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Risk-Reduction Methods for Occupational Safety and Health. Edition No. 2

  • ID: 5228176
  • Book
  • November 2019
  • 496 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd

Provides a thorough overview of systematic methods for reducing risks encountered in diverse work places

Filled with more theory, numerous case examples, and references to new material than the original text, this latest edition of a highly acclaimed book on occupational safety and health includes substantial updates and expanded material on management systems, risk assessment methods, and OSH-relevant concepts, principles, and models.

Risk-Reduction Methods for Occupational Safety and Health is organized into five parts: background; analysis methods; programmatic methods for managing risk; risk reduction for energy sources; and risk reduction for other than energy sources. It comprehensively covers both system safety methods and OSH management methods applicable to occupational health and safety. Suitable for worldwide applications, the author’s approach avoids reliance on the thousands of rules, codes, and standards by focusing on understanding hazards and reducing risks using strategies and tactics.

  • Includes more content on methods for reducing risks, citations of recent research, and deeper coverage of OSH-relevant concepts, theories, and models
  • Merges methods and principles traditionally associated with occupational hygiene, ergonomics, and safety
  • Provides substantial updates on management systems and theories of occupational incidents, and includes new case studies in many chapters to help demonstrate the "real world" need for identifying and implementing risk-reduction strategies
  • Addresses occupational risks that go beyond current regulations and standards, taking an international approach by stressing risk-reduction strategies
  • Supports adoption of the book for university courses by providing chapter-specific learning exercises and support materials for professors

Risk-Reduction Methods for Occupational Safety and Health is ideal for safety professionals, system safety engineers, safety engineers, industrial hygienists, ergonomists, and anyone with OSH responsibilities. It is also an excellent resource for students preparing for a career in OSH.

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown

Preface xii

Acknowledgments xiv

About the Companion Website xv

Part I: Background 1

1. Contributions to Occupational Safety and Health 3

1.1 Contributions by Law Makers 3

1.2 Contributions by System Safety Specialists 6

1.3 Contributions by the Public Health Community 9

1.4 Contributions of Governmental and Private Organizations 12

1.5 Contributions from the Sciences and Engineering 15

Learning Exercises 15

Technical Terms 16

References 16

2. Key Terms and Concepts 19

2.1 Hazard 19

2.2 Risk 24

2.3 Risk Reduction 26

2.4 Concepts of Causation 27

Learning Exercises 32

Technical Terms 33

References 34

3. Mental Skills for OSH Professionals 35

3.1 Types of Cognitive Skills 35

3.2 Using Models for Safety Analyses 38

3.3 Using Charts and Diagrams 42

3.4 Summary of Part I 47

Learning Exercises 48

Technical Terms 49

References 50

Part II: Analysis Methods 51

4. Analyzing Jobs and Tasks 53

4.1 Basics of Job Hazard Analysis 53

4.2 Implementing JHAs into the Work 57

4.3 Example JHA 58

4.4 Hazard Analyses Similar to JHAs 60

Learning Exercises 61

Technical Terms 62

References 63

5. Using Risk‐Assessment Methods 65

5.1 Risk‐Assessment Processes – The Future of OSH 65

5.2 An Eight‐Step Process 66

5.3 Example Risk Assessment 74

Learning Exercises 79

Technical Terms 80

References 80

6. Constructing Fault Trees 83

6.1 Common Symbols and Arrangements 83

6.2 Example Fault Trees 86

6.3 Example Success Tree 90

6.4 Common Mistakes 91

6.5 Additional Fault Tree Tools 92

Learning Exercises 94

Technical Terms 96

References 97

7. Analyzing Fault Trees 99

7.1 Analyzing Fault Trees Quantitatively 99

7.2 Identifying Cut Sets 105

7.3 Finding Common‐Cause Failures 109

Learning Exercises 112

Technical Terms 113

References 114

8. Other Useful Analysis Methods 115

8.1 FMEA Reveals Potential Equipment Problems 115

8.2 HAZOP Leads to Safety Through Design 119

8.3 Bow‐Tie Diagrams Support Communication 120

8.4 Layers of Protection Analysis Examines Multiple Barriers 123

8.5 Summary of Part II 123

Learning Exercises 125

Technical Terms 126

References 127

Part III: Programmatic Methods for Managing Risk 129

9. Managing OSH Programs 131

9.1 Clarifying OSH Program Aspirations 131

9.2 Influencing Safety Culture 132

9.3 Using a Management Systems Approach 136

9.4 Having an Ethical Policy for OSH 141

Learning Exercises 144

Technical Terms 144

Appendix: Example Code of Professional Conduct 145

References 146

10. Broadly Applicable Programs and Practices 147

10.1 Programs and Practices to Help People Perform Safely 147

10.2 Sanitation and Housekeeping Practices 158

10.3 Use of Safety Devices 159

10.4 Hazard‐Specific Programs 162

10.5 Financial Aspects of OSH Programs 162

Learning Exercises 166

Technical Terms 169

References 170

11. Incident Investigation Programs 173

11.1 Closed‐Loop Process 174

11.2 Policy Considerations 175

11.3 Investigative Processes 178

11.4 Events and Causal Factors Chart 181

11.5 Practical Analysis Tools for Incident Investigators 187

11.6 Learn from Prior Incident Investigations 192

11.7 Method for Modeling Harmful Occupational Incidents 193

Learning Exercises 195

Technical Terms 196

References 198

12. Human Error Reduction 199

12.1 Concepts of Errors 199

12.2 Comprehensive Classification System 203

12.3 Methods for Finding Feasible Countermeasures 205

Learning Exercises 206

Technical Terms 208

References 208

13. Risk‐Reduction Strategies 211

13.1 Strategies, Tactics, and Applications 211

13.2 The Nine Strategies 215

13.3 Priority for Applying Strategies 219

13.4 Summary of Part III 221

Learning Exercises 222

Technical Terms 227

References 228

Part IV: Risk Reduction for Energy Sources 229

14. Kinetic Energy Hazards 231

14.1 Fundamentals of Energy and Mechanics 231

14.2 Mechanisms of Harming 236

14.3 Gravitational Energy Hazards: People and Objects Falling 238

14.4 Transportation Hazards: Travelers and Roadway Work Zones 245

14.5 Mechanical Hazards: People Interfacing with Machines and Equipment 253

Learning Exercises 258

Technical Terms 259

References 259

15. Electrical Energy Hazards 261

15.1 Electrical Energy as a Source of Hazard 261

15.2 Mechanisms of Harming 265

15.3 Strategies and Tactics for Electrical Energy 274

Learning Exercises 277

Technical Terms 278

References 279

16. Acoustic Energy and Vibration Hazards 281

16.1 Background on Noise and Vibration 281

16.2 Mechanisms of Harming 284

16.3 Strategies and Tactics for Noise Exposure 288

16.4 Strategies and Tactics for Vibration Exposure 292

Learning Exercises 295

Technical Terms 295

References 297

17. Thermal Hazards: Heat and Cold 299

17.1 Background on Thermal Hazards 299

17.2 Mechanisms of Harming 306

17.3 Strategies and Tactics for Thermal Hazards 310

Learning Exercises 315

Technical Terms 316

References 317

18. Fire Hazards 319

18.1 Fundamentals of Fire 319

18.2 Mechanisms of Harming 326

18.3 Strategies and Tactics for Fires 329

Learning Exercises 334

Technical Terms 335

References 336

19. Explosion Hazards 337

19.1 Background on Explosions 337

19.2 Mechanisms of Harming 338

19.3 Strategies and Tactics for Explosions 339

Learning Exercises 344

Technical Terms 345

References 345

20. Pressure Hazards 347

20.1 Overview of Pressure Hazards 347

20.2 Mechanisms of Harming 349

20.3 Strategies and Tactics for Pressure‐Related Hazards 353

Learning Exercises 360

Technical Terms 361

References 362

21. Hazards of Electromagnetic Energies 363

21.1 Fundamentals of Electromagnetic Energy 363

21.2 Mechanisms of Harming 366

21.3 Strategies and Tactics for Electromagnetic Hazards 371

Learning Exercises 376

Technical Terms 376

References 377

22. Hazards of Severe Weather and Geologic Events 379

22.1 Background 379

22.2 Mechanisms of Harming 381

22.3 Strategies and Tactics for Weather and Geologic Events 386

22.4 Summary of Part IV 389

Learning Exercises 390

Technical Terms 390

References 391

Part V: Risk Reduction for Other Than Energy Sources 393

23. Workplace Conditions 395

23.1 Background 395

23.2 Walking Surfaces 396

23.3 Stairways and Steps 403

23.4 Ramps 407

23.5 Confined Spaces 408

23.6 Areas with Dusty Air 410

23.7 Areas with Mold 411

Learning Exercises 412

Technical Terms 413

References 414

24. Chemical Substances 415

24.1 Major Categories of Chemicals Encountered at Work 415

24.2 Mechanisms of Harming 417

24.3 Strategies and Tactics for Workplace Chemicals 421

Learning Exercises 424

Technical Terms 424

Appendix: Personal Protective Equipment for Chemicals 425

References 429

25. Biological Sources 431

25.1 Worker–Pathogen Exposures 431

25.2 Workers–Animal Encounters 436

25.3 Worker–Plant Exposures 441

Learning Exercises 442

Technical Terms 442

References 442

26. Musculoskeletal Stressors 445

26.1 Background on Musculoskeletal Stressors 445

26.2 Means by Which Musculoskeletal Stressors Can Harm 447

26.3 Useful Employee Surveys 452

26.4 Strategies and Tactics for Musculoskeletal Stressors 454

Learning Exercises 458

Technical Terms 458

References 459

27. Violent Actions of People 461

27.1 Workplace Violence 462

27.2 Terrorist Attacks 465

27.3 Summary of Part V 466

Learning Exercises 468

Technical Terms 468

References 468

Index 469

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Roger C. Jensen
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