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Age-Related Vision Dysfunction - Market Insights, Epidemiology, and Market Forecast - 2030

  • ID: 5322335
  • Report
  • May 2021
  • Region: Global
  • 250 Pages
  • DelveInsight

FEATURED COMPANIES

  • Adverum Biotechnologies
  • Allergo Opthalmics
  • Gyroscope Therapeutics
  • Kubota Vision
  • Ocular Therapeutix
  • Outlook Therapeutics
This ‘Age-related Vision Dysfunction - Market Insights, Epidemiology, and Market Forecast - 2030' report delivers an in-depth understanding of the Age-related Vision Dysfunction, historical and forecasted epidemiology as well as the Age-related Vision Dysfunction market trends in the United States, EU5 (Germany, France, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom), and Japan.

The Age-related Vision Dysfunction market report provides current treatment practices, emerging drugs, Age-related Vision Dysfunction market share of the individual therapies, current and forecasted Age-related Vision Dysfunction market size from 2018 to 2030 segmented by seven major markets. The Report also covers current Age-related Vision Dysfunction treatment practice/algorithm, market drivers, market barriers, and unmet medical needs to curate the best of the opportunities and assesses the underlying potential of the market.

Geography Covered

  • The United States
  • EU5 (Germany, France, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom)
  • Japan

Study Period: 2018–2030

Age-related Vision Dysfunction: Disease Understanding and Treatment Algorithm


Age-related Vision Dysfunction Overview


The International Classification of Diseases 11 (2018) classifies vision impairment into two groups, distance and near presenting vision impairment. Beginning in the early to mid-forties, most adults may start to experience problems with their ability to see clearly at close distances, especially for reading and computer tasks. This normal change in the eye's focusing ability will continue to progress over time. Vision loss among the elderly population is a major health care problem. Approximately one in three people have some form of vision-reducing eye disease by the age of 65. Beginning in the early to mid-forties, most adults may start to experience problems with their ability to see clearly at close distances, especially for reading and computer tasks. This normal change in the eye's focusing ability will continue to progress over time. Adults over 40 may be particularly at risk for the development of eye and vision problems.

The process of aging contributes to visual loss through the deterioration of the function of the eye tissues and increased ocular pathology in the elderly. The process of pathology takes place over months to years, and patients usually have minimal symptoms initially. The five major causes of visual impairment in the elderly are presbyopia, age-related cataracts, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy.

Aging changes in various parts of the eye can result in several noticeable differences in how well a person can see. While not everyone will experience the same level of symptoms, the following are common age-related vision changes, some of the common symptoms include difficulty reading and doing close work, problems with glare, changes in color perception, reduced tear production, seeing distorted images, loss of side vision, seeing floaters and flashes, and fluctuating vision.

Age-related Vision Dysfunction Diagnosis


The comprehensive adult eye and vision examination provides the means to evaluate the function and health of the eyes and visual system and to obtain information to diagnose the cause of signs noted by the examiner or symptoms reported by the patient. It also provides the means to identify the presence of other ocular or systemic conditions that may exist without symptoms.

The diagnostic tests for the various vision diseases caused by old age include tests such as visual acuity tests, Fundus Fluorescein Angiography (FFA), Indocyanine green angiography (ICG), Amsler Grid Test, Visual Field Test, and Tonometry Test, among others.

Age-related Vision Dysfunction Treatment


Current clinical management of presbyopia in the United States includes off-label treatment using miotic agents, such as pilocarpine and carbachol. Pharmacological treatment of presbyopia is based on using ophthalmic drops, which by the impact on the ciliary muscle, changes the pupil size and elasticity, improving near vision. Many different modifications, including the combination of two parasympathomimetics and an NSAID, two parasympathomimetics and one parasympatholytic, carbachol 2.25% with brimonidine 0.2%, and a combination of pilocarpine 0.247%, phenylephrine 0.78%, polyethylene glycol 0.09%, nepafenac 0.023%, pheniramine 0.034%, and naphazoline 0.003% were studied.

The most common and effective clinical treatment for wet AMD is anti-VEGF therapy which is periodic intravitreal (into the eye) injection. The various forms of anti-VEGF injections include ranibizumab, bevacizumab, and the US FDA also approved aflibercept. Each of these chemicals works in a different way to inhibit blood vessel growth. Recently, new anti-VEGF treatments that do not need to be injected into the eye as often as Eylea, Lucentis, or Avastin have been approved, which includes Novartis' new drug, Beovu. Also currently, there are different gene therapy candidates under investigation for wet AMD and dry AMD. In Europe, three anti-VEGF drugs are available for nAMD and have made dramatic improvements in patients' lives. Bevacizumab and ranibizumab are labeled for monthly intravitreal injections and aflibercept is labeled for bimonthly intravitreal. In Japan, the Anti-VEGF drug is usually used in nAMD treatment, and its intravitreal administration has become the first-line treatment. In Japan, pegaptanib, ranibizumab, and aflibercept are anti-VEGF drugs currently approved by the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare (MHLW).

Cataract treatment consists of both non-surgical methods of improving symptoms of vision deterioration as well as surgical removal of the cataract. Early cataract symptoms may be improved with new eyeglasses, anti-glare sunglasses, or magnifying lenses.

Initial treatment of Glaucoma aims at reducing the IOP. The pharmacological therapies used are topical beta-blockers (such as timolol) in reducing aqueous production. If further reduction of IOP is necessary, other drugs such as epinephrine, miotics, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, alpha2 agonists, and prostaglandin analogs are added in a stepwise pattern. In Japan, the most frequently prescribed antiglaucoma medications are prostaglandin analogs (PGs); however, in recent years, fixed combination therapy has emerged as a major treatment.

The treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is dependent on the severity of the disease, with DR classified into non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). In Japan, anti-VEGF is the first line of treatment for DR. Although intravitreal injections of steroids are as effective as anti-VEGF drugs in resolving DR, these are no longer commonly performed in Japan. In the US, Bevacizumab was the first available angiogenesis inhibitor. Other anti-VEGF medicines, such as aflibercept (Eylea) or ranibizumab (Lucentis) are also approved for the treatment of DR. Patients with mild to moderate NPDR without DME are typically managed with systemic control only, while pan-retinal photocoagulation (PRP) has been the standard of care for patients with PDR.

Overall, currently, several types of medications are being used in the management of age-related vision dysfunction, including anti-VEGF agents, anti-inflammatory agents, mitotic or cholinergic agents, prostaglandins, beta-blockers, alpha-adrenergic agonists, and rho-kinase inhibitors. Nonpharmacologic treatments for age-related vision dysfunctions can include surgeries, eye laser treatment, corneal inlays, lens implants, photodynamic therapy (PDT), and other treatments. There are several approved drugs for the treatment of age-related vision dysfunction such as Rhopressa/Rhokiinsa (Netarsudil mesylate), Vyzulta (Latanoprostene Bunod Ophthalmic Solution), Glanatec (Ripasudil hydrochloride hydrate), Tapcom/DE-111 (Tafluprost/ Timolol Maleate; Taptiqom), Combigan (Brimonidine/timolol), Rocklatan/Roclanda (Latanoprast; Netarsudil Dimesylate), Eybelis Ophthalmic Solution (DE-117, Omidenepag isopropyl), Xelpros (Latanoprost Ophthalmic Emulsion), Simbrinza (Brinzolamide/Brimonidine Tartrate Ophthalmic Suspension), Azarga/Azorga (Brinzolamide/Timolol), Lucentis (Ranibizumab), Eylea (Aflibercept), Beovu (Brolucizumab), among others.

Age-related Vision Dysfunction Epidemiology


The Age-related Vision Dysfunction epidemiology division provides insights about historical and current Age-related Vision Dysfunction patient pool and forecasted trends for every seven major countries. It helps to recognize the causes of current and forecasted trends by exploring numerous studies and views of key opinion leaders. This part of the report also provides the diagnosed patient pool and their trends along with assumptions undertaken.

Key Findings


In the year 2020, the total prevalent case of Age-related Vision Dysfunction was 374,306,439 cases in the 7MM which are expected to grow during the study period, i.e. 2018–2030.

The disease epidemiology covered in the report provides historical as well as forecasted Age-related Vision Dysfunction epidemiology [segmented as Total Prevalent Cases of Age-related Vision Dysfunction, Total Diagnosed Cases of Age-related Vision Dysfunction, Severity-specific Cases of Age-related Vision Dysfunction, and Treated cases of Age-related Vision Dysfunction] in the 7MM covering the United States, EU5 countries (Germany, France, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom), and Japan from 2018 to 2030.

Country Wise- Age-related Vision Dysfunction Epidemiology


Estimates show that the highest cases of Age-related Vision Dysfunction in the 7MM were in the United States, followed by Japan, Germany, Italy, France, the United Kingdom, and Spain in 2020.

In the United States, the total number of prevalent cases of Age-related Vision Dysfunction was 159,952,427 cases in the year 2020 which are expected to grow during the study period, i.e., 2018–2030.

In the year 2020, the total prevalent cases of Age-related Vision Dysfunction were 168,408,889 cases in EU-5 which are expected to grow during the study period, i.e., 2018–2030.

In Japan, the total number of prevalent cases of Age-related Vision Dysfunction was 45,945,123 cases in the year 2020 which are expected to grow during the study period, i.e., 2018–2030.

Age-related Vision Dysfunction Drug Chapters


The drug chapter segment of the Age-related Vision Dysfunction report encloses the detailed analysis of Age-related Vision Dysfunction marketed drugs and late stage (Phase-III and Phase-II) pipeline drugs. It also helps to understand the Age-related Vision Dysfunction clinical trial details, expressive pharmacological action, agreements and collaborations, approval and patent details, advantages and disadvantages of each included drug, and the latest news and press releases.

Age-related Vision Dysfunction Approved Drugs


Rhopressa/Rhokiinsa/ Netarsudil mesylate (Aerie Pharmaceuticals)

Rhopressa/Rhokiinsa (Netarsudil mesylate) is a Rho kinase inhibitor. Intended for topical application in the eye, each mL of Rhopressa contains 0.2 mg of netarsudil (equivalent to 0.28 mg of netarsudil dimesylate). Rhopressa works differently as compared to other eye pressure-reducing medications to provide consistent pressure lowering. It is a ROCK inhibitor that lowers IOP by targeting the trabecular meshwork to increase aqueous humor outflow and decrease episcleral venous pressure (EVP). In December 2017, the US FDA approved Rhopressa 0.02% for the lowering of elevated IOP in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Later, in November 2019, the European Commission (EC) granted marketing authorization for Rhokiinsa 0.02% for the reduction of elevated IOP in adult patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension.

Rocklatan/Latanoprast and Netarsudil Dimesylate (Aerie Pharmaceuticals)

Rocklatan/Roclanda (netarsudil and latanoprost ophthalmic solution) is a 0.02%/0.005% fixed-dose combination of a Rho kinase inhibitor and a prostaglandin F2a analog indicated for the reduction of elevated IOP in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Rocklatan is comprised of two components: netarsudil and latanoprost. Each of these two components decreases elevated IOP. Elevated IOP represents a major risk factor for glaucomatous field loss. The higher the level of IOP, the greater the likelihood of optic nerve damage and glaucomatous visual field loss. In March 2019, the US FDA approved Rocklatan 0.02%/0.005% for the reduction of IOP in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. In January 2021, the EC granted marketing authorization for Roclanda 0.02%/0.005% for the reduction of elevated IOP in adult patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension for whom monotherapy with prostaglandin or netarsudil provides insufficient IOP reduction.

Xelpros/Latanoprost (Sun Pharma Advanced Research Company Limited)

Xelpros is a novel, BAK-free Latanoprost Ophthalmic Emulsion developed with Lipixelle Technology. Prostaglandin analogs such as Latanoprost are the first-line treatment for open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension and form the largest drug class. BAK is a common preservative in topical ocular preparations; however, prolonged use may lead to deleterious effects on the ocular surface, affecting the quality of life and reducing adherence to treatment and overall outcomes. In September 2018, the US FDA approved the NDA of Xelpros 0.005% for the reduction of elevated IOP in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension.

Lucentis/Ranibizumab (Genentech and Novartis)

Lucentis (Ranibizumab), a VEGF inhibitor, is indicated for the treatment of patients with Neovascular (Wet) AMD and DR in patients with DME. Ranibizumab binds to the receptor-binding site of active forms of VEGF-A, including the biologically active, cleaved form of this molecule, VEGF110. VEGF-A has been shown to cause neovascularization and leakage in models of ocular angiogenesis and vascular occlusion and is thought to contribute to the pathophysiology of neovascular AMD and DR. The binding of ranibizumab to VEGF-A prevents the interaction of VEGF-A with its receptors (VEGFR1 and VEGFR2) on the surface of endothelial cells, reducing endothelial cell proliferation, vascular leakage, and new blood vessel formation. The company retains commercial rights in the US, and Novartis has exclusive commercial rights for the rest of the world. The US FDA first approved ranibizumab in June 2006, for the treatment of neovascular wet AMD. The US FDA approved Lucentis after a Priority Review (six-month). The EMA first approved ranibizumab in January 2007, for the treatment of Wet-AMD. The Pharmaceuticals and Medicals Devices Agency of Japan (PMDA) first approved ranibizumab in January 2009, for the treatment of Wet-AMD. In August 2012, Lucentis was approved by the US FDA for treatment of DME.

Eylea/Aflibercept (Bayer, Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, and Santen)

Eylea (Aflibercept) is a VEGF inhibitor indicated for the treatment of patients with Neovascular (Wet) AMD, DME, and DR. Aflibercept is a recombinant fusion protein consisting of portions of human VEGF receptors 1 and 2 extracellular domains fused to the Fc portion of human IgG1 formulated as an iso-osmotic solution for intravitreal administration. It was co-developed and co-marketed as Eylea by Regeneron and Bayer (also marketed by Santen in Japan). In November 2011, the US FDA approved Eylea (aflibercept) to treat patients with wet (neovascular) AMD. In May 2019, the US FDA approved Eylea (aflibercept) injection for treating all stages of DR, thereby reducing the risk of blindness. In June 2014, a committee of the EMA recommended market approval for aflibercept to treat visual impairment caused by DME. The PMDA first approved aflibercept in September 2012, for the treatment of Wet-AMD.

Vyzulta/Latanoprostene Bunod Ophthalmic Solution (Bausch & Lomb and Nicox)

Vyzulta (latanoprostene bunod ophthalmic solution), 0.024% is a prostaglandin analog formulated as a sterile topical ophthalmic solution. It is a prescription eye drop that is used to lower IOP in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Vyzulta helps lower eye pressure by increasing the drainage of fluid from the eye. Latanoprostene bunod is thought to lower IOP by increasing the outflow of aqueous humor through both the trabecular meshwork and uveoscleral routes. In November 2017, the US FDA approved the NDA for Vyzulta for patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension.

Note: Detailed Current therapies assessment will be provided in the full report of Age-related Vision Dysfunction

Age-related Vision Dysfunction Emerging Drugs


AGN-190584 (Allergan [acquired by AbbVie])

AbbVie's Allergan is developing, AGN-190584 an investigational optimized formulation of pilocarpine. It is a cholinergic muscarinic receptor agonist that is being investigated for treating symptoms associated with presbyopia as a topical, once-daily drop delivered by a proprietary vehicle. The proposed mechanism of action of AGN-190584 is through dynamic pupil modulation, an effect in which the iris sphincter is contracted to achieve pupil size reduction in an optimal range. The goal of this pupil size reduction is to increase the depth of focus. Secondarily, it is believed to allow for increased accommodation through mild contraction of the ciliary muscle. Recently, AGN-190584 has completed two Phase III (NCT03857542 and NCT03804268) trials. The purpose of these studies was to evaluate AGN-190584 in the participant population and expanded participant population to establish efficacy, safety, and tolerability versus the vehicle-control when administered, over a 30-day study intervention period, once-daily bilaterally in participants with presbyopia.

Faricimab (Hoffman La Roche)

Faricimab is the first investigational bispecific antibody designed for the eye with CrossMab technology. It targets two distinct pathways – via angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) – that drive several retinal conditions. Ang-2 and VEGF-A contribute to vision loss by destabilizing blood vessels, causing new leaky blood vessels to form and increase inflammation. By simultaneously blocking both pathways involving Ang-2 and VEGF-A, faricimab is designed to stabilize blood vessels, potentially improving vision outcomes for longer for people living with retinal conditions. It is being developed to target Diabetic Macular Edema, Wet AMD, and other retinal disorders. It has already been evaluated and is in process for the above-mentioned indications.

PresbiDrops/CSF-1 (Orasis Pharmaceuticals)

PresbiDrops (CSF-1) is a corrective eye drop being developed for offering an alternative to reading glasses and intrusive surgical procedures to enhance the quality of life for people with presbyopia. Delivered directly to the eyes as a topical solution, CSF-1 provides a patented blend of current and well-studied ingredients with the potential for close vision restoration in people with presbyopia. CSF-1 is designed to be convenient and on-demand. Important increases in close vision and a superior safety profile have been seen in clinical trial reports to date, supporting possible improvements in the quality of life in people with presbyopia. CSF-1 is designed to be not only efficient but also safe comfortable, convenient, and easy-to-use by repurposing existing and well-studied molecules that have been researched for many years. It is also being developed to improve near visual acuity by pupil modulation, resulting in a “pinhole effect” and an increase in the depth of field, thus increasing the ability to focus on near objects. CSF-1 is currently under investigation in two Phase III trials (NCT04599933 (NEAR-1)) (NCT04599972 (NEAR-2)).

RGX-314 (Regenxbio)

RGX-314 is being developed by Regenxbio, as a probable one-time treatment for wet AMD, diabetic retinopathy, and other chronic retinal conditions. RGX-314 consists of the NAV AAV8 vector, which encodes an antibody fragment designed to inhibit VEGF. RGX-314 is believed to inhibit the VEGF pathway by which new, leaky blood vessels grow and contribute to the accumulation of fluid in the retina. Regenxbio is advancing two separate routes of administration of RGX-314 to the eye, through a standardized subretinal delivery procedure as well as delivery to the suprachoroidal space. REGENXBIO has licensed certain exclusive rights to the SCS Microinjector from Clearside Biomedical, Inc. to deliver gene therapy treatments to the suprachoroidal space of the eye.

MicroLine/Pilocarpine Ophthalmic (Eyenovia)

MicroLine is Eyenovia's patented pilocarpine presbyopia formulation. In ophthalmology, pilocarpine is a well-characterized drug, with several trials showing its ability to improve the depth of focus of the eye to reverse the age-related loss of accommodative effect and enhance close vision. The use of presbyopia pilocarpine as an eye drop may be limited because of the potential for side effects associated with the dosage, as well as the inconvenience and inconsistency of typical eyedropper dosing. Pilocarpine works by creating a Pinhole effect, which is done by the constricting of the pupil of the eye, similar to a pinhole camera, and brings near and medium-distance objects into focus. This mechanism of action is very commonly used in contact lenses and surgical approaches for improvement in near vision in patients with presbyopia. Now, with MicroLine, Eyenovia is trying to build an approach that can improve near vision with this micro-dosed drug.

KSI-301 (Kodiak Sciences)

KSI-301 is an investigational anti-VEGF therapy built on the Kodiak's Antibody Biopolymer Conjugate (ABC) Platform and is designed to maintain potent and effective drug levels in ocular tissues for longer than existing agents. Kodiak's objective with KSI-301 is to develop a new first-line agent to improve outcomes for patients with retinal vascular diseases and to enable earlier treatment and prevention of vision loss for patients with diabetic eye disease. The company is developing KSI-301 to be the only generation 2.0 anti-VEGF biologic agent, intending to provide patients, physicians, and health systems with a new first-line agent for wet AMD, DME, RVO, and DR. KSI-301 is a novel anti-VEGF biologic designed to rapidly inhibit VEGF and provide extended durability of action to reduce the burden of frequent anti-VEGF injections. Delivering potent and sustained VEGF inhibition enables patient compliance, results in long-term efficacy, and improves visual acuity outcomes.

Note: Detailed emerging therapies assessment will be provided in the final report.

Age-related Vision Dysfunction Market Outlook


Visual impairment among the elderly population is a major health problem. With advancing age, the normal function of eye tissues decreases. Age-related vision changes occur to many people as they grow older. Some problems arise from new or worsening vision disorders. As a person gets older, these changes might happen gradually. The most common causes of age-related visual impairment in the elderly are presbyopia, cataracts, AMD, primary open-angle glaucoma, and DR, among others. Visual impairment problems in elderly people could hamper daily activities enormously.

Currently, several types of medications are being used in the management of age-related vision dysfunction, including anti-VEGF agents, anti-inflammatory agents, mitotic or cholinergic agents, prostaglandins, beta-blockers, alpha-adrenergic agonists, and rho-kinase inhibitors. Nonpharmacologic treatments for age-related vision dysfunctions can include surgeries, eye laser treatment, corneal inlays, lens implants, photodynamic therapy (PDT), and other treatments.

There are several approved drugs for the treatment of age-related vision dysfunction such as Rhopressa/Rhokiinsa (Netarsudil mesylate), Vyzulta (Latanoprostene Bunod Ophthalmic Solution), Glanatec (Ripasudil hydrochloride hydrate), Tapcom/DE-111 (Tafluprost/ Timolol Maleate; Taptiqom), Combigan (Brimonidine/timolol), Rocklatan/Roclanda (Latanoprast; Netarsudil Dimesylate), Eybelis Ophthalmic Solution (DE-117, Omidenepag isopropyl), Xelpros (Latanoprost Ophthalmic Emulsion), Simbrinza (Brinzolamide/Brimonidine Tartrate Ophthalmic Suspension), Azarga/Azorga (Brinzolamide/Timolol), Lucentis (Ranibizumab), Eylea (Aflibercept), Beovu (Brolucizumab), among others.

Still, there are some unmet needs in the age-related vision dysfunction market. There are several instances where pathophysiological knowledge and, as a result, treatment options are lacking. More successful and well-tolerated therapies are needed. Different formulation modes and/or novel anti-inflammatory/ immunomodulation agents may be used to accomplish this. Also, the late occurrence of symptoms in all the mentioned ophthalmologic conditions drives the diagnosis paradigm negatively. Additionally, the effects of anti-VEGF on retinal ischemia are unclear.

Major ocular adverse effects of anti-VEGF intravitreal injections, such as IOP rise, are transient but may be relevant in patients with glaucoma. Serious adverse effects such as endophthalmitis are rare but accumulate with continuous injections. Nevertheless, recently some developmental initiatives have been taken towards the management of age-related vision dysfunction. Several pharmaceutical key players have taken to the initiative to meet the unmet needs of the present situation of age-related vision dysfunction. Some of the key players are in the late and mid clinical development stages with their leading drug candidates.

Key players such as Hoffman La Roche (Faricimab), Eyenovia (MicroLine), Allergan (AbbVie) and Molecular Therapeutics (Abicipar), Regenxbio (RGX-314), Novartis (Brolucizumab), Santen (STN1013001 /DE-130A), Nicox Ophthalmics (NCX 470), Kodiak Sciences (KSI-301), Opthea Limited (OPT-302), Ocular Therapeutix (OTX-TP), Allergan (acquired by AbbVie) (AGN-190584), Orasis Pharmaceuticals (PresbiDrops), IVERIC bio (Zimura), Alkeus Pharmaceuticals (ALK 001), Outlook Therapeutics (ONS-5010/LYTENAVA), Sun Pharma Advanced Research Company Limited (PDP – 716) and several others are investigating their candidates for the management of age-related vision dysfunction in the 7MM.
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown

FEATURED COMPANIES

  • Adverum Biotechnologies
  • Allergo Opthalmics
  • Gyroscope Therapeutics
  • Kubota Vision
  • Ocular Therapeutix
  • Outlook Therapeutics


1. Key Insights2. Report Introduction
3. Age-related Vision Dysfunction Market Overview at a Glance
3.1. Market Share (%) Distribution of Age-related Vision Dysfunction in 2018
3.2. Market Share (%) Distribution of Age-related Vision Dysfunction in 2030


4. Executive Summary of Age-related Vision Dysfunction5. Epidemiology and Market Methodology
6. Disease Background and Overview
6.1. Introduction
6.2. Causes of Age-related Vision Dysfunction
6.2.1. Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD)
6.2.2. Diabetic Retinopathy (DR)
6.2.3. Cataract
6.2.4. Glaucoma
6.2.5. Presbyopia
6.3. Signs and symptoms of Age-related Vision Dysfunction
6.4. Risk factors of Age-related Vision Dysfunction
6.5. Pathophysiology of Age-related Vision Dysfunction


7. Diagnosis of Age-related Vision Dysfunction
7.1. Patient History
7.2. Preliminary tests
7.3. Vision Acuity
7.4. Refraction
7.5. Fundus Fluorescein Angiography (FFA)
7.6. Indocyanine green angiography (ICG)
7.7. Amsler Grid Test
7.8. Visual Field Test
7.9. Tonometry Test
7.10. Ophthalmoscopy
7.11. Slit-lamp Examination


8. Prevention of Age-related Vision Dysfunction
9. Diagnostic Guidelines
9.1. American Family Physician guidelines
9.2. The National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) – Diagnostic Guidelines for AMD


10. Current Treatment Practices: Age-related Vision Dysfunction
10.1. Treatments for advanced Diabetic Retinopathy
10.2. Treatments for Cataract
10.3. Treatments for AMD
10.4. Treatments for Glaucoma
10.5. Treatments for Presbyopia


11. Treatment Guidelines
11.1. American Family Physician Guidelines
11.2. World Health Organization (WHO) Guidelines
11.3. Management Strategies for Correction of Presbyopia – The American Optometric Association
11.3.1. General Considerations
11.3.2. Patient Education
11.3.3. Prognosis and Follow-up
11.4. NICE guidance for corneal inlay implantation for correction of presbyopia
11.5. Management guidelines by the American Academy of Ophthalmology
11.6. American Academy of Ophthalmology Guidelines for AMD
11.7. Guidelines of the Royal College of Ophthalmologists – Treatment of Neovascular AMD
11.8. The National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) – Treatment Guidelines for AMD
11.8.1. Pharmacological management of AMD
11.8.2. Non-pharmacological management of AMD
11.9. American Academy of Ophthalmology – Guidelines for Diabetic Retinopathy
11.10. International Council of Ophthalmology (ICO) – Guidelines for Diabetic Retinopathy
11.11. International Council of Ophthalmology (ICO) – Guidelines for Cataract
11.12. International Council of Ophthalmology – Guidelines for AMD
11.13. American Academy of Ophthalmology – Guidelines for Cataract
11.14. American Academy of Ophthalmology – Guidelines for Glaucoma


12. Epidemiology and Patient Population
12.1. Key Findings
12.2. Epidemiology of Age-related vision dysfunction
12.3. Epidemiology Scenario: 7MM
12.3.1. Total Prevalent Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction
12.3.2. Total Diagnosed Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction
12.3.3. Severity-specific Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction
12.3.4. Total Treated Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction


13. The United States
13.1. Total Prevalent Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction
13.2. Total Diagnosed Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction
13.3. Severity-specific Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction
13.4. Total Treated Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction


14. EU-5
14.1. Germany
14.1.1. Total Prevalent Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction
14.1.2. Total Diagnosed Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction
14.1.3. Severity-specific Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction
14.1.4. Total Treated Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction
14.2. France
14.2.1. Total Prevalent Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction
14.2.2. Total Diagnosed Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction
14.2.3. Severity-specific Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction
14.2.4. Total Treated Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction
14.3. Italy
14.3.1. Total Prevalent Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction
14.3.2. Total Diagnosed Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction
14.3.3. Severity-specific Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction
14.3.4. Total Treated Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction
14.4. Spain
14.4.1. Total Prevalent Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction
14.4.2. Total Diagnosed Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction
14.4.3. Severity-specific Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction
14.4.4. Total Treated Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction
14.5. The United Kingdom
14.5.1. Total Prevalent Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction
14.5.2. Total Diagnosed Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction
14.5.3. Severity-specific Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction
14.5.4. Total Treated Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction


15. Japan
15.1. Total Prevalent Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction
15.2. Total Diagnosed Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction
15.3. Severity-specific Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction
15.4. Total Treated Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction


16. Patient Journey17. Key Endpoints in Age-related Vision Dysfunction Clinical Trials
18. Marketed Therapies
18.1. Rocklatan (Latanoprast; Netarsudil Dimesylate): Aerie Pharmaceuticals
18.1.1. Drug Description
18.1.2. Regulatory Milestones
18.1.3. Other Developmental Activities
18.1.4. Pivotal Clinical Trial
18.2. Eybelis Ophthalmic Solution (DE-117, Omidenepag isopropyl): Santen Pharmaceutical/Ube Industries
18.2.1. Drug Description
18.2.2. Regulatory Milestones
18.2.3. Other Developmental Activities
18.2.4. Pivotal Clinical Trial
18.2.5. Ongoing Current Pipeline Activity
18.3. Xelpros (Latanoprost Ophthalmic Emulsion): Sun Pharma Advanced Research Company Limited
18.3.1. Drug Description
18.3.2. Regulatory Milestones
18.3.3. Other Developmental Activities
18.3.4. Pivotal Clinical Trial
18.4. Rhopressa (Netarsudil mesylate): Aerie Pharmaceuticals
18.4.1. Product Description
18.4.2. Regulatory Milestones
18.4.3. Other Developmental Activities
18.4.4. Pivotal Clinical Trial
18.4.5. Ongoing Current Pipeline Activity
18.5. Vyzulta (Latanoprostene Bunod Ophthalmic Solution): Bausch & Lomb/Nicox
18.5.1. Product Description
18.5.2. Regulatory Milestones
18.5.3. Other Developmental Activities
18.5.4. Pivotal Clinical Trial
18.6. Glanatec (Ripasudil hydrochloride hydrate): D Western Therapeutics Institute/Kowa Pharmaceutical
18.6.1. Product Description
18.6.2. Regulatory Milestones
18.6.3. Other Developmental Activities
18.6.4. Pivotal Clinical Trial
18.7. Simbrinza (Brinzolamide/Brimonidine Tartrate Ophthalmic Suspension): Novartis
18.7.1. Drug Description
18.7.2. Regulatory Milestones
18.7.3. Other Developmental Activities
18.7.4. Pivotal Clinical Trial
18.8. Tapcom/DE-111 (Tafluprost/Timolol Maleate; Taptiqom): Santen Pharmaceutical
18.8.1. Product Description
18.8.2. Regulatory Milestones
18.8.3. Other Developmental Activities
18.8.4. Pivotal Clinical Trial
18.8.5. Safety and Efficacy
18.9. Azarga/Azorga (Brinzolamide/Timolol): Novartis
18.9.1. Drug Description
18.9.2. Regulatory Milestones
18.9.3. Pivotal Clinical Trial
18.10. Combigan (Brimonidine/timolol): Allergan (AbbVie)
18.10.1. Product Description
18.10.2. Regulatory Milestones
18.10.3. Other Developmental Activities
18.10.4. Pivotal Clinical Trial
18.11. Lucentis (Ranibizumab): Genentech/Novartis
18.11.1. Drug Description
18.11.2. Regulatory Milestones
18.11.3. Other Developmental Activities
18.11.4. Pivotal Clinical Trial
18.11.5. Ongoing Current Pipeline Activity
18.12. Eylea (Aflibercept): Bayer/Regeneron Pharmaceuticals/Santen
18.12.1. Drug Description
18.12.2. Regulatory Milestones
18.12.3. Other Developmental Activities
18.12.4. Pivotal Clinical Trial
18.12.5. Ongoing Current Pipeline Activity
18.13. Beovu (Brolucizumab): Novartis
18.13.1. Drug Description
18.13.2. Regulatory Milestones
18.13.3. Other Developmental Activities
18.13.4. Pivotal Clinical Trial
18.13.5. Ongoing Current Pipeline Activity


19. Emerging Therapies
19.1. AGN-190584: Allergan (acquired by AbbVie)
19.1.1. Product Description
19.1.2. Other Developmental Activities
19.1.3. Clinical Development
19.1.4. Safety and Efficacy
19.2. MicroLine (Pilocarpine Ophthalmic): Eyenovia
19.2.1. Product Description
19.2.2. Other Developmental Activities
19.2.3. Clinical Development
19.3. PresbiDrops (CSF-1): Orasis Pharmaceuticals
19.3.1. Product Description
19.3.2. Other Developmental Activities
19.3.3. Clinical Development
19.3.4. Safety and Efficacy
19.4. Zimura (Avacincaptad pegol): IVERIC Bio
19.4.1. Product Description
19.4.2. Other Developmental Activities
19.4.3. Clinical Development
19.4.4. Safety and Efficacy
19.5. ALK-001: Alkeus Pharmaceuticals
19.5.1. Product Description
19.5.2. Other Developmental Activities
19.5.3. Clinical Development
19.6. ONS-5010/Lytenava (Bevacizumab-vikg): Outlook Therapeutics
19.6.1. Product Description
19.6.2. Other Developmental Activities
19.6.3. Clinical Development
19.7. KSI-301: Kodiak Sciences
19.7.1. Product Description
19.7.2. Other Developmental Activities
19.7.3. Clinical Development
19.7.4. Safety and Eficacy
19.8. Faricimab: Roche
19.8.1. Product Description
19.8.2. Clinical Development
19.8.3. Safety and Eficacy
19.9. Abicipar: Allergan (AbbVie)/Molecular Partners
19.9.1. Product Description
19.9.2. Other Developmental Activities
19.9.3. Clinical Development
19.9.4. Safety and Efficacy
19.10. RGX-314- Regenxbio
19.10.1. Product Description
19.10.2. Other Developmental Activities
19.10.3. Clinical Development
19.10.4. Safety and Efficacy
19.11. Beovu (RTH258; Brolucizumab): Novartis
19.11.1. Product Description
19.11.2. Other Developmental Activities
19.11.3. Clinical Development
19.11.4. Safety and Efficacy
19.12. STN1013001/DE-130A (Catioprost; latanoprost emulsion): Santen SAS
19.12.1. Product Description
19.12.2. Other Developmental Activities
19.12.3. Clinical Development
19.13. NCX 470: Nicox Ophthalmics
19.13.1. Product Description
19.13.2. Other Developmental Activities
19.13.3. Clinical Development
19.13.4. Safety and Efficacy
19.14. OTX-TP (travoprost ophthalmic insert): Ocular Therapeutix
19.14.1. Product Description
19.14.2. Other Developmental Activities
19.14.3. Clinical Development
19.14.4. Safety and Eficacy
19.15. PDP-716: Sun Pharma Advanced Research Company Limited
19.15.1. Product Description
19.15.2. Other Developmental Activities
19.15.3. Clinical Development
19.16. OPT-302: Opthea
19.16.1. Product Description
19.16.2. Other Developmental Activities
19.16.3. Clinical Development
19.16.4. Safety and Efficacy
19.17. Lumitin (Conbercept): Chengdu Kanghong Pharmaceuticals
19.17.1. Product Description
19.17.2. Other Developmental Activities
19.17.3. Clinical Development
19.18. AKST4290 (Lazucirnon): Alkahest
19.18.1. Product Description
19.18.2. Other Developmental Activities
19.18.3. Clinical Development
19.19. GT005: Gyroscope Therapeutics
19.19.1. Product Description
19.19.2. Other Developmental Activities
19.19.3. Clinical Development
19.19.4. Safety and Efficacy
19.20. ADVM-022: Adverum Biotechnologies
19.20.1. Product Description
19.20.2. Other Developmental Activities
19.20.3. Clinical Development
19.20.4. Safety and Efficacy
19.21. Emixustat hydrochloride (emixustat): Kubota Vision
19.21.1. Product Description
19.21.2. Other Developmental Activities
19.21.3. Clinical Development
19.21.4. Safety and Efficacy
19.22. KVD001: KalVista Pharmaceuticals
19.22.1. Product Description
19.22.2. Other Developmental Activities
19.22.3. Clinical Development
19.22.4. Safety and Efficacy
19.23. Luminate (ALG-1001, Risuteganib): Allergo Opthalmics/Baush Health
19.23.1. Product Description
19.23.2. Other Developmental Activities
19.23.3. Clinical Development
19.23.4. Safety and Efficacy
19.24. GB-102: Graybug Vision
19.24.1. Product Descritpion
19.24.2. Other Developmental Activities
19.24.3. Clinical Development
19.24.4. Safety and Efficacy
19.25. Razuprotafib (AKB-9778): Aerpio Pharmaceuticals
19.25.1. Product Description
19.25.2. Other Developmental Activities
19.25.3. Clinical Development
19.25.4. Safety and Efficacy
19.26. Nyxol (Phentolamine Mesylate): Ocuphire Pharma
19.26.1. Product Description
19.26.2. Other Developmental Activities
19.26.3. Clinical Development
19.27. STN1012600 (DE-126): Santen Pharmaceutical
19.27.1. Product Description
19.27.2. Other Developmental Activities
19.27.3. Clinical Development
19.27.4. Safety and Efficacy


20. Age-related Vision Dysfunction: 7 Major Market Analysis
20.1. Key Findings
20.2. Market Outlook
20.3. 7MM Market Size
20.3.1. Total Market Size of Age-related Vision Dysfunction in the 7MM
20.3.2. Market Size of Age-related Vision Dysfunction by Therapies in the 7MM


21. The United States Market Size
21.1. Total Market Size of Age-related Vision Dysfunction in the United States
21.2. Market Size of Age-related Vision Dysfunction by Therapies in the United States


22. EU-5 Market Size
22.1. Germany
22.1.1. Total Market size of Age-related Vision Dysfunction in Germany
22.1.2. Market Size of Age-related Vision Dysfunction by Therapies in Germany
22.2. France
22.2.1. Total Market size of Age-related Vision Dysfunction in France
22.2.2. Market Size of Age-related Vision Dysfunction by Therapies in France
22.3. Italy
22.3.1. Total Market size of Age-related Vision Dysfunction in Italy
22.3.2. Market Size of Age-related Vision Dysfunction by Therapies in Italy
22.4. Spain
22.4.1. Total Market size of Age-related Vision Dysfunction in Spain
22.4.2. Market Size of Age-related Vision Dysfunction by Therapies in Spain
22.5. The United Kingdom
22.5.1. Total Market size of Age-related Vision Dysfunction in the United Kingdom
22.5.2. Market Size of Age-related Vision Dysfunction by Therapies in the United Kingdom


23. Japan
23.1. Total Market size of Age-related Vision Dysfunction in Japan
23.2. Market Size of Age-related Vision Dysfunction by Therapies in Japan


24. Market Access and Reimbursement
24.1. Key HTA decisions for Age-related Vision Dysfunction
24.1.1. AMD
24.1.2. Glaucoma
24.1.3. Diabetic Retinopathy
24.1.4. Cataract Surgery
24.1.5. Presbyopia
24.2. Patient Access Programs


25. Market Drivers26. Market Barriers27. SWOT Analysis28. Unmet Needs
29. Appendix
29.1. Bibliography
29.2. Report Methodology


30. Publisher Capabilities31. Disclaimer32. About the Publisher
List of Tables
Table 1: Summary of Age-related Vision Dysfunction (ARVD), Market, Epidemiology, and Key Events (2018–2030)
Table 2: Vision and aging
Table 3: Risk Factors
Table 4: Recommended Eye Examination Frequency for Adult Patients
Table 5: The American Family Physician Recommendations
Table 6: Screening Recommendations
Table 7: Key clinical recommendations by the American Family Physician Guidelines
Table 8: Prescribing Considerations for Presbyopia
Table 9: Age-Related Macular Degeneration (Management Recommendations)
Table 10: Total Prevalent Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in the 7MM, in Thousands (2018–2030)
Table 11: Total Diagnosed Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in the 7MM, in Thousands (2018–2030)
Table 12: Severity-specific Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in the 7MM, in Thousands (2018–2030)
Table 13: Total Treated Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in the 7MM, in Thousands (2018–2030)
Table 14: Total Prevalent Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in the United States, in Thousands (2018–2030)
Table 15: Total Diagnosed Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in the United States, in Thousands (2018–2030)
Table 16: Severity-specific Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in the United States, in Thousands (2018–2030)
Table 17: Total Treated Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in the United States, in Thousands (2018–2030)
Table 18: Total Prevalent Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in Germany, in Thousands (2018–2030)
Table 19: Total Diagnosed Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in Germany, in Thousands (2018–2030)
Table 20: Severity-specific Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in Germany, in Thousands (2018–2030)
Table 21: Total Treated Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in Germany, in Thousands (2018–2030)
Table 22: Total Prevalent Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in France, in Thousands (2018–2030)
Table 23: Total Diagnosed Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in France, in Thousands (2018–2030)
Table 24: Severity-specific Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in France, in Thousands (2018–2030)
Table 25: Total Treated Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in France, in Thousands (2018–2030)
Table 26: Total Prevalent Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in Italy, in Thousands (2018–2030)
Table 27: Total Diagnosed Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in Italy, in Thousands (2018–2030)
Table 28: Severity-specific Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in Italy, in Thousands (2018–2030)
Table 29: Total Treated Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in Italy, in Thousands (2018–2030)
Table 30: Total Prevalent Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in Spain, in Thousands (2018–2030)
Table 31: Total Diagnosed Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in Spain, in Thousands (2018–2030)
Table 32: Severity-specific Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in Spain, in Thousands (2018–2030)
Table 33: Total Treated Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in Spain, in Thousands (2018–2030)
Table 34: Total Prevalent Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in the United Kingdom, in Thousands (2018–2030)
Table 35: Total Diagnosed Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in the United Kingdom, in Thousands (2018–2030)
Table 36: Severity-specific Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in the United Kingdom, in Thousands (2018–2030)
Table 37: Total Treated Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in the United Kingdom, in Thousands (2018–2030)
Table 38: Total Prevalent Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in Japan, in Thousands (2018–2030)
Table 39: Total Diagnosed Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in Japan, in Thousands (2018–2030)
Table 40: Severity-specific Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in Japan, in Thousands (2018–2030)
Table 41: Total Treated Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in Japan, in Thousands (2018–2030)
Table 42: DE-117 Ophthalmic Solution, Clinical Trial Description, 2021
Table 43: Rhopressa (Netarsudil mesylate), Clinical Trial Description, 2021
Table 44: Glanatec, Clinical Trial Description, 2021
Table 45: Ranibizumab, Clinical Trial Description, 2021
Table 46: Aflibercept, Clinical Trial Description, 2021
Table 47: Brolucizumab, Clinical Trial Description, 2021
Table 48: AGN-190584, Clinical Trial Description, 2021
Table 49: MicroLine (Pilocarpine Ophthalmic) Clinical Trial Description, 2021
Table 50: PresbiDrops (CSF-1) Clinical Trial Description, 2021
Table 51: Zimura (avacincaptad pegol), Clinical Trial Description, 2021
Table 52: ALK001, Clinical Trial Description, 2021
Table 53: ONS-5010, Clinical Trial Description, 2021
Table 54: Patent Information
Table 55: KSI-301, Clinical Trial Description, 2021
Table 56: Faricimab, Clinical Trial Description, 2021
Table 57: Abicipar, Clinical Trial Description, 2021
Table 58: RGX-314, Clinical Trial Description, 2021
Table 59: Beovu (Brolucizumab), Clinical Trial Description, 2021
Table 60: STN1013001/DE-130A, Clinical Trial Description, 2021
Table 61: NCX 470, Clinical Trial Description, 2021
Table 62: OTX-TP, Clinical Trial Description, 2021
Table 63: Brimonidine Tartrate Ophthalmic Suspension, Clinical Trial Description, 2021
Table 64: OPT-302, Clinical Trial Description, 2021
Table 65: Conbercept, Clinical Trial Description, 2021
Table 66: AKST4290 (Lazucirnon), Clinical Trial Description, 2021
Table 67: GT005, Clinical Trial Description, 2021
Table 68: ADVM-022, Clinical Trial Description, 2021
Table 69: Emixustat Hydrochloride, Clinical Trial Description, 2021
Table 70: KVD001, Clinical Trial Description, 2021
Table 71: Risuteganib, Clinical Trial Description, 2021
Table 72: GB-102, Clinical Trial Description, 2021
Table 73: AKB-9778, Clinical Trial Description, 2021
Table 74:Nyxol (Phentolamine Mesylate): Clinical Trial Description, 2021
Table 75: STN1012600 (DE-126)/ ONO-9054, Clinical Trial Description, 2021
Table 76: 7MM Market Size of Age-related Vision Dysfunction in USD Million (2018–2030)
Table 77: 7MM Market Size of Age-related Vision Dysfunction by Therapies in USD Million (2018–2030)
Table 78: The United States Market Size of Age-related Vision Dysfunction in USD Million (2018–2030)
Table 79: The United States Market Size of Top 10 Therapies on the Basis of 2030 Revenue in Age-related Vision Dysfunction in USD Million (2018–2030)
Table 80: Germany Market Size of Age-related Vision Dysfunction in USD Million (2018–2030)
Table 81: Germany Market Size of Top 10 Therapies on the Basis of 2030 Revenue in Age-related Vision Dysfunction in USD Million (2018–2030)
Table 82: France Market Size of Age-related Vision Dysfunction in USD Million (2018–2030)
Table 83: France Market Size of Age-related Vision Dysfunction by Therapies in USD Million (2018–2030)
Table 84: Italy Market Size of Age-related Vision Dysfunction in USD Million (2018–2030)
Table 85: Italy Market Size of Age-related Vision Dysfunction by Therapies in USD Million (2018–2030)
Table 86: Spain Market Size of Age-related Vision Dysfunction in USD Million (2018–2030)
Table 87: Spain Market Size of Age-related Vision Dysfunction by Therapies in USD Million (2018–2030)
Table 88: The United Kingdom Market Size of Age-related Vision Dysfunction in USD Million (2018–2030)
Table 89: The United Kingdom Market Size of Age-related Vision Dysfunction by Therapies in USD Million (2018–2030)
Table 90: Japan Market Size of Age-related Vision Dysfunction in USD Million (2018–2030)
Table 91: Japan Market Size of Age-related Vision Dysfunction by Therapies in USD Million (2018–2030)
Table 92: Key HTA Decisions for AMD
Table 93: Key HTA Decisions for Glaucoma
Table 94: Key HTA Decisions for Diabetic Retinopathy


List of Figures
Figure 1: Epidemiology and Market Methodology
Figure 2: Vision with AMD
Figure 3: Vision with DR
Figure 4: Vision with Cataract
Figure 5: Vision with Glaucoma
Figure 6: Vision with Presbyopia
Figure 7: Risk factors of Age-related Vision Dysfunction
Figure 8: Comprehensive Adult Eye and Vision Examination
Figure 9: A Fluorescein angiogram
Figure 10: Amsler grid, as seen by an individual with macular degeneration
Figure 11: Visual Field Test
Figure 12: Slit-lamp Examination
Figure 13: AMD Guidelines
Figure 14: Total Prevalent Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in the 7MM (2018–2030)
Figure 15: Total Diagnosed Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in the 7MM (2018–2030)
Figure 16: Severity-specific Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in the 7MM (2018–2030)
Figure 17: Total Treated Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in the 7MM (2018–2030)
Figure 18: Total Prevalent Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in the United States (2018–2030)
Figure 19: Total Diagnosed Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in the United States (2018–2030)
Figure 20: Severity-specific Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in the United States (2018–2030)
Figure 21: Total Treated Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in the United States (2018–2030)
Figure 22: Total Prevalent Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in Germany (2018–2030)
Figure 23: Total Diagnosed Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in Germany (2018–2030)
Figure 24: Severity-specific Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in Germany (2018–2030)
Figure 25: Total Treated Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in Germany (2018–2030)
Figure 26: Total Prevalent Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in France (2018–2030)
Figure 27: Total Diagnosed Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in France (2018–2030)
Figure 28: Severity-specific Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in France (2018–2030)
Figure 29: Total Treated Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in France (2018–2030)
Figure 30: Total Prevalent Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in Italy (2018–2030)
Figure 31: Total Diagnosed Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in Italy (2018–2030)
Figure 32: Severity-specific Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in Italy (2018–2030)
Figure 33: Total Treated Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in Italy (2018–2030)
Figure 34: Total Prevalent Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in Spain (2018–2030)
Figure 35: Total Diagnosed Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in Spain (2018–2030)
Figure 36: Severity-specific Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in Spain (2018–2030)
Figure 37: Total Treated Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in Spain (2018–2030)
Figure 38: Total Prevalent Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in the United Kingdom (2018–2030)
Figure 39: Total Diagnosed Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in the United Kingdom (2018–2030)
Figure 40: Severity-specific Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in the United Kingdom (2018–2030)
Figure 41: Total Treated Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in the United Kingdom (2018–2030)
Figure 42: Total Prevalent Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in Japan (2018–2030)
Figure 43: Total Diagnosed Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in Japan (2018–2030)
Figure 44: Severity-specific Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in Japan (2018–2030)
Figure 45: Total Treated Cases of Age-related vision dysfunction in Japan (2018–2030)
Figure 46: How The Pinhole Effect Focuses Light
Figure 47: Mechanism of Action of OPT-302
Figure 48: Mechanism of action of Risuteganib
Figure 49: Mechanism of action of GB-102
Figure 50: Mechanism of action of AKB-9778
Figure 51: Market Size of Age-related Vision Dysfunction in the 7MM, USD Million (2018–2030)
Figure 52: 7MM Market Size of Top 10 Therapies on the Basis of 2030 Revenue in Age-related Vision Dysfunction in USD Million (2018–2030)
Figure 53: Market Size of Age-related Vision Dysfunction in the United States, USD Million (2018–2030)
Figure 54: The United States Market Size of Top 10 Therapies on the Basis of 2030 Revenue in Age-related Vision Dysfunction in USD Million (2018–2030)
Figure 55: Market Size of Age-related Vision Dysfunction in Germany, USD Million (2018–2030)
Figure 56: Germany Market Size of Top 10 Therapies on the Basis of 2030 Revenue in Age-related Vision Dysfunction in USD Million (2018–2030)
Figure 57: Market Size of Age-related Vision Dysfunction in France, USD Million (2018–2030)
Figure 58: France Market Size of Top 10 Therapies on the Basis of 2030 Revenue in Age-related Vision Dysfunction in USD Million (2018–2030)
Figure 59: Market Size of Age-related Vision Dysfunction in Italy, USD Million (2018–2030)
Figure 60: Italy Market Size of Top 10 Therapies on the Basis of 2030 Revenue in Age-related Vision Dysfunction in USD Million (2018–2030)
Figure 61: Market Size of Age-related Vision Dysfunction in Spain, USD Million (2018–2030)
Figure 62: Spain Market Size of Top 10 Therapies on the Basis of 2030 Revenue in Age-related Vision Dysfunction in USD Million (2018–2030)
Figure 63: Market Size of Age-related Vision Dysfunction in the United Kingdom, USD Million (2018–2030)
Figure 64: The United Kingdom Market Size of Top 10 Therapies on the Basis of 2030 Revenue in Age-related Vision Dysfunction in USD Million (2018–2030)
Figure 65: Market Size of Age-related Vision Dysfunction in Japan, USD Million (2018–2030)
Figure 66: Japan Market Size of Top 10 Therapies on the Basis of 2030 Revenue in Age-related Vision Dysfunction in USD Million (2018–2030)
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown

A selection of companies mentioned in this report includes:

  • Adverum Biotechnologies
  • Aerpio Pharmaceuticals
  • Alkahest
  • Alkeus Pharmaceuticals
  • Allergan [acquired by AbbVie]
  • Allergo Opthalmics
  • Baush Health
  • Chengdu Kanghong Pharmaceuticals
  • Eyenovia
  • Graybug Vision
  • Gyroscope Therapeutics
  • IVERIC Bio
  • KalVista Pharmaceuticals
  • Kodiak Sciences
  • Kubota Vision
  • Molecular Partners
  • Nicox Ophthalmics
  • Novartis
  • Ocular Therapeutix
  • Ocuphire Pharma
  • Opthea
  • Orasis Pharmaceuticals
  • Outlook Therapeutics
  • Regenxbio
  • Roche
  • Santen Pharmaceutical
  • Sun Pharma Advanced Research Company Limited
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown