table 26: Japan Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core by Application - Aerospace & Defense, Wind Energy, Sporting Goods, Transportation and Other Applications - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ for the Years 2022 through 2030 and % CAGR
  • Table 27: Japan Historic Review for PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core by Application - Aerospace & Defense, Wind Energy, Sporting Goods, Transportation and Other Applications Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ for Years 2014 through 2021 and % CAGR
  • Table 28: Japan 16-Year Perspective for PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core by Application - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Aerospace & Defense, Wind Energy, Sporting Goods, Transportation and Other Applications for the Years 2014, 2023 & 2030
  • CHINA
  • PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core Market Presence - Strong/Active/Niche/Trivial - Key Competitors in China for 2023 (E)
  • Table 29: China Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core by Application - Aerospace & Defense, Wind Energy, Sporting Goods, Transportation and Other Applications - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ for the Years 2022 through 2030 and % CAGR
  • Table 30: China Historic Review for PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core by Application - Aerospace & Defense, Wind Energy, Sporting Goods, Transportation and Other Applications Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ for Years 2014 through 2021 and % CAGR
  • Table 31: China 16-Year Perspective for PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core by Application - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Aerospace & Defense, Wind Energy, Sporting Goods, Transportation and Other Applications for the Years 2014, 2023 & 2030
  • EUROPE
  • PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core Market Presence - Strong/Active/Niche/Trivial - Key Competitors in Europe for 2023 (E)
  • Table 32: Europe Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core by Geographic Region - France, Germany, Italy, UK, Spain, Russia and Rest of Europe Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ for Years 2022 through 2030 and % CAGR
  • Table 33: Europe Historic Review for PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core by Geographic Region - France, Germany, Italy, UK, Spain, Russia and Rest of Europe Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ for Years 2014 through 2021 and % CAGR
  • Table 34: Europe 16-Year Perspective for PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for France, Germany, Italy, UK, Spain, Russia and Rest of Europe Markets for Years 2014, 2023 & 2030
  • Table 35: Europe Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core by Application - Aerospace & Defense, Wind Energy, Sporting Goods, Transportation and Other Applications - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ for the Years 2022 through 2030 and % CAGR
  • Table 36: Europe Historic Review for PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core by Application - Aerospace & Defense, Wind Energy, Sporting Goods, Transportation and Other Applications Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ for Years 2014 through 2021 and % CAGR
  • Table 37: Europe 16-Year Perspective for PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core by Application - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Aerospace & Defense, Wind Energy, Sporting Goods, Transportation and Other Applications for the Years 2014, 2023 & 2030
  • FRANCE
  • PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core Market Presence - Strong/Active/Niche/Trivial - Key Competitors in France for 2023 (E)
  • Table 38: France Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core by Application - Aerospace & Defense, Wind Energy, Sporting Goods, Transportation and Other Applications - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ for the Years 2022 through 2030 and % CAGR
  • Table 39: France Historic Review for PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core by Application - Aerospace & Defense, Wind Energy, Sporting Goods, Transportation and Other Applications Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ for Years 2014 through 2021 and % CAGR
  • Table 40: France 16-Year Perspective for PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core by Application - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Aerospace & Defense, Wind Energy, Sporting Goods, Transportation and Other Applications for the Years 2014, 2023 & 2030
  • GERMANY
  • PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core Market Presence - Strong/Active/Niche/Trivial - Key Competitors in Germany for 2023 (E)
  • Table 41: Germany Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core by Application - Aerospace & Defense, Wind Energy, Sporting Goods, Transportation and Other Applications - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ for the Years 2022 through 2030 and % CAGR
  • Table 42: Germany Historic Review for PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core by Application - Aerospace & Defense, Wind Energy, Sporting Goods, Transportation and Other Applications Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ for Years 2014 through 2021 and % CAGR
  • Table 43: Germany 16-Year Perspective for PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core by Application - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Aerospace & Defense, Wind Energy, Sporting Goods, Transportation and Other Applications for the Years 2014, 2023 & 2030
  • ITALY
  • Table 44: Italy Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core by Application - Aerospace & Defense, Wind Energy, Sporting Goods, Transportation and Other Applications - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ for the Years 2022 through 2030 and % CAGR
  • Table 45: Italy Historic Review for PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core by Application - Aerospace & Defense, Wind Energy, Sporting Goods, Transportation and Other Applications Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ for Years 2014 through 2021 and % CAGR
  • Table 46: Italy 16-Year Perspective for PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core by Application - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Aerospace & Defense, Wind Energy, Sporting Goods, Transportation and Other Applications for the Years 2014, 2023 & 2030
  • UNITED KINGDOM
  • PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core Market Presence - Strong/Active/Niche/Trivial - Key Competitors in the United Kingdom for 2023 (E)
  • Table 47: UK Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core by Application - Aerospace & Defense, Wind Energy, Sporting Goods, Transportation and Other Applications - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ for the Years 2022 through 2030 and % CAGR
  • Table 48: UK Historic Review for PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core by Application - Aerospace & Defense, Wind Energy, Sporting Goods, Transportation and Other Applications Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ for Years 2014 through 2021 and % CAGR
  • Table 49: UK 16-Year Perspective for PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core by Application - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Aerospace & Defense, Wind Energy, Sporting Goods, Transportation and Other Applications for the Years 2014, 2023 & 2030
  • SPAIN
  • Table 50: Spain Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core by Application - Aerospace & Defense, Wind Energy, Sporting Goods, Transportation and Other Applications - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ for the Years 2022 through 2030 and % CAGR
  • Table 51: Spain Historic Review for PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core by Application - Aerospace & Defense, Wind Energy, Sporting Goods, Transportation and Other Applications Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ for Years 2014 through 2021 and % CAGR
  • Table 52: Spain 16-Year Perspective for PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core by Application - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Aerospace & Defense, Wind Energy, Sporting Goods, Transportation and Other Applications for the Years 2014, 2023 & 2030
  • RUSSIA
  • Table 53: Russia Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core by Application - Aerospace & Defense, Wind Energy, Sporting Goods, Transportation and Other Applications - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ for the Years 2022 through 2030 and % CAGR
  • Table 54: Russia Historic Review for PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core by Application - Aerospace & Defense, Wind Energy, Sporting Goods, Transportation and Other Applications Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ for Years 2014 through 2021 and % CAGR
  • Table 55: Russia 16-Year Perspective for PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core by Application - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Aerospace & Defense, Wind Energy, Sporting Goods, Transportation and Other Applications for the Years 2014, 2023 & 2030
  • REST OF EUROPE
  • Table 56: Rest of Europe Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core by Application - Aerospace & Defense, Wind Energy, Sporting Goods, Transportation and Other Applications - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ for the Years 2022 through 2030 and % CAGR
  • Table 57: Rest of Europe Historic Review for PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core by Application - Aerospace & Defense, Wind Energy, Sporting Goods, Transportation and Other Applications Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ for Years 2014 through 2021 and % CAGR
  • Table 58: Rest of Europe 16-Year Perspective for PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core by Application - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Aerospace & Defense, Wind Energy, Sporting Goods, Transportation and Other Applications for the Years 2014, 2023 & 2030
  • ASIA-PACIFIC
  • PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core Market Presence - Strong/Active/Niche/Trivial - Key Competitors in Asia-Pacific for 2023 (E)
  • Table 59: Asia-Pacific Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core by Geographic Region - Australia, India, South Korea and Rest of Asia-Pacific Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ for Years 2022 through 2030 and % CAGR
  • Table 60: Asia-Pacific Historic Review for PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core by Geographic Region - Australia, India, South Korea and Rest of Asia-Pacific Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ for Years 2014 through 2021 and % CAGR
  • Table 61: Asia-Pacific 16-Year Perspective for PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Australia, India, South Korea and Rest of Asia-Pacific Markets for Years 2014, 2023 & 2030
  • Table 62: Asia-Pacific Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core by Application - Aerospace & Defense, Wind Energy, Sporting Goods, Transportation and Other Applications - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ for the Years 2022 through 2030 and % CAGR
  • Table 63: Asia-Pacific Historic Review for PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core by Application - Aerospace & Defense, Wind Energy, Sporting Goods, Transportation and Other Applications Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ for Years 2014 through 2021 and % CAGR
  • Table 64: Asia-Pacific 16-Year Perspective for PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core by Application - Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales for Aerospace & Defense, Wind Energy, Sporting Goods, Transportation and Other Applications for the Years 2014, 2023 & 2030
  • AUSTRALIA
  • PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core Market Presence - Strong/Active/Niche/Trivial - Key Competitors in Australia for 2023 (E)
  • INDIA
  • PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core Market Presence - Strong/Active/Niche/Trivial - Key Competitors in India for 2023 (E)
  • SOUTH KOREA
  • REST OF ASIA-PACIFIC
  • LATIN AMERICA
  • PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core Market Presence - Strong/Active/Niche/Trivial - Key Competitors in Latin America for 2023 (E)
  • ARGENTINA
  • BRAZIL
  • MEXICO
  • REST OF LATIN AMERICA
  • MIDDLE EAST
  • PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core Market Presence - Strong/Active/Niche/Trivial - Key Competitors in Middle East for 2023 (E)
  • IRAN
  • ISRAEL
  • SAUDI ARABIA
  • UNITED ARAB EMIRATES
  • REST OF MIDDLE EAST
  • AFRICA
  • PMI Foam and Other High Performance Foam Core Market Presence - Strong/Active/Niche/Trivial - Key Competitors in Africa for 2023 (E)
IV. COMPETITION

Companies Mentioned

A selection of companies mentioned in this report includes:

  • 3A Composites
  • BASF SE
  • Cashem Advanced Materials Hi-tech Co., Ltd.
  • Diab Group
  • Evonik Industries AG
  • Jiaxing Sky Composites Co., Ltd.
  • SABIC (Saudi Basic Industries Corporation)
  • Solvay SA
  • Zotefoams PLC