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From Additive Manufacturing to 3D/4D Printing. Breakthrough Innovations: Programmable Material, 4D Printing and Bio-printing. Edition No. 1

  • ID: 5186327
  • Book
  • January 2018
  • 480 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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With a turnover of some 5-15 billion € / year, the additive manufacturing has industrial niches bearers thanks to processes and materials more and more optimized. While some niches still exist on the application of additive techniques in traditional fields (from jewelery to food for example), several trends emerge, using new concepts: collective production, realization of objects at once (without addition Of material), micro-fluidic, 4D printing exploiting programmable materials and materials, bio-printing, etc. There are both opportunities for new markets, promises not envisaged less than 10 years ago, but difficulties in reaching them.

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Acknowledgments ix

Foreword xi

Preface xv

Introduction xxix

Part 1 Programmable Smart/Intelligent Matter and 4D Printing 1

Introduction to Part 1 3

Chapter 1 Programmable Matter or Smart Matter, Stimulated Organization and 4D Printing 15

1.1 Introduction 16

1.2 Natural (spontaneous) self-organization 17

1.2.1 Nonlinearities 18

1.2.2 Achieving the desired form? 21

1.3 “Smart” matter 25

1.3.1 Active polymers: photochemical muscles 26

1.3.2 Physical alterations 37

1.3.3 Distortion of metal parts 39

1.3.4 Conclusion 41

1.4 A transition to 4D printing: swimming robots 41

1.5 4D Printing 46

1.5.1 Automation and robots48

1.5.2 Origami 53

1.5.3 Octobot 57

1.5.4 Massive objects 57

1.6 Conclusion 60

1.7 Bibliography 63

Part 2 Live “Smart” Matter and (Bio-printing) 79

Introduction to Part 2 81

Chapter 2 Bio-printing Technologies 103

2.1 Introduction 104

2.2 Tissue complexity 108

2.3 Bio-printing technologies 116

2.3.1 Cell preparation 120

2.3.2 Generic bio-printing technologies 122

2.3.3 Materials 133

2.3.4 Process–material couplings 138

2.3.5 Subsequent cell growth 140

2.4 Comment: 4D bio-printing 142

2.5 Other applications 142

2.5.1 Biological applications 142

2.5.2 Is it possible to feed ourselves thanks to bio-printing? 144

2.5.3 Bioluminescence and electronics 144

2.5.4 Bio-printed Bio-bots or “soft robots” produced by additive manufacturing 144

2.6 Conclusion 147

2.7 Appendix: 3D printing for biological applications 149

2.8 Bibliography 151

Chapter 3 Some Examples of 3D Bio-printed Tissues 169

3.1 Introduction 170

3.2 Work on cartilage 172

3.2.1 General remarks on cartilage 173

3.2.2 Cartilaginous defects and treatments 177

3.2.3 Cartilage bio-printing 178

3.2.4 Primary results 183

3.3 Skin bio-printing 187

3.3.1 General remarks on skin 188

3.3.2 Bio-printing skin 190

3.3.3 Conclusion 195

3.4 Bone 195

3.4.1 General remarks on the composition of bone 196

3.4.2 Bone bio-printing 198

3.4.3 Conclusion 200

3.5 Bio-printing and cancer 200

3.5.1 Examples 201

3.5.2 Conclusion and perspectives 203

3.6 General Conclusion 204

3.7 Bibliography 206

Chapter 4 Ethical Issues and Responsible Parties 217

4.1 Introduction 218

4.2 Reflection on the acceptance of bio-printing 219

4.2.1 Raw survey data 221

4.2.2 General discussion: whom to trust? 239

4.2.3 Preliminary conclusion 240

4.3 Ethics and bio-printing 246

4.3.1 Framing elements 250

4.3.2 Return on the concept of ethics 254

4.3.3 What can be foreseen? 261

4.3.4 Conclusion 275

4.4 Governing bio-printing research: mastering convergence 279

4.4.1 Return to 3D printing 280

4.4.2 Promises of NBIC convergence and bio-printing 283

4.4.3 Convergence 286

4.4.4 Comparisons 287

4.4.5 Epistemological questions 292

4.5 Conclusion 297

4.6 Bibliography 300

Chapter 5 Questions of Epistemology and Modeling 315

5.1 Introduction 316

5.2 The PE approach (seen by a possible divergent, somewhat of an HE) 324

5.3 The HE approach 329

5.4 Complexity and bio-printing 333

5.4.1 Complexity? 334

5.4.2 Initial reflection for action 340

5.5 Return to complexity 345

5.5.1 Complexity and system approach 350

5.6 Bases of reflection on modeling 359

5.6.1 Shooting or Monte-Carlo methods 359

5.6.2 Analogy with David Bohm’s works? 363

5.6.3 Cellular differentiation 363

5.6.4 Scale change(s) 366

5.6.5 Questions for realistic modeling 366

5.6.6 Provision of an operatory reference 367

5.6.7 Organizational methodology 369

5.7 Conclusion 375

5.8 Bibliography 378

Conclusion 393

Postface 397

Index 419

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Jean-Claude André
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