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Photodetectors. Devices, Circuits and Applications. Edition No. 2

  • ID: 5185823
  • Book
  • March 2021
  • 464 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Explore this comprehensive introduction to the foundations of photodetection from one of the leading voices in the field

The newly revised Photodetectors: Devices, Circuits and Applications delivers a thoroughly updated exploration of the fundamentals of photodetection and the novel technologies and concepts that have arisen since the release of the first edition twenty years ago. The book offers discussions of established and emerging photodetection technologies, including photomultipliers, the SPAD, the SiPM, the SNSPD, the UTC, the WGPD/TWPD, the QWIP, and the LT-GaAs. New examinations of correlation measurements on ultrafast pulses and single-photon detectors for quantum communications and LiDARs have also been added.

Each chapter includes selected problems for students to work through to aid in learning and retention. A booklet of solutions is also provided. The book is especially ideal for students and faculties of Engineering, with an emphasis on first principles, design, and the engineering of photodetectors. Issues in the book are grouped through the development of concepts, as opposed to collections of technical details.

Perfect for undergraduate students interested in the science or design of modern optoelectronics, Photodetectors: Devices, Circuits and Applications also belongs on the bookshelves of professors teaching PhD seminars in advanced courses on photodetection and noise, as well as engineers and physicists seeking a guide to an optimum photodetection solution.

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Preface ix

Preface to the first Edition xi

Chapter 1 Introduction 1

1.1 Photodetection Preliminary 4

1.2 Basic Parameters of Photodetectors 6

References 8

Chapter 2 Radiometry Calculations 9

2.1 The Law of Photography 9

2.2 The Invariants in Free Propagation 11

2.3 Acceptance and Degrees of Freedom 12

2.4 Applying Invariance to Problem Solving 14

2.5 Extension of Invariants 17

References 19

Problems and Questions 19

Chapter 3 Detection Regimes and Figures of Merit 21

3.1 The Bandwidth-Noise Tradeoff 21

3.2 Quantum and Thermal Regimes 23

3.3 Figures of Merit of Detectors 26

3.3.1 NEP and Detectivity 27

3.3.2 Background Limit or BLIP 28

3.3.3 NEP and D* for Single Photon Detection 29

References 30

Problems 30

Chapter 4 Photomultipliers 31

4.1 Photocathodes 34

4.1.1 Properties of Common Photocathodes 37

4.1.2 Photocathodes Technology 41

4.1.3 Photocathodes Parameters 44

4.2 Dynode Multiplication Chain 47

4.2.1 Dynode Materials and Properties 49

4.3 The Electron Optics 51

4.4 Common Photomultiplier Structures 52

4.5 Photomultiplier Response, Gain, and Noise 54

4.5.1 Charge Response 55

4.5.2 Current Response 58

4.5.3 Autocorrelation Response 67

4.5.4 Time Sorting and Measurements 69

4.6 Special Photomultiplier Structures 71

4.7 Photomultiplier Performances 72

4.7.1 Types of Photocathodes and Spectral Response 72

4.7.2 Number of Dynodes and Gain 73

4.7.3 SER Waveform and Related Parameters 74

4.7.4 Linearity, Dynamic Range, and Saturation 76

4.7.5 Resolution in Amplitude Measurements 78

4.7.6 Dark Current 79

4.7.7 Bias Circuits 80

4.7.8 Hysteresis and Drift. Ambient Performances 81

4.8 Applications of Photomultipliers 83

4.8.1 Detection of Weak Signals of Moderate Bandwidth 83

4.8.2 Measurement of Fast Waveforms 83

4.8.3 Time Measurements 85

4.8.4 Photocounting Techniques 86

4.8.5 Nuclear Radiation Spectroscopy 89

4.8.6 Dating with Radionuclides 91

4.9 Microchannels and MCP Photomultipliers 91

4.9.1 The Microchannel 91

4.9.2 MCP Photomultipliers 97

4.10. MEMS Photomultipliers 99

References 100

Problems 101

Chapter 5 Photodiodes 103

5.1 Introduction and Nomenclature 103

5.2 Junction photodiodes 105

5.2.1 Photoresponse of the PN Junction 106

5.2.2 Electrical Characteristics 115

5.2.3 Equivalent Circuits 118

5.2.4 Frequency Response: Extrinsic and Intrinsic Cutoff 121

5.2.5 PN and PIN Junctions 124

5.2.6 Schottky Junctions 129

5.2.7 Heterojunctions 130

5.2.7.1 Uni-travelling Carrier Photodiode 131

5.2.7.2 Multispectral Photodiodes 133

5.2.7.3 Lattice Matching 133

5.2.7.4 Lattice Constant Diagram 134

5.2.7.5 Interfaces 136

5.2.8 Photodiodes Structures 137

5.2.8.1 Traditional Structures 137

5.2.8.2 Advanced Structures 139

5.2.8.3 Resonant Cavity Enhanced Photodetectors 141

5.2.8.4 Quantum well Photodetectors 141

5.2.9 Photodiodes Packaging 142

5.2.10 Photodiode Specifications and Parameters 142

5.3 Photodiode Circuits 145

5.3.1 Circuits for Instrumentation Applications 146

5.3.1.1 Transimpedence Circuit 146

5.3.1.2 Dark Current Cancellation Circuit 153

5.3.1.3 Logarithmic Conversion Circuit 154

5.3.1.4 Circuit for Low-Frequency Suppression 157

5.3.1.5 Narrow-Band Response Circuit 159

5.3.2 Circuits for Fast Pulses and Communications 160

5.3.2.1 High-Frequency Transimpedance Amplifiers (TIA) 160

5.3.2.2 Equalization Technique 165

5.3.2.3 Switched Capacitor Technique 168

References 172

Problems 173

Chapter 6 Avalanche Photodiode, SPAD and SiPM 175

6.1 Avalanche Photodiode 175

6.1.1 Gain of the APDs 177

6.1.2 Frequency Response and Noise 180

6.1.3 Experimental Evidence and Deviations 187

6.1.4 APD Structures 187

6.1.5 Bandgap Engineered APD 190

6.1.6 APD Biasing and Requisites 193

6.2 Single Photon Avalanche Detectors (SPAD) 195

6.2.1 The APD in Geiger Mode 195

6.2.2 SPAD Structures 200

6.2.3 SPAD Quenching 202

6.2.4 SPAD Performances and Parameters 204

6.3 Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) 206

6.4 SPAD Arrays 210

6.4.1 Microlenses for SPAD Arrays 212

6.4.2 Applications of SPAD Arrays 216

References 218

Problems 220

Chapter 7 Phototransistors, Photoconductors and SNSPD 221

7.1 Phototransistors 221

7.1.1 Bipolar Phototransistor 222

7.1.2 The Optocoupler 225

7.1.3 Unipolar Phototransistors and PhoSCR 227

7.2 Photoconductors 231

7.2.1 Photoconduction and Trapping Gain 232

7.2.2 Photoconductance 234

7.2.3 Frequency Response and Noise 234

7.2.4 Phoconductor Types 236

7.2.5 PV and PC Detectors for IR 237

7.3 Superconducting Nanowire Single Photon Detector 239

References 244

Chapter 8 Thermal Detectors and Thermography 245

8.1 Basics of Thermal Detectors 246

8.2 Detectivity of Thermal Detectors 251

8.3 Temperature Measurements and NEDT 253

8.3.1 Accuracy of Temperature Measurement 254

8.3.2 Emissivity and Correction of Temperature Measurement 257

8.3.3 Two-Color Pyrometry 259

8.3.4 Thermography and Applications 259

References 262

Problems 263

Chapter 9 Solar Cells 265

9.1 Electrical Parameters 266

9.2 Solar Spectrum and Quantum Efficiency 269

9.3 System Efficiency 271

9.4 Solar Cell Structures and Materials 271

9.4.1 Second Generation Materials 275

9.5 Photovoltaic Systems 277

References 282

Problems 282

Chapter 10 Coherent Detection 283

10.1 Direct and Coherent Detection 284

10.1.1 Introduction 284

10.1.2 Coherence Factor 285

10.1.3 Signal to Noise Ratio 287

10.1.4 Conditions for Coherent Detection 289

10.1.5 S/N and BER, Number of Photons per Bit 290

10.2 Coherent Techniques 293

10.2.1 The Balanced Detector 293

10.2.2 The Balanced Scheme in Phase Measurements 296

10.2.3 Examples of Coherent Schemes 296

10.2.4 Photomixing 298

References 301

Problems 301

Chapter 11 Photodetection Techniques 303

11.1 Detection with Optical Preamplification 303

11.2 Injection Detection 308

11.2.1 Injection Gain 309

11.2.2 Bandwidth and Noise of Injection Detection 314

11.2.3 Detection of Terahertz Waves 314

11.3 Non-Demolitive Detection 316

11.4 Detection of Squeezed States 320

11.5 Ultrafast (ps and fs) Pulse Detection 326

11.5.1 Autocorrelation Measurements 327

11.5.2 FROG 333

11.6 Detection for Quantum Communications 335

11.7 Detection for LIDAR 340

References 343

Problems 344

Chapter 12 Image Detectors 347

12.1 The Early Imaging Device: the Vidicon 348

12.2 Charge Coupled Devices 349

12.2.1 Introduction 349

12.2.2 Principle of Operation 349

12.2.3 Properties and Parameters 351

12.2.4 Image Organization 360

12.2.5 Output Stage 366

12.3 Spatial Resolution and MTF 368

12.3.1 Spatial Transfer Function 368

12.3.2 MTF Properties 370

12.3.3 Image Sampling and Moiré 372

12.3.4 Applications 375

12.4 Image Converters and Intensifiers 377

12.4.1 Introduction 377

12.4.2 Basic Functions and Gain 378

12.4.3 Intensifier Generations 381

12.4.4 Parameters and Performances 385

12.4.5 Zoom, Gated and X-Rays Intensifiers 388

12.4.6 Streak-camera Intensifiers 390

References 393

Problems 394

Appendixes 395

A1 Spectral Ranges and Measure Units 395

A1.1 Nomenclature 395

A1.2 Transmission of Natural Media 355

A1.3 Radiometric and Photometric Units 397

A1.4 Attenuation Units 399

A1.5 Blackbody Radiance 401

A1.6 Luminous and Radiant Sensitivity 403

References 404

Problems 404

A2 Eye Performances 405

A2.1 Visual Acuity 405

A2.2 Chromatic Perception 408

References 414

A3 Noise Revisited 414

A3.1 Shot Noise 414

A3.2 Noise in Resistors 416

A3.3 Noise from Statistical Thermodynamics 417

References 419

A4 Calculations on Photodiodes 419

A4.1 Calculation of the Intrinsic Speed of Response 419

A4.2 Series Resistance 422

A4.3 Calculations on the Transimpedance Circuit 423

A4.4 The Transimpedance Scheme at High Frequencies 424

A4.5 Edge Effects and Guard Ring 426

References 426

A5 New Model of Noise 427

A5.1 Semiclassical Wave model 427

References 432

Index 433

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Silvano Donati University of Pavia.
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