Exosome technologies have been developing rapidly in recent years and substantial growth is expected for the market as they get integrated into the fields of liquid biopsy, precision medicine, and regenerative medicine. In particular, cancer-derived exosomes influence the invasive potential of cells by regulating angiogenesis, metastasis, and immunity, making them an extremely useful source of biomarkers for use in cancer detection, diagnosis, and therapeutic selection.
Exosomes are extracellular vesicles (EVs) of endosomal origin that range in size between 30 and 150 nanometers. Exosomes are secreted by a wide range of cells, since virtually all living cells utilize exosome-mediated communication. Exosomes carry cell-specific cargos of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids that are selectively taken up by recipient cells.
The cargo contained within exosomes can offer prognostic information for range of diseases - including cardiovascular, renal, neurodegenerative, and metabolic diseases - as well as cancer. Researchers investigating exosome biomarkers have discovered, identified, and reported the presence of hundreds of biomolecules within the lumen of exosomes. This discovery has compelled a rapid rise in exosome-related cancer biomarker research, including using exosomes for the detection, monitoring, and treatment of a diverse range of oncologic conditions.
Importantly, exosomes are present within a diverse range of biofluids, including serum, plasma, urine, seminal fluid, CSF, saliva, tears, and breast milk. For this reason, exosome-based diagnostics are minimally invasive, offering ease of use and speed of detection. Exosomes can also act as prognostic indicators and predictors of a patient's response to a specific course of treatment.
Exosomes are also being explored for their use as cell-free therapeutics. For example, suppose a patient has a disease caused by a missing or defective protein or microRNA. In that case, the patient’s exosomes can be isolated, modified with the appropriate siRNA or protein, and then injected back into the patient for treatment. Many approaches are being researched for creating drug-loaded exosomes. Furthermore, exosomes themselves can exert powerful effects. For example, mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) derived exosomes have the capacity to suppress inflammation, prevent scar tissue formation, and mediate a healthy immune response.
For these reasons, exosomes have gone from being overlooked to rapidly gaining momentum as a novel strategy for accessing the therapeutic effects of cells without the risks and difficulties of administering cells to patients. Although exosomes were discovered more than 30 years ago, it was not until recently that the scientific community began to give credit to exosomes for a range of promising traits.
When exosome publications are analyzed, U.S. authors have published approximately 40% of the articles and China comes in second place. When the term "exosome" is searched in the scientific literature, Dr. Susanne Gabrielsson from the Karolinska Institutet in Sweden is the leading author. When the term "extracellular vesicles" is searched, Unicyte AG, a regenerative medicine unit of Fresenius Medical Care, takes the lead. Headquartered in Switzerland, the company has published more than 100 papers on exosomes and extracellular vesicles in combination with Professor Giovanni Camussi.
To date, three pharma companies (Takeda, Jazz Pharmaceuticals, and Roche Pharmaceutical Company) have signed partnership deals with exosome companies offering payment terms structured to deliver at or around $1 billion dollars. Within the past few years, there has been at least 7 partnership deals within the exosome industry, 8 large venture capital events, and 2 landmark acquisitions.
The exosome industry has also achieved two landmark approvals of FDA-approved diagnostic tests: Bio-Techne's ExoDx Prostate IntelliScore Test for prostate cancer and Guardant's 360 CDx test for non-small cell lung cancer.
Exosome Market Forces
The publisher has released this global market report to characterize the rapidly expanding exosome market that explores growing demand for exosome therapeutics, diagnostics, research tools, and manufacturing technologies. The report reveals trend rate data for exosome patents, grants, scientific publications, and clinical trials.
It highlights information about exosome industry partnerships, merger and acquisition (M&A) activity, and financing events. It features company profiles for 118 global competitors from across the exosome marketplace. Importantly, it presents market size determinations by market segment with forecasts through 2030.
Today the exosome industry is witnessing:
- A surging number of scientific papers investigating exosomes and their applications
- Rising numbers of clinicals trials investigating exosome therapeutics and diagnostics
- Swelling appetite among investors for exosome technologies
- An increasingly competitive IP environment
- A diverse range of co-development partnerships
- Proliferating numbers of exosome competitors in all major life science markets worldwide
Table of Contents
1. REPORT OVERVIEW
1.1 Statement of the Report
1.2 Target Demographic
1.3 Report Sources
1.4 Purpose of the Report
1.5 Executive Summary
2. EXOSOMES: AN OVERVIEW
2.1 Structure of an Exosome
2.1.1 Molecular Contents of Exosomes
184.108.40.206 Proteins in Exosomes
220.127.116.11 Lipid Contents of Exosomes
18.104.22.168 Nucleic Acids in Exosomes
2.1.2 Components of Membrane and Lumen of Exosomes
2.2 Classification of Exosomes
2.2.1 Natural Exosomes
22.214.171.124 Isolation of Natural Exosomes
2.2.2 Modified Exosomes
126.96.36.199 Types of Therapeutic Cargo used in Exosome Modifications
2.2.3 Synthetic Exosomes
2.3 Biomedical Applications of Engineered Exosomes
2.4 Functions of Exosomes
2.4.1 Pivotal Role of Exosomes
2.4.2 Adaptability to Engineering
2.5 Differences between Exosome Therapy and Cell Therapy
2.6 Sources of Exosomes for Research
2.7 Leveraging Exosomes as Biomarkers
2.8 The Shift from Cell Therapy to Exosome Therapy
3. EXOSOME ENGINEERING: THE NEW PLATFORM
3.1 Interior Modification
3.1.1 Pre-Isolation Interior Modification Methods
188.8.131.52 Gene Editing
3.1.2 Post-Isolation Interior Modification Methods
3.2 Surface Modifications
3.2.1 Surface Modification through Parent Cells
3.2.2 Direct Surface Modification
3.2.3 Loaded and Displayed Molecules in Direct Exosome Engineering
3.3 Comparison of Modification Methods
3.4 Clinical Applications of Designer Exosomes
3.4.1 Targeted Designer Exosomes
3.4.2 Anti-Cancer Designer Exosomes
3.4.3 Regenerative Designer Exosomes
3.5 Companies Developing Engineered Exosome-Based Therapeutics
4. MSC-DERIVED EXOSOMES IN REGENERATIVE MEDICINE
4.1 Cardiovascular Diseases
4.2 Kidney Diseases
4.3 Liver Diseases
4.4 Wound Healing
4.5 MSC Exosome-Based Clinical Trials for Regenerative Medicines
5. EXOSOME RESEARCH
5.1 Research to Inhibit Disease-Derived Exosomes
5.1.1 Research to use Exosomes as Therapeutic Platforms
5.1.2 Research to use Exosomes as Carriers of Genes in Gene Therapy
5.1.3 Research to use Exosomes as Drug Delivery Vehicles
5.1.4 Research to Develop Technologies for Exosome Isolation
5.2 Common Isolation Methods in Exosome Research
5.3 Quality Control (QC) of Exosomes in Exosome Research
5.4 Bioimaging Modalities used in Exosome Research
5.5 Labeling Methods used in Exosome Research
5.5.1 Fluorescent Dyes used in Labeling Exosomes
5.5.2 Common Methods to Remove Unlabelled Probes
5.6 Determination of Exosome Dose in Exosome Studies
5.7 Routes of Exosome Administration
5.8 Characterization of Exosomes in Research
6. COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE EXOSOME RESEARCH TOOLS
6.1 Exosome Capture/Quantification Kits
6.1.1 Exosome-associated RNA Isolation Kits
6.2 Exosome Standards
6.3 Immunoplates for Capturing Exosomes
6.4 Immunobeads for Exosome Isolation
6.5 Exosome Marker Antibodies
7. SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS IN EXOSOMES
7.1 Trends in Global Publications
7.1.1 Scientific Publications on Exosome DNA as Diagnostics
7.1.2 Scientific Publications on Exosome RNA as Diagnostics
7.1.3 Scientific Publications on Exosome Proteins as Diagnostics
7.1.4 Scientific Publications on Exosomes Derived from Stem Cells
7.1.5 Scientific Publications on Exosome-based Diagnostics
7.1.6 Scientific Publications on Exosome-based Therapeutics
7.1.7 Scientific Publications on Exosomes for Cancer Diagnosis
7.1.8 Scientific Publications on Exosomes for Pregnancy Disorders Diagnosis
7.2 Future in Exosome Research Publications
8. EXOSOME PATENT LANDSCAPE
8.1 A Brief Overview of Current Exosome Patent Landscape
8.1.1 Patents/Patent Applications Relevant to Exosome-Sources
8.1.2 Patents/Applications Related to Exosomes-Isolation/Preparation
8.1.3 Patents/Applications Related to Type of Cargo
8.1.4 Patents/Applications Related to Cargo Loading Methods
8.1.5 Patents/Applications Related to Therapy Area
8.2 Leading Assignees of Exosome Patents
8.2.1 Types of Patented Isolation/Preparation Technologies by Assignees
8.2.2 Types of Cargos Employed by Assignees
8.2.3 Cargo Loading Methods by Assignees
8.2.4 Therapy Areas by Assignees
8.3 Exosome Patent/Patent Applications by Geography
8.4 Legal Status of Exosome Patent/Patent Applications
8.5 Assignee Categories
9. EXOSOMES: CLINICAL TRIAL LANDSCAPE
9.1 Sources of Exosomes used in Clinical Trials
9.2 Studies using Anti-Tumor Antigens
9.3 Studies using Cytotoxic Drugs against Cancer
9.4 Recruitment Status of Ongoing Exosome-based Clinical Trials
9.5 Study Designs
9.6 Study Phases
9.7 Funding Types
9.8 Exosome Clinical Trials by Geography
9.9 Clinical Trials Involving MSC-Derived Exosomes
9.10 Examples of Clinical Trials involving Drug-Loaded Exosomes
10. CURRENT STATUS OF EXOSOME MANUFACTURING
10.1 Production of Exosomes from Cell Cultures
10.2 Production Formats
10.2.1 Large Scale Production
10.2.1.1 Upstream Cell Line Production
10.2.1.2 Downstream Exosome Purification Methods
10.3 Companies Offering Exosome-Related Services
11. EXOSOME ISOLATION APPROACHES
11.1 Differential Ultracentrifugation
11.1.1 Gradient Density Ultracentrifugation
11.2 Ultrafiltration & Sequential Ultrafiltration
11.3 Size-exclusion Chromatography
11.4 Polymer Precipitation
11.5 Immunoaffinity Capture
11.6 Microfluidics-Based Techniques
11.6.1 Active and Passive Methods of Microfluidics-based Platforms
11.7 Commercially Available Exosome Isolation Kits
11.7.1 Comparison of Currently used Exosome Isolation Techniques
11.7.2 Quality of Exosomes Isolated by Different Methods
11.8 Summary of Different Exosome Isolation Methods
11.9 Characterization of Exosomes
11.9.1 Size and Shape
11.9.2 Molecular Profiling
11.9.3 Proteomics and Lipidomics
11.10 Microscopy and Nanoscopy for Exosome Imaging
11.11 Direct Post-Isolation Labeling for Imaging
11.12 Approaches for Exosome Analysis for Gene and Protein Biomarkers
11.13 Emerging Optical Technologies for Exosome Analysis
11.14 Emerging Electrochemical and Electromechanical Approaches
12. DIAGNOSTIC APPLICATIONS OF EXOSOMES
12.1.1 Exosomal Proteins as Diagnostic Biomarkers
11.1.2 Exosomal Nucleic Acids as Biomarkers
12.1.3 Non-Coding RNAs in Exosomes as Biomarkers in Cancers
184.108.40.206 Exosomes from other Biofluids as Biomarkers for Cancer
12.2 Exosome Biomarkers in Pregnancy Disorders
12.3 Exosome Biomarkers and Early Diagnosis of Immunologic Rejection
12.4 Number of PubMed Articles on Exosome-Based Diagnosis
12.5 Clinical Trials involving Exosome-based Diagnostics
13. THERAPEUTC APPLICATIONS OF EXOSOMES
13.1 Advantages of Exosomes as Therapeutics
13.2 Therapeutic Exosome Platforms
13.2.1 Naïve Exosome Therapeutics
13.2.2 Engineered Exosome Therapeutics
220.127.116.11 Passive Cargo Loading
18.104.22.168 Active Cargo Loading
13.3 Drugs Encapsulated in Exosomes
13.4 Preclinical Studies involving Loaded Exosome Therapeutics
13.5 Clinical Trials involving Exosome Therapeutics
14. APPLICATION OF EXOSOMES IN VACCINE DEVELOPMENT
14.1 Exosome-Based Immunotherapy in Animal Models
14.2 Ongoing Clinical Trials Involving Exosomes in Developing Vaccines
15. CURRENT STATUS OF EXOSOME INDUSTRY
15.1 The Shift from Cell Therapy to Exosome Therapy
15.2 Clinical Applications of Exosomes
15.2.1 Diagnostic Applications
5.2.2 Approved Exosome Diagnostics
22.214.171.124 ExoDx Prostate IntelliScore (EPI) Test
126.96.36.199 Guardant360 CDx
15.3 Clinical Trials Focusing on Exosome-Based Diagnostics
15.4 Therapeutic Applications of Exosomes
15.4.1 Promising Exosome-Based Therapeutic Candidates
188.8.131.52 AB 126
15.5 Addreseable Diseases by Exosome Therapeutic Candidates
15.6 Exosome-Based Vaccine Development
15.7 Current Status of Exosome-Based Clinical Trials
15.8 NIH Funding for Exosome Research
15.9 Deals and Fund Raising in Exosome Space
15.9.1 Partnership Deals within Exosome Space
184.108.40.206 Exopharm and Astellas
220.127.116.11 Univercells Technologies and RoosterBio
18.104.22.168 AgeX Therapeutics and UCI
22.214.171.124 VivaZome and La Trobe University
126.96.36.199 Evotec SE and Curexsys GmbH
188.8.131.52 Bio-Techne and QIAGEN
184.108.40.206 InnoCan Pharma and Recipharms
220.127.116.11 Sarepta Therapeutics and Codiak Biosciences
18.104.22.168 Navigo Proteins and MDimune
22.214.171.124 Evox Therapeutics and Takeda
126.96.36.199 Jazz Pharmaceuticals and Codiak Biosciences
188.8.131.52 PureTech Health and Roche
184.108.40.206 Exosome Diagnostics and Intezyne
220.127.116.11 Evox Therapeutics and Boehringer Ingelheim
15.9.2 Acquisition Deals
18.104.22.168 Lonza’s Acquisition of Exosomics
22.214.171.124 Lonza and Codiak Biosciences
126.96.36.199 Bio-Techne and Exosome Diagnostics
188.8.131.52 Lonza and HansaBioMed
15.9.3 Licensing Deals
184.108.40.206 Evox Therapeutics and Eli Lilly
220.127.116.11 VivaZome Therapeutics and University of Adelaide
18.104.22.168 CEVEC and Evox Therapeutics
22.214.171.124 Orgenesis and Excella Bio
15.9.4 Fund Raising in Exosome Space
126.96.36.199 Series C Financing Round by Evox Therapeutics
188.8.131.52 Series B Financing Round for ILIAS Biologics
184.108.40.206 Initial Public Offering (IPO) by Codiak Biosciences
220.127.116.11 Series C Funding for ExoCoBio
18.104.22.168 Common Stock Financing by ArunA Bio
22.214.171.124 Early-Stage Award for Evox Therapeutics
126.96.36.199 Series A Funding for ExoCoBio
188.8.131.52 NIH Grant for Capricor
15.10 Current Industry Leaders in Exosome Sector
15.10.1 ArunA Biomedical
15.10.2 Capricor Therapeutics
15.10.3 Codiak Biosciences
15.10.4 Evox Therapeutics
15.10.5 Exosome Diagnostics, Inc (Bio-Techne)
15.10.6 Exocyte Therapeutics
15.10.7 Kimera Labs
15.11 The Four Categories of Exosome Companies
15.12 Current Exosome Technologies by Commercial Companies
15.12.1 Brief Descriptions of Major Exosome Technologies and Companies
184.108.40.206 AGLE-102 from Aegle Therapeutics
220.127.116.11 CDC Exosomes from Capricor Therapeutics
18.104.22.168 engEX Platform from Codiak Biosciences
22.214.171.124 DeliverEX from Evox Therapeutics
126.96.36.199 Exo-101 from Exogenus Therapeutics
188.8.131.52 Hybridozome from Anjarium Biosciences
184.108.40.206 Neuronal Exosomes from Aruna Bio
220.127.116.11 ExoPro from ReNeuron
18.104.22.168 Plexaris from Exopharm Pty., Ltd.
22.214.171.124 ExoSCRT from ExoCoBio
16. EXOSOME MARKET ANALYSIS
16.1 Market for Exosome Therapeutics
16.2 The Market for Exosome Diagnostics
16.3 Market for Exosome Research Products
16.3.1 Market Shares for Exosome Isolation Tools
16.3.2 Percent Utilization of Research Tools used on Captured Exosomes
17. PROFILES OF EXOSOME MARKET COMPETITORS
17.1 101 Bio
17.1.1 Exosome Services
17.2 Abbexa, Ltd.
17.4 Adipomics, Inc.
17.5 Aegle Therapeutics
17.5.1 Extracellular Vesicle Therapy
17.6 AgeX Therapeutics
17.6.1 PureStem Technology
17.6.2 Induced Tissue Regeneration
17.6.4 HyStem Delivery Technology
17.7 Aethlon Medical, Inc.
17.9 AMS Biotechnology, Ltd. (AMSBIO)
17.10 Anjarium Biosciences
17.10.1 Anjarium’s Hybridosome Platform
17.11 Antibodies-Online GmbH
17.12 Aposcience AG
17.12.1 Wound Healing
17.12.2 Myocardial Infarction
17.13 Aruna Bio
17.14 Avalon GloboCare Corp.
17.14.1 Avalon’s Core Platforms
17.15 Aviva Systems Biology
17.16 Azymus Therapeutics
17.16.1 AZ Platform
17.17 Beckman Coulter Life Sciences
17.17.1 Optima XPN
17.17.2 Vi-CELL BLU - Cell Viability Analyzer
17.17.3 SW 32 Swinging Bucket Rotor
17.17.4 CytoFLEX - Flow Cytometer
17.18 BioCat GmbH
17.18.1 Exosome Purification Kits
17.20 Biological Dynamics, Inc.
17.20.1 Verita Isolation Platform
17.21 Biorbyt, Ltd.
17.22 BioRegenerative Sciences, Inc.
17.22.1 SRM Technology
17.24 BioVision, Inc.
17.25 BrainStorm Cell Therapeutics
17.25.1 Exosomes for COVID-19
17.26 BreStem Therapeutics, Inc.
17.27 Capricor Therapeutics
17.27.1 Exosome Program
17.28 Carmine Therapeutics
17.29 CD Bioparticles
17.29.1 Exosome Services
17.30 Cellarcus Biosciences, Inc.
17.30.1 vFC Vesicle Analysis Assays
17.30.2 vTag Antibodies
17.30.3 Vesicles and Vesicle Standards
17.30.4 Vesicle Analysis Services
17.30.5 Measuring EV Size and Concentration
17.30.6 Quantifying Vesicle Cargo
17.30.7 Custom Analysis Services
17.31 Cell Care Therapeutics
17.32 Cell Factory BVBA/Esperite NV
17.32.1 Exosome Projects
17.33 Cell Guidance Systems, Ltd.
17.33.1 Exosomes from Cell Guidance
17.33.2 Exo-Spin Exosome Purification
17.33.3 Exosome Characterization
17.33.4 ExoLISA Technology: Exosome Detection
17.33.5 NTA Size Profiling Service
17.34.1 Exosome Customization Technology
17.36 Clara Biotech
17.37 Codiak Biosciences
17.37.1 engEx Platform
17.37.2 Pipeline Products
17.38 Coya Therapeutics, Inc.
17.39 Craif, Inc.
17.39.1 Nanowire Device
17.40 Creative Bioarray
17.42 Creative Biolabs
17.43 Creative Medical Technology Holdings
17.43.1 AmnioStem Stroke Therapy
17.44 Creative Proteomics
17.44.1 Exosome Proteomics Services
17.45 Curexsys GmbH
17.46 CUSABIO TECHNOLOGY LLC
17.46.1 Exosome Isolation Kits
17.47 Diadem Biotherapeutics
17.48 Direct Bio
17.50 Entelexo Biotherapeutics
17.52 Evomic Science LLC
17.52.1 ExoEZ Exosome Isolation Kit
17.53 Evora Biosciences SAS
17.54 Evox Therapeutics, Ltd.
17.54.1 Protein Therapeutics
17.54.2 RNA Therapeutics
17.55 ExBiome BV
17.55.1 ExomiR Technology
17.56 Exrkine Corp.
17.57 ExoCan Healthcare Technologies, Pvt. Ltd.
17.57.1 ExoEnrich Exosome Isolation Kit
17.58 ExoCoBio, Co., Ltd.
17.59 Exogenus Therapeutics
17.61.1 LEAP Technology
17.61.2 Cevaris & Plexaris
17.61.3 Partnering Strategy
126.96.36.199 Exosome Technologies
188.8.131.52 Exosome Medicines
17.62 ExosomeDx (biotechne)
17.62.1 ExoDX Prostate Test
17.62.2 Pharma Services
17.64 Exosome Sciences
17.64.1 TauSome Biomarker
17.65 Exosomics S.p.A
17.65.2 SeleCTEV-DNA Enrichment Kits
17.65.3 SoRTEV-RNA Enrichment Kits
17.67 Florica Therapeutics
17.68 GenWay Biotech, Inc.
17.69 HansaBioMed Lifesiences, Ltd.
17.70 ILIAS Biologics, Inc.
17.71 Innocan Pharma
17.71.1 CBD-Loaded Exosomes
17.72 Innovex Therapeutics, S.L
17.72.1 Research & Development
17.73 INOVIQ, Ltd.
17.73.1 EXO-NET (Research Use only)
17.74 Invent Biotechnologies, Inc.
17.75 Izon Science, Ltd.
17.75.1 qEV Isolation
17.76 Kimera Labs, Inc.
17.76.2 XoGlo Pro
17.76.3 Equisome HC
17.77 Leading Biology, Inc.
17.78 LifeSpan Biosciences, Inc.
17.79 Lonza Group, Ltd.
17.79.1 Exosome Service
17.80 Mantra Bio
17.81 MDimune, Inc.
17.81.1 BioDrone Technology
17.82 Miltenyi Biotech B.V. and Co., KG
17.82.1 qEV Exosome Isolation Kit
17.83 miR Scientific
17.83.1 Prostate Cancer Test
17.84 Mursla, Ltd.
17.85 MyBioSource, Inc.
17.86 NanoSomics, Inc.
17.87 NanoView Biosciences
17.87.1 ExoView R200
17.87.2 ExoView R100
17.87.3 ExoView Tetraspanin Kits
17.87.4 ExoFlex Kits
17.88 NeurExo Sciences
17.88.1 Research & Development Programs
17.89 NeuroDex, Inc.
17.90 NurExone Biologic Ltd
17.91 New England Peptide, Inc.
17.91.1 ME- Kit for Exosome Isolation
17.92 Norgen Biotek Corp.
17.93 Novus Biologicals, LLC
17.93.1 Exosome Research Tools
17.94 nRix Dx, Inc.
17.95 Oasis Diagnostics Corporation
17.96 OmniSpirant, Ltd.
17.98 OriGene Technologies, Inc.
17.99 Paracrine Therapeutics, Pvt. Ltd.
17.100.1 ExoEasy Maxi Kit
17.100.2 miRCURY Exosome Kits
17.100.3 miRCURY LNA miRNA Focus PCR Panels
17.101.1 Exosome Platform
17.103 RoosterBio, Inc.
17.103.2 RoosterCollect EV Pro
17.103.4 EV Boost
17.104 Rosetta Exosome
17.106 System Biosciences, LLC
17.106.1 Exosome Research Products
17.106.2 Exosome Research Services
17.107 Tavec Pharma
17.107.2 Acquisition by Therillia
17.108 Theoria Science, Inc.
17.108.1 Technology: ExoScreen
17.109 Thermo Fisher Scientific
17.109.1 Exosome Products for Testing and Research
17.110 TransGen Biotech, Co., Ltd.
17.111 TriArm Therapeutics, Co., Ltd.
17.111.1 Exosome Engineering Platform
17.112 United Therapeutics Corp.
17.113 Versatope Therapeutics
17.114 Vesigen Therapeutics, Inc.
17.115 VivaZome Therapeutics, Pvt. Ltd.
17.115.1 VivaZome’s Collaboration with ANU
17.115.2 VivaZome’s Collaboration with ReNerve
17.116 Xollent Biotech
17.117 XOStem, Inc.
17.118 YMAIR Genomics, LLC
17.118.1 Urine Biomarker Isolation Method
LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE 2.1: Classification of Extracellular Vesicles
FIGURE 2.2: Exosome Formation
FIGURE 2.3: Exosome Uptake by Target Cells
FIGURE 2.4: Structure of an Exosome
FIGURE 2.5: Schematic of Membrane and Lumen Components of Exosomes
FIGURE 2.6: Classification of Exosomes according to Origin
FIGURE 2.7: Methods of Isolation for Natural Exosomes
FIGURE 2.8: Exosomes with Loaded Therapeutics in the Lumen and Surface Display
FIGURE 2.9: Schematic Representation of Therapeutic Applications of Exosomes
FIGURE 2.10: Sources of Exosomes for Research
FIGURE 3.1: Pre-Isolation Interior Modification Methods
FIGURE 3.2: Post-Isolation Interior Modification Methods
FIGURE 3.3: Surface Modification through the Parent Cells
FIGURE 3.4: Direct Surface Modification
FIGURE 5.1: Common Isolation Methods in Exosome Research
FIGURE 5.2: Exosome Labeling Methods in Exosome Biodistribution Analysis
FIGURE 5.3: Fluorescent Dyes used in Exosome Labeling
FIGURE 5.4: Common Methods to Remove Unlabelled Probes
FIGURE 5.5: Determination of Exosome Dose in Exosome Studies
FIGURE 5.6: Routes of Exosome Administration
FIGURE 5.7: Tested and Non-Tested Exosomes in Research
FIGURE 7.1: Number of PubMed Publications on Exosomes
FIGURE 7.2: Top Five Countries with Largest Number of Publications
FIGURE 7.3: Number of PubMed Publications on Exosome DNA as Diagnostics
FIGURE 7.4: Number of PubMed Publications on Exosome RNA as Diagnostics
FIGURE 7.5: PubMed Publications on Exosome Proteins as Diagnostics
FIGURE 7.6: PubMed Publications on Exosomes Derived from Stem Cells
FIGURE 7.7: PubMed Publications on Exosome-based Diagnostics
FIGURE 7.8: PubMed Publications on Exosome-based Therapeutics
FIGURE 7.9: PubMed Publications on Exosomes for Cancer Diagnosis
FIGURE 7.10: Publications on Exosome Diagnostics for Pregnancy Disorders
FIGURE 8.1: Patents/Applications Related to Exosome-Sources
FIGURE 8.2: Patents/Applications Related to Exosomes-Isolation/Preparation
FIGURE 8.3: Patents/Applications Related to Type of Cargo
FIGURE 8.4: Patents/Applications Related to Cargo Loading Methods
FIGURE 8.5: Patents/Applications Related to Therapy Area
FIGURE 8.6: Leading Assignees of Exosome Patents
FIGURE 9.1: Exosome Clinical Trials by Geography
FIGURE 10.1: Schematic Models of Continuous Exosome Manufacturing Approaches
FIGURE 10.2: Upstream Cell Line Production Methods
FIGURE 10.3: Downstream Exosome Purification Methods
FIGURE 11.1: Diagrammatic Representation of Differential Centrifugation
FIGURE 11.12: Diagrammatic Representation of Gradient Density Ultracentrifugation
FIGURE 11.3: Diagrammatic Representation of Ultrafiltration & Sequential Ultrafiltration
FIGURE 11.4: Diagrammatic Representation of Size-Exclusion Chromatography
FIGURE 11.5: Diagrammatic Representation of Polymer Precipitation
FIGURE 11.6: Diagrammatic Representation of Immunoaffinity Capture
FIGURE 11.7: Diagrammatic Representation of Microfluidics-based Techniques
FIGURE 11.8: Comparative Yield of Exosomes by Isolation Techniques
FIGURE 11.9: Relative Viability of Exosomes by Isolation Technique
FIGURE 12.1: Number of PubMed Published on Exosome Diagnostics
FIGURE 13.1: Schematic Illustration of Key Points in Exosomes as Drug Delivery Systems
FIGURE 13.2: Sketch of a Naïve Exosome with Not-Fully Identified Functional Molecules
FIGURE 13.3: Passive Cargo Loading
FIGURE 13.4: Active Cargo Loading with Anchored Cargo
FIGURE 13.5: Active Cargo Loading with Free-Cargo
FIGURE 15.1: Diagnostic Applications of Exosomes
FIGURE 16.1: Market for Exosome Therapeutics and Diagnostics by Region, 2022-2030
FIGURE 16.2: Market for Exosome Research Products by Region, 2022-2030
FIGURE 16.3: Market Shares for Exosome Isolation Tools
FIGURE 16.4: Percent Utilization of Research Tools used on Captured Exosomes
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE 2.1: Molecular Contents of Exosomes
TABLE 2.2: Common Protein Contents of Exosomes
TABLE 2.3: Common Lipid Contents of Exosomes
TABLE 2.4: Nucleic Acids Present in Cancer-Derived Exosomes
TABLE 2.5: Types of Therapeutic Cargo used in Exosome Modifications
TABLE 2.6: Differences between Exosome Therapy and Cell Therapy
TABLE 2.7: Comparative Studies using Exosomes from Different Sources
TABLE 3.1: Examples of Loaded and Displayed Molecules in Direct Exosome Engineering
TABLE 3.2: Advantages and Disadvantages of Exosome Preparation Methods
TABLE 3.3: Targeted Moieties used in Developing Targeted Designer Exosomes
TABLE 3.4: Exosome-Based Clinical Trials for Cancer Treatment and Diagnostics
TABLE 4.1: Select Preclinical Studies addressing Cardiovascular Diseases
TABLE 4.2: Select Preclinical Studies addressing Kidney Diseases
TABLE 4.3: Select Preclinical Studies addressing Liver Diseases
TABLE 4.4: Select Preclinical Studies addressing Wound Healing
TABLE 4.5: Select MSC Exosome-Based Clinical Trials for Regenerative Medicines
TABLE 5.1: Comparison of MISEV2018 and MFDS2018 Guidelines
TABLE 5.2: Comparison of Imaging Modalities used in Exosome Research
TABLE 5.3: Comparison of Exosome Labeling Methods
TABLE 6.1: Commercially Available Exosome Isolation Kits
TABLE 6.2: Exosome-associated RNA Isolation Kits
TABLE 6.3: Commercially Available Exosome Standards
TABLE 6.4: Commercially Available Immunoplates for Capturing Exosomes
TABLE 6.5: Commercially Available Immunobeads for Exosome Isolation
TABLE 6.6: Commercially Available Exosome Marker Antibodies
TABLE 8.1: Exosome Patent Assignees
TABLE 9.1: Recruitment Status for Exosome-based Clinical Trials
TABLE 9.2: Study Designs of Ongoing Exosome Clinical Trials
TABLE 9.3: Study Phases in Clinical Trials
TABLE 9.4: Phase III & Phase IV Studies in Clinical trials
TABLE 9.5: Funding Types for Exosome-based Studies
TABLE 9.6: Examples of Clinical Trials involving MSC-Derived Exosomes
TABLE 9.7: Examples of Clinical Trials involving Drug-Loaded Exosomes
TABLE 10.1: Companies Offering Exosome-Related Services
TABLE 11.1: Current Strategies for Exosome Isolation
TABLE 11.2: Active and Passive Methods of Microfluidics-based Platforms
TABLE 11.3: Features of Microfluidics-based Techniques
TABLE 11.4: Commercially Available Exosome Isolation Kits
TABLE 11.5: Summary of Different Exosome Isolation Techniques
TABLE 11.6: Approaches for Exosome Analysis of Gene and Protein Biomarkers
TABLE 11.7: Emerging Optical Technologies for Exosome Analysis
TABLE 11.8: Electrochemical and Electromechanical Approaches for Exosome Analysis
TABLE 12.1: Exosomal Cargo as Biomarkers for Disease Diagnosis
TABLE 12.2: Exosomal Proteins in Different Cancers
TABLE 12.3: Types of RNA as Biomarkers for Cancers
TABLE 12.4: Non-Coding RNAs in Exosomes as Biomarkers for Cancers
TABLE 12.5: Exosome Biomarkers for Cancer from other Body Fluids
TABLE 12.6: Target Exosome Molecules for Diagnosis in Pregnancy Disorders
TABLE 12.7: Target Molecules of Exosomes for Diagnosis after Organ Transplantation
TABLE 12.8: Examples of Clinical Trials involving Exosome-based Diagnostics
TABLE 13.1: List of Commercial Companies Developing Exosomes Therapies
TABLE 13.2: Summary of Cargo Loading Methods
TABLE 13.3: Examples of Drugs Encapsulated in Exosomes
TABLE 13.4: Preclinical Studies involving Drug-Loaded Exosomes
TABLE 13.5: Phase III Clinical Trials involving Exosome Therapeutics
TABLE 14.1: The Potential of a New Approach to Cancer Vaccines in Animal Models
TABLE 14.2: Ongoing Clinical Trials of Exosome-Based Cancer Immunotherapy
TABLE 15.1: Companies Developing Exosome-Based Diagnostics
TABLE 15.2: Select Clinical Trials Evaluating Exosome Diagnostics
TABLE 15.3: List of Commercial Companies Developing Exosome Therapeutics
TABLE 15.4: Promising Exosome-Based Therapeutic Candidates
TABLE 15.5: A Short List of Diseases Addressed by Exosome Therapeutics
TABLE 15.6: Current Clinical Trials Update on Exosomal Vaccine Development
TABLE 15.7: Select Exosome-Based Clinical Trials
TABLE 15.8: The List of NIH Funding for Exosome-Based Research in 2022
TABLE 15.9: Deals and Fund Raising in Exosome Space, 2016-2022
TABLE 15.10: The Four Categories of Exosome Companies
TABLE 15.11: Exosome Technologies Developed by Commercial Companies
TABLE 16.1: Market for Exosome Therapeutics and Diagnostics by Region, 2022-2030
TABLE 16.2: Market for Exosome Research Products by Region, 2022-2030
TABLE 17.1: Aruna Bio’s Product Pipeline
TABLE 17.2: BioCat’s Exosome Tools: An Overview
TABLE 17.3: BreStem’s Pipeline
TABLE 17.4: Capricor’s Product Pipeline
TABLE 17.5: Cell Factory’s Exosome Drug Candidates
TABLE 17.6: Codiak’s engEx Therapeutic Pipeline
TABLE 17.7: Coya’s Pipeline
TABLE 17.8: Curexsys’ Products in Pipeline
TABLE 17.9: ILIAS Product Pipeline
TABLE 17.10: MDimune’s Exosome-Based Products in Development
TABLE 17.11: NeurExo’s Research & Development Programs
TABLE 17.12: Organicell’s Product Pipeline
TABLE 17.13: Organicell’s Pipeline - Compassionate Use IND
TABLE 17.14: RION’s Pipeline of Products
TABLE 17.15: Xollent’s Product Candidates
TABLE 17.16: All Known Exosome Companies Worldwide by Region and Activity
- 101 Bio
- Abbexa, Ltd.
- Adipomics, Inc.
- Aegle Therapeutics
- Aethlon Medical, Inc.
- AgeX Therapeutics
- AMS Biotechnology, Ltd. (AMSBIO)
- Anjarium Biosciences
- Antibodies-Online GmbH
- Aposcience AG
- Aruna Bio
- ArunA Biomedical
- Avalon GloboCare Corp.
- Aviva Systems Biology
- Azymus Therapeutics
- Beckman Coulter Life Sciences
- BioCat GmbH
- Biological Dynamics, Inc.
- Biorbyt, Ltd.
- BioRegenerative Sciences, Inc.
- BioVision, Inc.
- Boehringer Ingelheim
- BrainStorm Cell Therapeutics
- BreStem Therapeutics, Inc.
- Capricor Therapeutics
- Carmine Therapeutics
- CD Bioparticles
- Cell Care Therapeutics
- Cell Factory BVBA/Esperite NV
- Cell Guidance Systems, Ltd.
- Cellarcus Biosciences, Inc.
- Clara Biotech
- Codiak Biosciences
- Coya Therapeutics, Inc.
- Craif, Inc.
- Creative Bioarray
- Creative Biolabs
- Creative Medical Technology Holdings
- Creative Proteomics
- Curexsys GmbH
- CUSABIO TECHNOLOGY LLC
- Diadem Biotherapeutics
- Direct Bio
- Eli Lilly
- Entelexo Biotherapeutics
- Evomic Science LLC
- Evora Biosciences SAS
- Evotec SE
- Evox Therapeutics, Ltd.
- ExBiome BV
- Excella Bio
- ExoCan Healthcare Technologies, Pvt. Ltd.
- ExoCoBio, Co., Ltd.
- Exocyte Therapeutics
- Exogenus Therapeutics
- Exopharm Pty., Ltd.
- Exosome Diagnostics, Inc (Bio-Techne)
- Exosome Sciences
- ExosomeDx (biotechne)
- Exosomics S.p.A
- Exrkine Corp.
- Florica Therapeutics
- Fresenius Medical Care
- GenWay Biotech, Inc.
- HansaBioMed Lifesiences, Ltd.
- ILIAS Biologics, Inc.
- Innocan Pharma
- Innovex Therapeutics, S.L
- INOVIQ, Ltd.
- Invent Biotechnologies, Inc.
- Izon Science, Ltd.
- Jazz Pharmaceuticals
- Kimera Labs, Inc.
- La Trobe University
- Leading Biology, Inc.
- LifeSpan Biosciences, Inc.
- Lonza Group, Ltd.
- Mantra Bio
- MDimune, Inc.
- Miltenyi Biotech B.V. and Co. KG
- miR Scientific
- Mursla, Ltd.
- MyBioSource, Inc.
- NanoSomics, Inc.
- NanoView Biosciences
- Navigo Proteins
- NeurExo Sciences
- NeuroDex, Inc.
- New England Peptide, Inc.
- Norgen Biotek Corp.
- Novus Biologicals, LLC
- nRix Dx, Inc.
- NurExone Biologic Ltd
- Oasis Diagnostics Corporation
- OmniSpirant, Ltd.
- OriGene Technologies, Inc.
- Paracrine Therapeutics, Pvt. Ltd.
- PureTech Health
- Roche Pharmaceutical Company
- RoosterBio, Inc.
- Rosetta Exosome
- Sarepta Therapeutics
- System Biosciences, LLC
- Tavec Pharma
- Theoria Science, Inc.
- Thermo Fisher Scientific
- TransGen Biotech, Co., Ltd.
- TriArm Therapeutics, Co., Ltd.
- Unicyte AG
- United Therapeutics Corp.
- Univercells Technologies
- University of Adelaide
- Versatope Therapeutics
- Vesigen Therapeutics, Inc.
- VivaZome Therapeutics, Pvt. Ltd.
- Xollent Biotech
- XOStem, Inc.
- YMAIR Genomics, LLC
The content and statistics contained within the publisher's reports are compiled using a broad range of sources, as described below.
- Clinical Trial Databases (ClinicalTrials.gov, International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, European Union Clinical Trials Register, Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, Others)
- Scientific Publication Databases (PubMed, Highwire Press, Google Scholar)
- Patent Databases (United States Patent and Trade Office, World Intellectual Property Organization, Google Patent Search)
- Grant Funding Databases (RePORT Database, CIRM, MRC, Wellcome Trust - UK, Others)
- Product Launch Announcements (Trade Journals, Google News)
- Industry Events (Google News, Google Alerts, Press Releases)
- Company News (SEC Filings, Investor Publications, Historical Performance)
- Social Analytics (Google Adwords, Google Trends, Twitter, Topsy.com, Hashtagify.me, BuzzSumo.com)
- Interviews with Stem Cell Industry Leaders
Research & Analysis Methodologies
The publisher employs the following techniques for deriving its market research:
- Historical Databases: As the first and only market research firm to specialize in the stem cell industry, the publisher has 13+ years of historical data on each segment of the stem cell the industry. This provides an extremely rare and robust database for establishing market size determinations, as well as making future market predictions.
- Prolific Interviews with Industry Leaders: As the global leader in stem cell industry data, the publisher has interviewed hundreds of leaders from across the stem cell industry, including the CEO of FUJIFILM CDI, FUJIFILM Irvine Scientific, Pluristem Therapies, Celularity, and many others.
- Industry Relationships: The research team and its President/Founder, Cade Hildreth, Chair and present at a wide range of stem cell industry events, including Phacilitate's Advanced Therapies Week, World Stem Cell Summit (WSCS), Perinatal Stem Cell Society Congress, AABB's International Cord Blood Symposium (ICBS), and other events hosted within the U.S. and worldwide.
- Global Integrated Feedback: Because the publisher maintains the world's largest stem cell industry news site that is read by nearly a million unique readers per year and the company has large social media audiences (25.7K+ followers on Linked, 21.2K+ followers on Twitter, and 4.3K+ followers on Facebook), the publisher is able to publish content relevant to the industry and receive immediate feedback/input from a global community of readers. In short, the publisher's data is crowd-sourced from market participants worldwide, including those in diverse geographic regions.
- Preliminary Research: In addition to the interviews described above, the publisher conducts market surveys, executes social media polls, and aggregates market data from stem cell industry announcements, press releases, and corporate filings/presentations.
- Secondary Research: The publisher summarizes, collects and synthesizes existing market research that is relevant to the market area of interest.
- Future Projections: Using the resources described above, the publisher is uniquely positioned to make future projections about market size, market growth by segment, market trends, technology evolution, funding activities (financing rounds, M&A, and IPOs), and importantly, market leadership (market share by company).