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Globalization. The Essentials. Edition No. 2

  • ID: 5226468
  • Book
  • March 2019
  • 392 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd

A concise exploration of globalization and its role in the contemporary era 

Driven by technological advancements and global corporations, more and more people are swept up by globalizing processes, creating new winners and losers. Globalization: The Essentials explores the flows, structures, processes, and consequences of globalization in the modern economic, political, and cultural landscape. This comprehensive introduction offers balanced coverage of areas such as global economic and cultural flows, environmental sustainability, the impact of technology, and racial, economic, and gender inequality - providing readers with foundational knowledge of globalization.

Extensively revised and updated, this second edition includes expanded coverage of human trafficking and migration, global climate change, fake news and information wars, and transnational social movements with increased emphasis on examples from Central and South America, Africa, and Asia:

  • Offers a straightforward approach to the multiple facets of globalization and their positive and negative influences on contemporary society
  • Employs unique metaphors and a coherent narrative structure to promote intuitive understanding of abstract concepts
  • Introduces cutting-edge research, updated statistics, and real-world examples in areas such as rising global populism, social justice movements, blockchain technology, and cryptocurrencies
  • Provides an efficient and flexible pedagogical structure, allowing integration with instructor’s own course material

Emphasizing student comprehension, a wide range of source material is incorporated including empirical research, relevant theories, newspaper and magazine articles, and popular books and monographs. Examples of current research and recent global developments, such as emerging economies and global health concerns, encourage classroom discussion and promote independent study. 

Globalization: The Essentials - a compact edition of the authors’ full-sized textbook Globalization: A Basic Text - provides concise coverage of the central concepts of this dynamic field. Offering a multidisciplinary approach, this textbook is an invaluable primary or supplemental resource for undergraduate study in any social science field, as well as coursework on economics, migration, inequality and stratification, and politics.
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Preface xii

About the Companion Website xiii

1 Globalization 1

Conceptualization, Origins, and History Conceptualizing Globalization 3

From “Solids” to “Liquids” 4

“Flows” 7

“Heavy” and “Light” 8

“Heavy” Structures that Expedite “Flows” 10

“Heavy” Structures as Barriers to “Flows” 12

Subtler Structural Barriers 16

Origins and History of Globalization 17

Hardwired 17

Cycles 18

Phases 18

Events 19

Broader, More Recent Changes 20

Chapter Summary 23

Discussion Questions 24

Further Reading 24

References 25

2 Theorizing Globalization 29

Imperialism 30

Colonialism 32

Development 33

Americanization 35

Anti‐Americanism as a Global Process 37

Neoliberalism 38

Neoliberalism: Basic Ideas 41

The Neoliberal State 42

Critiquing Neoliberalism: Karl Polanyi 43

Contemporary Criticisms of Neoliberalism 44

Neo‐Marxian Theories 46

Transnational Capitalism 46

Empire 48

Chapter Summary 51

Discussion Questions 53

Further Reading 53

References 54

3 Structuring the Global Economy 58

Before Bretton Woods 59

A Prior Epoch of Globalization 59

Economic Development During and After WW II 60

Bretton Woods and the Bretton Woods System 61

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) 63

World Trade Organization (WTO) 64

International Monetary Fund (IMF) 65

World Bank 67

The End of Bretton Woods 69

Changes in, and Critiques of, Bretton Woods‐Era Organizations 70

Other Important Economic Organizations 74

The Role of Emerging Economies 75

The Multinational Corporation (MNC) 76

The Myth of Economic Globalization? 79

Chapter Summary 80

Discussion Questions 81

Further Reading 81

References 82

4 Global Economic Flows 85

Trade 86

Trade Surpluses and Deficits 86

Global Trade: Economic Chains and Networks 87

Global Value Chains 88

T‐Shirts 88

iPhones 90

Conventional, Hybrid, and Electric Automobiles 91

Increasing Competition for Commodities 92

The Economic Impact of the Flow of Oil 93

Oil Wealth 94

Race to the Bottom and Upgrading 96

Upgrading in the Less Developed World? 96

Outsourcing 98

Financial Globalization 100

The Great Recession 100

Consumption 104

Consumer Objects and Services 106

Consumers 106

Consumption Processes 106

Consumption Sites 107

Global Resistance 107

Chapter Summary 108

Discussion Questions 109

Further Reading 109

References 109

5 Global Political Structures and Processes 113

On Political Flows 114

The Nation‐State 115

Threats to the Nation‐State 116

Global Flows 116

Universal Human Rights 117

Sustainability and Liquid Sovereignty 118

In Defense of the Nation‐State 119

“Imagined Community” 120

Changes in Global Nation‐State Relations 122

The European Union and Brexit 122

China 125

United Nations (UN) 126

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) 127

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) 127

Global Governance 127

Civil Society 130

International Non‐Governmental Organizations (INGOS) 134

Chapter Summary 137

Discussion Questions 138

Further Reading 139

References 139

6 High‐Tech Global Flows and Structures 143

Technology, Media, and the Internet Technology, Time–Space Compression, and Distanciation 144

Space‐Based Technologies 146

Robots and Economic Production 147

Leapfrogging 148

Mass Media 151

Media Imperialism 152

New Global Media 153

Thinking About the Global Media 154

The Internet and Social Media 156

Online Social Networking 157

Bitcoin and Blockchain 159

The Internet in China 161

The Fight for Global Internet Governance 163

Social Media and Social Movements 164

Chapter Summary 166

Discussion Questions 167

Further Reading 167

References 168

7 Global Culture and Cultural Flows 171

Cultural Differentialism 173

Civilizations 173

Cultural Hybridization 177

Muslim Girl Scouts 179

Appadurai’s “Landscapes” 180

Cultural Convergence 182

Cultural Imperialism 182

Deterritorialization 184

World Culture 184

McDonaldization 186

McDonaldization, Expansionism, and Globalization 188

Beyond Fast Food 189

The Globalization of Nothing 191

Cricket: Local, Glocal, or Grobal? 192

Chapter Summary 193

Discussion Questions 194

Further Reading 194

References 195

8 Global Flows of Migrants 198

Migrants 199

Migration 200

Flows of Migrants to and from the United States 203

Undocumented Mexican Migrants to the United States 203

Increased Law Enforcement 205

Flows of Migrants into and within Europe 208

Brexit and British–EU Migration 208

Undocumented Migration Across the Mediterranean into Europe 209

Flows of Migrants in Asia 211

The Case Against the Backlash to Undocumented, or“Illegal,” Immigration 213

Remittances 215

Diaspora 218

Chapter Summary 220

Discussion Questions 221

Further Reading 221

References 222

9 Global Environmental Flows 225

Modernization and Environmental Flows 227

Differences Among Nation‐States 229

Global Climate Change 230

Rising Sea Levels 231

Loss of Biodiversity 232

Threats to Food Security 233

Global Warming and Health 233

Other Environmental Problems 234

Destruction of Natural Habitats 235

Decline of Fish 235

Decline in Fresh Water 236

The Paradox of Bottled Water 237

Toxic Chemicals 238

Population Growth 238

Global Responses 239

Sustainable Development 239

Multilateral Agreements 241

Carbon Tax 242

Cap‐and‐Trade 243

Carbon Neutrality 243

Alternative Fuels and Power Sources 244

A Technological Fix? 245

Economic Issues 245

Opposing Environmentalism 246

Collapse 246

Chapter Summary 247

Discussion Questions 249

Further Reading 249

References 250

10 Negative Global Flows and Processes 253

Dangerous Imports, Diseases, Terrorism, War

Dangerous Imports 255

Borderless Diseases 256


Ebola Virus 257

Tropical Diseases in Europe 258

Terrorism 258

War 265

Global Military Structures 268

Drones and Other Technology 269

Information War, Trolls, and Fakes News 270

Cyber‐War 272

The Impact of Negative Global Flows on Individuals 273

Chapter Summary 274

Discussion Questions 275

Further Reading 276

References 276

11 Economic Power and Inequality 280

Class Inequality and Global Cities

Class Inequality 281

Inequality in the World System 282

Trends in Economic Inequality 283

“The Bottom Billion” 286

Conflict Trap 286

Natural Resources Trap 287

Trap of Being Landlocked with Bad Neighbors 288

Bad Governance Trap 288

Summary 289

Growing Global Inequality in Health and Healthcare 290

Global Digital Divide 291

Global Cities 292

Global Cities in the World Economy 292

Changes in the Network of World Cities 294

Global Slums and Gentrification 295

Chapter Summary 299

Discussion Questions 300

Further Reading 300

References 301

12 Global Inequalities II 303

Inequalities of Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Sexuality

Defining Majority–Minority Relations 304

Majority–Minority Relations in a Global Context 304

The Social Construction of Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Sexuality 307

Intersectionality 309

Race and Ethnicity 310

Ethnic Conflict and Genocide 313

The Latin Americanization of Race and the Value of Whiteness 314

Gender 316

Gender and the Economy 317

Global Care Chains 321

Responding to and Resisting Global Minority Status: The Case of Women 322

Sexuality 323

Chapter Summary 325

Discussion Questions 326

Further Reading 327

References 327

13 Dealing with, Resisting, and the Future of Globalization 331

Dealing with Globalization 332

Dealing with the Global Economy 332

Protectionism 332

Fair Trade 335

Helping the “Bottom Billion” 337

Dealing with Political Globalization 338

Accountability 339

Transparency 339

Resisting Globalization 340

Local Resistance 342

The Global Rise of Populism 343

Social Movements 345

The Movement for Global Justice and Democratization 346

Social Movements and the Global Boomerang 348

World Social Forum 349

Is the Resistance to Globalization Significant? 350

The Futures of Globalization 350

A “Mad Max” Scenario 352

Chapter Summary 353

Discussion Questions 354

Further Reading 355

References 355

Index 359

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George Ritzer University of Maryland, USA.

Paul Dean Ohio Wesleyan University, USA.
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