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The Global Market for Flexible and Printed Electronics 2023-2033

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  • 1255 Pages
  • July 2023
  • Region: Global
  • Future Markets, Inc
  • ID: 5353540

The electronics industry is moving towards the development of electronic devices with flexible, thin, and large-area form factors. Electronic devices that are fabricated on flexible substrates for application in flexible displays, electronic paper, smart packages, skin-like sensors, wearable electronics, implantable medical implements etc. is a fast-developing market. Flexible electronics encompasses lightweight, flexible and electronic sensing components and electronic devices built on stretchable substrates that are utilized in sensors, displays, wearables, E-textiles etc. They are manufactured on flexible plastic substrates, paper, textiles, or thin glass. Printed electronics is often considered a subset of the flexible electronics sector. It refers to the method used to create electronic devices by printing them on various (flexible) substrates.

The rapid boom in smart wearable and integrated electronic devices has stimulated demand for advanced intelligent systems with high performance, micro size, mechanical flexibility, and high-temperature stability for application as flexible and stretchable displays, personal health monitoring, human motion capturing, smart textiles, electronic skins and more. The key requirement for these applications is flexibility and stretchability, as these devices are subject to various mechanical deformations including twisting, bending, folding, and stretching during operation. The development of printed, flexible and stretchable conductors over the last decade has resulted in commercialization of flexible and stretchable sensors, circuits, displays, and energy harvesters for next-generation wearables and soft robotics. These systems must be able to conform to the shape of and survive the environment in which they must operate. They are typically fabricated on flexible plastic substrates or are printed/woven into fabrics.

The electronics industry is moving at a fast pace from standard, inflexible form factors to stretchable and conformable devices. Printed, flexible and stretchable electronics products are increasing weekly from wearables for healthcare to smart packaging, sensors, automotive tail lights and displays, flexible displays, photovoltaics and more. Based on a new generation of advanced materials, printed, flexible and stretchable sensors and electronics will enable new possibilities in a diverse range of industries from healthcare to automotive to buildings. These technologies will drive innovation in smart medical technology, automotive, smart manufacturing, Internet of Things (IoT) and consumer electronics. Recent advances in stimuli-responsive surfaces and interfaces, sensors and actuators, flexible electronics, coatings and conductive materials has led to the development of a new generation of smart and adaptive electronic fibers, yarns and fabrics for application in E-textiles. Wearable low-power silicon electronics, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) fabricated on fabrics, textiles with integrated Lithium-ion batteries (LIB) and electronic devices such as smart glasses, watches and lenses have been widely investigated and commercialized. Smart textiles and garments can sense environmental stimuli and react or adapt in a predetermined way. This involves either embedding or integrating sensors/actuators ad electronic components into textiles for use in applications such as medical diagnostics and health monitoring, consumer electronics, safety instruments and automotive textiles.

In the flexible displays market, electronics giants such as Samsung and LG Electronics have brought flexible, foldable and rollable smartphone, display and tablet products to the market. Wearable and mobile health monitoring technologies have received enormous interest worldwide due to the rapidly aging global populations and the drastically increasing demand for in-home healthcare. Commercially available and near commercial wearable devices facilitate the transmission of biomedical informatics and personal health recording. Body worn sensors, which can provide real-time continuous measurement of pertinent physiological parameters noninvasively and comfortably for extended periods of time, are of crucial importance for emerging applications of mobile medicine. Wearable sensors that can wirelessly provide pertinent health information while remaining unobtrusive, comfortable, low cost, and easy to operate and interpret, play an essential role. Battery and electronics producers require thin, flexible energy storage and conversion devices to power their wearable technology. The growth in flexible electronics has resulted in increased demand for flexible, stretchable, bendable, rollable and foldable batteries and supercapacitors as power sources for application in flexible and wearable devices.

Report contents include:

  • Current and developmental flexible and printed electronics based products.
  • Manufacturing and processes for flexible organic & printed electronics
  • Advanced materials utilized in flexible and printed electronics.
  • Market analysis including applications, products, companies and global revenues forecast to 2033. Markets covered include
  • wearables (smartwatches, sports & fitness trackers, sleep trackers & wearable monitors, smart glasses, workplace monitoring).
  • medical & healthcare sensors & wearables.
  • electronic textiles and smart apparel. 
  • energy storage, generation & harvesting.
  • lighting.
  • flexible and printed displays.
  • automotive. 
  • smart buildings.
  • smart packaging.

Profiles of over 900 producers and product developers in flexible and printed electronics. Companies profiled  include AGFA, BeFC, Brewer Science, C3 Nano, Canatu, CHASM, Dracula Technologies, DuPont, Electroninks, Elephantech, Epicore Biosystems, FlexEnable, GE Healthcare, Heraeus Epurio, Inkron Oy (Nagase), Inuru, LG Display, Liquid Wire, NovaCentrix, Optomec, Panasonic, PowerON, PragmatIC, PVNanoCell, SmartKem Ltd., Syenta, tacterion GmbH, Tactotek, Tracxon, Xymox Technologies, Inc. and Ynvisible. 

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Table of Contents

2.1 The evolution of electronics
2.2 Markets for flexible and printed electronics
2.2.1 Healthcare and wellness
2.2.2 Automotive
2.2.3 Building and construction
2.2.4 Energy storage and harvesting
2.2.5 E- Textiles
2.2.6 Consumer electronics
2.2.7 Smart packaging and logistics
2.3 The wearables revolution
2.4 The wearable tech market in 2023
2.5 Market map for flexible and printed electronics
2.6 Wearable market leaders
2.7 What are flexible electronics?
2.7.1 From rigid to flexible and stretchable Stretchable electronics Stretchable electronics in wearables
2.8 Stretchable artificial skin
2.9 Organic and printed electronics
2.10 Role in the metaverse
2.11 Wearable electronics in the textiles industry
2.12 New conductive materials
2.13 Entertainment
2.14 Growth in flexible and stretchable electronics market
2.14.1 Recent growth in Printed, flexible and stretchable products
2.14.2 Future growth
2.14.3 Advanced materials as a market driver
2.14.4 Growth in remote health monitoring and diagnostics
2.15 Innovations at CES 2021-2023
2.16 Investment funding and buy-outs 2019-2023
2.17 Global market revenues, 2018-2033, by market

3.1 Market drivers and trends
3.2 Wearable sensors
3.3 Wearable actuators
3.4 Recent market developments
3.5 Wrist-worn wearables
3.5.1 Overview
3.5.2 Sports-watches, smart-watches and fitness trackers
3.5.3 Health monitoring
3.5.4 Energy harvesting for powering smartwatches
3.5.5 Main producers and products
3.6 Sports and fitness
3.6.1 Overview
3.6.2 Wearable devices and apparel
3.6.3 Skin patches
3.6.4 Products
3.7 Hearables
3.7.1 Overview
3.7.2 Assistive Hearables
3.7.3 Health & Fitness Hearables
3.7.4 Multimedia Hearables
3.7.5 Artificial Intelligence (AI)
3.7.6 Companies and products
3.8 Sleep trackers and wearable monitors
3.8.1 Built in function in smart watches and fitness trackers
3.8.2 Smart rings
3.8.3 Headbands
3.8.4 Sleep monitoring devices Companies and products
3.9 Pet and animal wearables
3.10 Military wearables
3.11 Industrial and workplace monitoring
3.11.1 Products
3.12 Global market revenues
3.13 Market challenges
3.14 Company profiles (127 company profiles)

4.1 Market drivers
4.2 Current state of the art
4.2.1 Wearable medical device products
4.2.2 Temperature and respiratory rate monitoring
4.3 Wearable and health monitoring and rehabilitation
4.3.1 Market overview
4.3.2 Companies and products
4.4 Electronic skin patches
4.4.1 Electronic skin sensors
4.4.2 Nanomaterials-based devices Graphene
4.4.3 Conductive hydrogels for soft and flexible electronics
4.4.4 Materials Summary of advanced materials
4.4.5 Temperature and respiratory rate monitoring Market overview Companies and products
4.4.6 Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) Market overview
4.4.7 Minimally-invasive CGM sensors Technologies
4.4.8 Non-invasive CGM sensors Commercial devices Companies and products
4.4.9 Cardiovascular monitoring Market overview ECG sensors Companies and products PPG sensors Companies and products
4.4.10 Pregnancy and newborn monitoring Market overview Companies and products
4.4.11 Hydration sensors Market overview Companies and products
4.4.12 Wearable sweat sensors (medical and sports) Market overview Companies and products
4.5 Wearable drug delivery
4.5.1 Companies and products
4.6 Cosmetics patches
4.6.1 Companies and products
4.7 Femtech devices
4.7.1 Companies and products
4.8 Smart footwear for health monitoring
4.8.1 Companies and products
4.9 Smart contact lenses and smart glasses for visually impaired
4.9.1 Companies and products
4.10 Smart woundcare
4.10.1 Companies and products
4.11 Smart diapers
4.11.1 Companies and products
4.12 Wearable robotics-exo-skeletons, bionic prostheses, exo-suits, and body worn collaborative robots
4.12.1 Companies and products
4.13 Global market revenues
4.13.1 Market share, by product type
4.14 Market challenges
4.15 Company profiles (341 company profiles)

5.1 Market drivers
5.2 Performance requirements for E-textiles
5.3 Growth prospects for electronic textiles
5.4 Textiles in the Internet of Things
5.5 Types of E-Textile products
5.5.1 Embedded e-textiles
5.5.2 Laminated e-textiles
5.6 Materials and components
5.6.1 Integrating electronics for E-Textiles Textile-adapted Textile-integrated Textile-based
5.6.2 Manufacturing of E-textiles Integration of conductive polymers and inks Integration of conductive yarns and conductive filament fibers Integration of conductive sheets
5.6.3 Flexible and stretchable electronics
5.6.4 E-textiles materials and components Conductive and stretchable fibers and yarns Production Metals Carbon materials and nanofibers Graphene Carbon nanotubes Nanofibers Mxenes Hexagonal boron-nitride (h-BN)/Bboron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) Conductive polymers PDMS PEDOT: PSS Polypyrrole (PPy) Conductive polymer composites Ionic conductive polymers Conductive inks Aqueous-Based Ink Solvent-Based Ink Oil-Based Ink Hot-Melt Ink UV-Curable Ink Metal-based conductive inks Nanoparticle ink Silver inks Copper inks Gold (Au) ink Carbon-based conductive inks Carbon nanotubes Single-walled carbon nanotubes Graphene Liquid metals Properties Electronic filaments Phase change materials Temperature controlled fabrics Shape memory materials Metal halide perovskites Nanocoatings in smart textiles 3D printing Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) Products
5.6.5 E-textiles components Sensors and actuators Physiological sensors Environmental sensors Pressure sensors Flexible capacitive sensors Flexible piezoresistive sensors Flexible piezoelectric sensors Activity sensors Strain sensors Resistive sensors Capacitive strain sensors Temperature sensors Inertial measurement units (IMUs) Electrodes Connectors
5.7 Applications, markets and products
5.7.1 Current E-textiles and smart clothing products
5.7.2 Temperature monitoring and regulation Heated clothing Heated gloves Heated insoles Heated jacket and clothing products Materials used in flexible heaters and applications
5.7.3 Stretchable E-fabrics
5.7.4 Therapeutic products
5.7.5 Sport & fitness Products
5.7.6 Smart footwear Companies and products
5.7.7 Wearable displays
5.7.8 Military
5.7.9 Textile-based lighting OLEDs
5.7.10 Smart gloves
5.7.11 Powering E-textiles Advantages and disadvantages of main battery types for E-textiles Bio-batteries Challenges for battery integration in smart textiles Textile supercapacitors Energy harvesting Photovoltaic solar textiles Energy harvesting nanogenerators TENGs PENGs Radio frequency (RF) energy harvesting
5.7.12 Motion capture for AR/VR
5.8 Global market revenues
5.9 Market challenges
5.10 Company profiles (153 company profiles)

6.1 Market drivers and trends
6.2 Flexible and stretchable batteries for electronics
6.3 Battery market megatrends
6.4 Solid-state thin film batteries
6.4.1 Introduction Features and advantages Technical specifications Types Microbatteries Introduction Materials Applications 3D designs 3D printed batteries Bulk type solid-state batteries Shortcomings and market challenges for solid-state thin film batteries
6.5 Flexible batteries (including stretchable, rollable, bendable and foldable)
6.5.1 Technical specifications Approaches to flexibility Flexible electronics Flexible materials
6.5.2 Flexible and wearable Metal-sulfur batteries
6.5.3 Flexible and wearable Metal-air batteries
6.5.4 Flexible Lithium-ion Batteries Electrode designs Fiber-shaped Lithium-Ion batteries Stretchable lithium-ion batteries Origami and kirigami lithium-ion batteries
6.5.5 Flexible Li/S batteries Components Carbon nanomaterials
6.5.6 Flexible lithium-manganese dioxide (Li-MnO2) batteries
6.5.7 Flexible zinc-based batteries Components Anodes Cathodes Challenges Flexible zinc-manganese dioxide (Zn-Mn) batteries Flexible silver-zinc (Ag-Zn) batteries Flexible Zn-Air batteries Flexible zinc-vanadium batteries
6.5.8 Fiber-shaped batteries Carbon nanotubes Types Applications Challenges
6.5.9 Transparent batteries Components
6.5.10 Degradable batteries Components
6.5.11 Flexible and stretchable supercapacitors Nanomaterials for electrodes Energy harvesting combined with wearable energy storage devices
6.6 Printed batteries
6.6.1 Technical specifications Components Design Key features Printable current collectors Printable electrodes Materials Applications Printing techniques Applications
6.6.2 Lithium-ion (LIB) printed batteries
6.6.3 Zinc-based printed batteries
6.6.4 3D Printed batteries 3D Printing techniques for battery manufacturing Materials for 3D printed batteries Electrode materials Electrolyte Materials
6.6.5 Printed supercapacitors Electrode materials Electrolytes
6.7 Photovoltaics
6.7.1 Flexible and stretchable photovoltaics Flexible CIGS Solar Cells
6.7.2 Photovoltaic solar textiles
6.7.3 Solar tape
6.7.4 Origami-like solar cells
6.7.5 Perovskite-based solar cells Spray-on and stick-on perovskite photovoltaics Photovoltaic solar textiles
6.8 Stretchable heaters
6.9 Spray-on thermoelectric energy harvesting
6.10 Paper based fuel cells
6.11 Global market revenues
6.12 Market challenges
6.13 Company profiles (125 company profiles)

7.1 Market drivers
7.2 Flexible and printed display prototypes and products
7.3 Organic LCDs (OLCDs)
7.4 Flexible AMOLEDs
7.5 Flexible PMOLED (Passive Matrix OLED)
7.5.1 Printed OLEDs Performance Challenges Commercial inkjet-printed OLED displays
7.6 Flexible and foldable microLED
7.6.1 Foldable microLED displays
7.6.2 Product developers
7.7 Flexible QD displays
7.8 Smartphones
7.9 Laptops, tablets and other displays
7.10 Products and prototypes
7.11 Flexible lighting
7.11.1 OLED lighting
7.11.2 Automotive applications Commercial activity
7.12 Flexible electrophoretic displays
7.12.1 Commercial activity
7.13 Electrowetting displays
7.14 Electrochromic displays
7.15 Perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs)
7.15.1 Types
7.15.2 Challenges
7.15.3 White PeLEDs
7.15.4 Printable and flexible electronics
7.16 Metamaterials
7.16.1 Metasurfaces Meta-Lens Metasurface holograms Stretchable displays Soft materials
7.17 Global market revenues
7.18 Market challenges
7.19 Company profiles (52 company profiles)

8.1.1 Market drivers
8.1.2 Applications Electric vehicles Flexible and printed photovoltaics Automotive displays and lighting Interior OLED and flexible displays Exterior In-Mold Electronics Flexible and printed sensors Capacitive sensors Flexible and stretchable pressure sensors Piezoresistive sensors Piezoelectric sensors Image sensors Flexible and printed heaters
8.1.3 Global market revenues
8.1.4 Market challenges
8.1.5 Company profiles (24 company profiles)

9.1 Market drivers
9.2 Types of smart building sensors
9.3 Applications
9.3.1 Temperature and humidity sensors
9.3.2 Sensors for air quality
9.3.3 Magnetostrictive sensors
9.3.4 Magneto- and electrorheological fluids
9.3.5 CO2 sensors for energy efficient buildings
9.4 Global market revenues
9.5 Company profiles (10 company profiles)

10.1 What is Smart Packaging?
10.1.1 Active packaging
10.1.2 Intelligent packaging
10.2 Supply chain management
10.3 Improving product freshness and extending shelf life
10.4 Brand protection and anti-counterfeiting
10.5 Flexible and printed electronics in packaging
10.6 Product information
10.6.1 Printed codes and markings Barcodes (D) D data matrix codes Quick response (QR) codes
10.6.2 Sensors and indicators Freshness Indicators Time-temperature indicator labels (TTIs) Natural colour formulation indicator Thermochromic inks Gas indicators Chemical Sensors Electrochemical-Based Sensors Optical-Based Sensors Biosensors Electrochemical-Based Biosensors Optical-Based Biosensors Edible Sensors
10.6.3 Antennas Radio frequency identification (RFID) RFID technologies Passive RFID Active RFID Chipless RFID or Flexible/Printed IC Passive tags RAIN (UHF RFID) Smart Packaging Near-field communications (NFC)
10.6.4 Smart blister packs
10.7 Global market revenues
10.8 Company profiles (52 company profiles)

List of Tables
Table 1. Types of wearable devices and applications.
Table 2. Types of wearable devices and the data collected.
Table 3. Main Wearable Device Companies by Shipment Volume, Market Share, and Year-Over-Year Growth, (million units).
Table 4. New wearable tech products 2022-2023.
Table 5. Wearable market leaders by market segment.
Table 6. Advanced materials for Printed, flexible and stretchable sensors and Electronics-Advantages and disadvantages.
Table 7. Sheet resistance (RS) and transparency (T) values for transparent conductive oxides and alternative materials for transparent conductive electrodes (TCE).
Table 8. Wearable electronics at CES 2021-2023.
Table 9. Wearables Investment funding and buy-outs 2019-2022.
Table 10. Market drivers and trends in wearable electronics.
Table 11. Types of wearable sensors.
Table 12. Wearable health monitors.
Table 13. Sports-watches, smart-watches and fitness trackers producers and products.
Table 14. Wearable sensors for sports performance.
Table 15. Wearable sensor products for monitoring sport performance.
Table 16. Companies and products in hearables.
Table 17. Example wearable sleep tracker products and prices.
Table 18. Smart ring products.
Table 19. Sleep headband products.
Table 20. Sleep monitoring products.
Table 21. Pet wearable companies and products.
Table 22. Wearable electronics applications in the military.
Table 23. Wearable workplace products.
Table 24. Global market for flexible and wearable consumer electronics, 2018-2033, millions of US dollars.
Table 25. Market challenges in consumer wearable electronics.
Table 26. Market drivers for printed, flexible and stretchable medical and healthcare sensors and wearables.
Table 27. Examples of wearable medical device products.
Table 28. Medical wearable companies applying products to COVID-19 monitoring and analysis.
Table 29. Applications in flexible and stretchable health monitors, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof.
Table 30. Medical wearable companies applying products to temperate and respiratory monitoring and analysis.
Table 31. Technologies for minimally-invasive and non-invasive glucose detection-advantages and disadvantages.
Table 32. Commercial devices for non-invasive glucose monitoring not released or withdrawn from market.
Table 33. Minimally-invasive and non-invasive glucose monitoring products.
Table 34. Companies developing wearable swear sensors.
Table 35. Wearable drug delivery companies and products.
Table 36. Companies and products, cosmetics and drug delivery patches.
Table 37. Companies developing femtech wearable technology.
Table 38. Companies and products in smart footwear.
Table 39. Companies and products in smart contact lenses.
Table 40. Companies and products in smart wound care.
Table 41. Companies developing smart diaper products.
Table 42. Companies developing wearable robotics.
Table 43. Global market for flexible and printed medical & healthcare electronics, 2018-2033, millions of US dollars.
Table 44. Market challenges in medical and healthcare sensors and wearables.
Table 45. Market drivers for printed, flexible, stretchable and organic electronic textiles.
Table 46. Examples of smart textile products.
Table 47. Performance requirements for E-textiles.
Table 48. Commercially available smart clothing products.
Table 49. Types of smart textiles.
Table 50. Comparison of E-textile fabrication methods.
Table 51. Types of fabrics for the application of electronic textiles.
Table 52. Methods for integrating conductive compounds.
Table 53. Methods for integrating conductive yarn and conductive filament fiber.
Table 54. 1D electronic fibers including the conductive materials, fabrication strategies, electrical conductivity, stretchability, and applications.
Table 55. Conductive materials used in smart textiles, their electrical conductivity and percolation threshold.
Table 56. Metal coated fibers and their mechanisms.
Table 57. Applications of carbon nanomaterials and other nanomaterials in e-textiles.
Table 58. Applications and benefits of graphene in textiles and apparel.
Table 59. Properties of CNTs and comparable materials.
Table 60. Properties of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN).
Table 61. Types of flexible conductive polymers, properties and applications.
Table 62. Typical conductive ink formulation.
Table 63. Comparative properties of conductive inks.
Table 64. Comparison of pros and cons of various types of conductive ink compositions.
Table 65: Properties of CNTs and comparable materials.
Table 66. Properties of graphene.
Table 67. Electrical conductivity of different types of graphene.
Table 68. Comparison of the electrical conductivities of liquid metal with typical conductive inks.
Table 69. Nanocoatings applied in the smart textiles industry-type of coating, nanomaterials utilized, benefits and applications.
Table 70. 3D printed shoes.
Table 71. Sensors used in electronic textiles.
Table 72. Features of flexible strain sensors with different structures.
Table 73. Features of resistive and capacitive strain sensors.
Table 74. Typical applications and markets for e-textiles.
Table 75. Commercially available E-textiles and smart clothing products.
Table 76. Example heated jacket products.
Table 77. Heated jacket and clothing products.
Table 78. Examples of materials used in flexible heaters and applications.
Table 79. Commercialized smart textiles/or e-textiles for healthcare and fitness applications.
Table 80. Example earable sensor products for monitoring sport performance.
Table 81.Companies and products in smart footwear.
Table 82. Wearable electronics applications in the military.
Table 83. Advantages and disadvantages of batteries for E-textiles.
Table 84. Comparison of prototype batteries (flexible, textile, and other) in terms of area-specific performance.
Table 85. Advantages and disadvantages of photovoltaic, piezoelectric, triboelectric, and thermoelectric energy harvesting in of e-textiles.
Table 86. Teslasuit.
Table 87. Global market for flexible and printed E-textiles and smart apparel electronics, 2018-2033, millions of US dollars.
Table 88. Market and technical challenges for E-textiles and smart clothing.
Table 89. Market drivers and trends for Flexible and printed electronic energy storage, generation and harvesting.
Table 90. Battery market megatrends.
Table 91. Market segmentation and status for solid-state batteries.
Table 92. Shortcoming of solid-state thin film batteries.
Table 93. Flexible battery applications and technical requirements.
Table 94. Flexible Li-ion battery prototypes.
Table 95. Electrode designs in flexible lithium-ion batteries.
Table 96. Summary of fiber-shaped lithium-ion batteries.
Table 97. Types of fiber-shaped batteries.
Table 98. Components of transparent batteries.
Table 99. Components of degradable batteries.
Table 100. Applications of nanomaterials in flexible and stretchable supercapacitors, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof.
Table 101. Main components and properties of different printed battery types.
Table 102. Applications of printed batteries and their physical and electrochemical requirements.
Table 103. 2D and 3D printing techniques.
Table 104. Printing techniques applied to printed batteries.
Table 105. Main components and corresponding electrochemical values of lithium-ion printed batteries.
Table 106. Printing technique, main components and corresponding electrochemical values of printed batteries based on Zn-MnO2 and other battery types.
Table 107. Main 3D Printing techniques for battery manufacturing.
Table 108. Electrode Materials for 3D Printed Batteries.
Table 109. Methods for printing supercapacitors.
Table 110. Electrode Materials for printed supercapacitors.
Table 111. Electrolytes for printed supercapacitors.
Table 112. Main properties and components of printed supercapacitors.
Table 113. Examples of materials used in flexible heaters and applications.
Table 115. Global market for flexible and printed energy storage, generation and harvesting electronics, 2018-2033, millions of US dollars.
Table 116. Market challenges in flexible and printed energy storage.
Table 117. 3DOM separator.
Table 118. Battery performance test specifications of J. Flex batteries.
Table 119. Market drivers for Flexible and printed displays and electronic components.
Table 120. Flexible and printed displays products.
Table 121. Flexible miniLED and MicroLED products.
Table 122. Comparison of performance metrics between microLEDs and other commercial display technologies.
Table 123. Foldable smartphones, laptops and tablets and other display products, on or near market.
Table 124. Companies developing OLED lighting products.
Table 125. Types of electrochromic materials and applications.
Table 126. Market challenges in flexible and printed displays and consumer electronics.
Table 127. Market drivers for flexible and printed electronics in automotive.
Table 128. Flexible and printed electronics in the automotive market.
Table 129. Global market for flexible and printed automotive electronics, 2018-2033, millions of US dollars.
Table 130. Market challenges for flexible and printed electronics in automotive.
Table 131. Market drivers for smart sensors for buildings.
Table 132. Types of smart building sensors.
Table 133. Commonly used sensors in smart buildings.
Table 134. Types of flexible humidity sensors.
Table 135. MOF sensor applications.
Table 136. Global market for flexible and printed smart buildings electronics, 2018-2033, millions of US dollars.
Table 137. Commercially available freshness indicators.
Table 138. Commercially available gas indicators.
Table 139. Commercially available food sensors.
Table 140. Examples of RFID in packaging.
Table 141. Commercially available radio frequency identification systems (RFID) technology.
Table 142. Examples of NFC in packaging.
Table 143. Global market for flexible and printed smart packaging electronics, 2018-2033, millions of US dollars.

List of Figures
Figure 1. Examples of flexible electronics devices.
Figure 2. Evolution of electronics.
Figure 3. Wearable technology inventions.
Figure 4. Applications for flexible and printed electronics.
Figure 5. Market map for printed and flexible electronics.
Figure 6. Wove Band.
Figure 7. Wearable graphene medical sensor.
Figure 8. Artificial skin prototype for gesture recognition.
Figure 9. Applications timeline for organic and printed electronics.
Figure 10. Applications of wearable flexible sensors worn on various body parts.
Figure 11. Systemization of wearable electronic systems.
Figure 12. Baby Monitor.
Figure 13. Wearable health monitor incorporating graphene photodetectors.
Figure 14. Market revenues for flexible and printed electronics, 2018-2033, by end markets (millions USD).
Figure 15. FitBit Charge 5.
Figure 16. Wearable bio-fluid monitoring system for monitoring of hydration.
Figure 17. Nuheara IQbuds² Max.
Figure 18. Beddr SleepTuner.
Figure 19. Beddr SleepTuner.
Figure 20. Global market for flexible and printed consumer electronics, 2018-2033, millions of US dollars.
Figure 21. The Apollo wearable device.
Figure 22. Cyclops HMD.
Figure 23. C2Sense sensors.
Figure 24. Coachwhisperer device.
Figure 25. Cogwear headgear.
Figure 26. CardioWatch 287.
Figure 27. FRENZ™ Brainband.
Figure 28. NightOwl Home Sleep Apnea Test Device.
Figure 29. eQ02 LIfeMontor.
Figure 30. Cove wearable device.
Figure 31. German bionic exoskeleton.
Figure 32. UnlimitedHand.
Figure 33. Apex Exosuit.
Figure 34. Humanox Shin Guard.
Figure 35. Airvida E1.
Figure 36. Footrax.
Figure 37. eMacula®.
Figure 38. G2 Pro.
Figure 39. REFLEX.
Figure 40. Ring ZERO.
Figure 41. Mawi Heart Patch.
Figure 42. Ayo wearable light therapy.
Figure 43. Nowatch.
Figure 44. ORII smart ring.
Figure 45. Proxxi Voltage.
Figure 46. RealWear HMT-1.
Figure 47. Moonwalkers from Shift Robotics Inc.
Figure 48. SnowCookie device.
Figure 49. Soter device.
Figure 50. Feelzing Energy Patch.
Figure 51. Wiliot tags.
Figure 52. Connected human body and product examples.
Figure 53. Companies and products in wearable health monitoring and rehabilitation devices and products.
Figure 54. Smart e-skin system comprising health-monitoring sensors, displays, and ultra flexible PLEDs.
Figure 55. Graphene medical patch.
Figure 56. Graphene-based E-skin patch.
Figure 57. Enfucell wearable temperature tag.
Figure 58. TempTraQ wearable wireless thermometer.
Figure 59. Technologies for minimally-invasive and non-invasive glucose detection.
Figure 60. Schematic of non-invasive CGM sensor.
Figure 61. Adhesive wearable CGM sensor.
Figure 62. VitalPatch.
Figure 63. Wearable ECG-textile.
Figure 64. Wearable ECG recorder.
Figure 65. Nexkin™.
Figure 66. Bloomlife.
Figure 67. Nanowire skin hydration patch.
Figure 68. NIX sensors.
Figure 69. Wearable sweat sensor.
Figure 70. Wearable graphene sweat sensor.
Figure 71. Gatorade's GX Sweat Patch.
Figure 72. Sweat sensor incorporated into face mask.
Figure 73. D-mine Pump.
Figure 74. Lab-on-Skin™.
Figure 75. My UV Patch.
Figure 76. Overview layers of L'Oreal skin patch.
Figure 77. Brilliantly Warm.
Figure 78. Ava Fertility tracker.
Figure 79. S9 Pro breast pump.
Figure 80. Tempdrop.
Figure 81. Digitsole Smartshoe.
Figure 82. Schematic of smart wound dressing.
Figure 83. REPAIR electronic patch concept. Image courtesy of the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine.
Figure 84. ABENA Nova smart diaper.
Figure 85. Honda Walking Assist.
Figure 86. ABLE Exoskeleton.
Figure 87. ANGEL-LEGS-M10.
Figure 88. AGADEXO Shoulder.
Figure 89. Enyware.
Figure 90. AWN-12 occupational powered hip exoskeleton.
Figure 91. CarrySuit passive upper-body exoskeleton.
Figure 92. Axosuit lower body medical exoskeleton.
Figure 93. FreeGait.
Figure 94. InMotion Arm.
Figure 95. Biomotum SPARK.
Figure 96. PowerWalk energy.
Figure 97. Keeogo™.
Figure 98. MATE-XT.
Figure 99. CDYS passive shoulder support exoskeleton.
Figure 100. ALDAK.
Figure 101. HAL® Lower Limb.
Figure 102. DARWING PA.
Figure 103. Dephy ExoBoot.
Figure 104. EksoNR.
Figure 105. Emovo Assist.
Figure 106. HAPO.
Figure 107. Atlas passive modular exoskeleton.
Figure 108. ExoAtlet II.
Figure 109. ExoHeaver.
Figure 110. Exy ONE.
Figure 111. ExoArm.
Figure 112. ExoMotus.
Figure 113. Gloreha Sinfonia.
Figure 114. BELK Knee Exoskeleton.
Figure 115. Apex exosuit.
Figure 116. Honda Walking Assist.
Figure 117. BionicBack.
Figure 118. Muscle Suit.
Figure 119.Japet.W powered exoskeleton.
Figure 120.Ski~Mojo.
Figure 121. AIRFRAME passive shoulder.
Figure 122.FORTIS passive tool holding exoskeleton.
Figure 123. Integrated Soldier Exoskeleton (UPRISE®).
Figure 124.UNILEXA passive exoskeleton.
Figure 125.HandTutor.
Figure 126.MyoPro®.
Figure 127.Myosuit.
Figure 128. archelis wearable chair.
Figure 129.Chairless Chair.
Figure 130.Indego.
Figure 131. Polyspine.
Figure 132. Hercule powered lower body exoskeleton.
Figure 133. ReStore Soft Exo-Suit.
Figure 134. Hand of Hope.
Figure 135. REX powered exoskeleton.
Figure 136. Elevate Ski Exoskeleton.
Figure 137. UGO210 exoskeleton.
Figure 138. EsoGLOVE Pro.
Figure 139. Roki.
Figure 140. Powered Clothing.
Figure 141. Againer shock absorbing exoskeleton.
Figure 142. EasyWalk Assistive Soft Exoskeleton Walker.
Figure 143. Skel-Ex.
Figure 144. EXO-H3 lower limbs robotic exoskeleton.
Figure 145. Ikan Tilta Max Armor-Man
Figure 146. AMADEO hand and finger robotic rehabilitation device.
Figure 147.Atalante autonomous lower-body exoskeleton.
Figure 148. Global market for flexible and printed medical & healthcare electronics, 2018-2033, millions of US dollars.
Figure 149. Global market for medical and healthcare sensors and wearables, 2021-2033, by market share of product type.
Figure 150. Libre 3.
Figure 151. Libre Sense Glucose Sport Biowearable.
Figure 152. AcuPebble SA100.
Figure 153. Vitalgram®.
Figure 154. Alertgy NICGM wristband.
Figure 155. ALLEVX.
Figure 156. Gastric Alimetry.
Figure 157. Alva Health stroke monitor.
Figure 158. amofit S.
Figure 159. MIT and Amorepacific's chip-free skin sensor.
Figure 160. Sigi™ Insulin Management System.
Figure 161. The Apollo wearable device.
Figure 162. Apos3.
Figure 163. Artemis is smart clothing system.
Figure 164. KneeStim.
Figure 165. PaciBreath.
Figure 166. Structure of Azalea Vision’s smart contact lens.
Figure 167. Belun® Ring.
Figure 168. Evo Patch.
Figure 169. Neuronaute wearable.
Figure 170. biped.ai device.
Figure 171. circul smart ring.
Figure 172. Cala Trio.
Figure 173. BioSleeve®.
Figure 174. Cognito's gamma stimulation device.
Figure 175. Cogwear Headband.
Figure 176. First Relief.
Figure 177. Jewel Patch Wearable Cardioverter Defibrillator .
Figure 178. enFuse.
Figure 179. EOPatch.
Figure 180. Epilog.
Figure 181. FloPatch.
Figure 182. gSKIN®.
Figure 183. Hinge Health wearable therapy devices.
Figure 184. MYSA - 'Relax Shirt'.
Figure 185. Atusa system.
Figure 186. Kenzen ECHO Smart Patch.
Figure 187. The Kernel Flow headset.
Figure 188. KnowU™.
Figure 189. LifeSpan patch.
Figure 190. Mawi Heart Patch.
Figure 191. MetaSCOPE.
Figure 192. WalkAid.
Figure 193. Monarch™ Wireless Wearable Biosensor
Figure 194. Modoo device.
Figure 195. Munevo Drive.
Figure 196. Electroskin integration schematic.
Figure 197. Modius Sleep wearable device.
Figure 198. Neuphony Headband.
Figure 199. Nix Biosensors patch.
Figure 200. BODY-CASE.
Figure 201. Otolith wearable device.
Figure 202. Peerbridge Cor.
Figure 203. Point Fit Technology skin patch.
Figure 204. Sylvee 1.0.
Figure 205. RootiRx.
Figure 206. Sylvee 1.0.
Figure 207. Silvertree Reach.
Figure 208. Smardii smart diaper.
Figure 209. Subcuject.
Figure 210. Nerivio.
Figure 211. Feelzing Energy Patch.
Figure 212. Ultrahuman wearable glucose monitor.
Figure 213. Vaxxas patch.
Figure 214. S-Patch Ex.
Figure 215. Zeit Medical Wearable Headband.
Figure 216. Timeline of the different generations of electronic textiles.
Figure 217. Examples of each generation of electronic textiles.
Figure 218. Conductive yarns.
Figure 219. Electronics integration in textiles: (a) textile-adapted, (b) textile-integrated (c) textile-basd.
Figure 220. Stretchable polymer encapsulation microelectronics on textiles.
Figure 221. Wove Band.
Figure 222. Wearable graphene medical sensor.
Figure 223. Conductive yarns.
Figure 224. Classification of conductive materials and process technology.
Figure 225. Structure diagram of Ti3C2Tx.
Figure 226. Structure of hexagonal boron nitride.
Figure 227. BN nanosheet textiles application.
Figure 228. SEM image of cotton fibers with PEDOT:PSS coating.
Figure 229. Schematic of inkjet-printed processes.
Figure 230: Silver nanocomposite ink after sintering and resin bonding of discrete electronic components.
Figure 231. Schematic summary of the formulation of silver conductive inks.
Figure 232. Copper based inks on flexible substrate.
Figure 233: Schematic of single-walled carbon nanotube.
Figure 234. Stretchable SWNT memory and logic devices for wearable electronics.
Figure 235. Graphene layer structure schematic.
Figure 236. BGT Materials graphene ink product.
Figure 237. PCM cooling vest.
Figure 238. SMPU-treated cotton fabrics.
Figure 239. Schematics of DIAPLEX membrane.
Figure 240. SMP energy storage textiles.
Figure 241. Nike x Acronym Blazer Sneakers.
Figure 242. Adidas 3D Runner Pump.
Figure 243. Under Armour Archi-TechFuturist.
Figure 244. Reebok Reebok Liquid Speed.
Figure 245. Radiate sports vest.
Figure 246. Adidas smart insole.
Figure 247. Applications of E-textiles.
Figure 248. EXO2 Stormwalker 2 Heated Jacket.
Figure 249. Flexible polymer-based heated glove, sock and slipper.
Figure 250. ThermaCell Rechargeable Heated Insoles.
Figure 251. Myant sleeve tracks biochemical indicators in sweat.
Figure 252. Flexible polymer-based therapeutic products.
Figure 253. iStimUweaR .
Figure 254. Digitsole Smartshoe.
Figure 255. Basketball referee Royole fully flexible display.
Figure 256. A mechanical glove, Robo-Glove, with pressure sensors and other sensors jointly developed by General Motors and NASA.
Figure 257. Power supply mechanisms for electronic textiles and wearables.
Figure 258. Micro-scale energy scavenging techniques.
Figure 259. Schematic illustration of the fabrication concept for textile-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) made by sewing textile electrodes onto cloth or paper.
Figure 260. 3D printed piezoelectric material.
Figure 261. Application of electronic textiles in AR/VR.
Figure 262. Global market for flexible and printed E-textiles and smart apparel electronics, 2018-2033, millions of US dollars.
Figure 263. BioMan .
Figure 264. EXO Glove.
Figure 265. LED hooded jacket.
Figure 266. Heated element module.
Figure 267. Carhartt X-1 Smart Heated Vest.
Figure 268. Cionic Neural Sleeve.
Figure 269. Graphene dress. The dress changes colour in sync with the wearer’s breathing.
Figure 270. Descante Solar Thermo insulated jacket.
Figure 271. G Graphene Aero Jersey.
Figure 272. HiFlex strain/pressure sensor.
Figure 273. KiTT motion tracking knee sleeve.
Figure 274. Healables app-controlled electrotherapy device.
Figure 275. LumeoLoop device.
Figure 276. Electroskin integration schematic.
Figure 277. Nextiles’ compression garments.
Figure 278. Nextiles e-fabric.
Figure 279 .Nuada.
Figure 280. Palarum PUP smart socks.
Figure 281. Smardii smart diaper.
Figure 282. Softmatter compression garment.
Figure 283. Softmatter sports bra with a woven ECG sensor.
Figure 284. MoCap Pro Glove.
Figure 285. Teslasuit.
Figure 286. ZOZOFIT wearable at-home 3D body scanner.
Figure 287. YouCare smart shirt.
Figure 288. Flexible batteries on the market.
Figure 289. Costs of batteries to 2030.
Figure 290. ULTRALIFE thin film battery.
Figure 291. Examples of applications of thin film batteries.
Figure 292. Capacities and voltage windows of various cathode and anode materials.
Figure 293. Traditional lithium-ion battery (left), solid state battery (right).
Figure 294. Bulk type compared to thin film type SSB.
Figure 295. Ragone plots of diverse batteries and the commonly used electronics powered by flexible batteries.
Figure 296. Flexible, rechargeable battery.
Figure 297. Various architectures for flexible and stretchable electrochemical energy storage.
Figure 298. Types of flexible batteries.
Figure 299. Flexible label and printed paper battery.
Figure 300. Materials and design structures in flexible lithium ion batteries.
Figure 301. Flexible/stretchable LIBs with different structures.
Figure 302. Schematic of the structure of stretchable LIBs.
Figure 303. Electrochemical performance of materials in flexible LIBs.
Figure 304. a-c) Schematic illustration of coaxial (a), twisted (b), and stretchable (c) LIBs.
Figure 305. a) Schematic illustration of the fabrication of the superstretchy LIB based on an MWCNT/LMO composite fiber and an MWCNT/LTO composite fiber. b,c) Photograph (b) and the schematic illustration (c) of a stretchable fiber-shaped battery under stretching conditions. d) Schematic illustration of the spring-like stretchable LIB. e) SEM images of a fiberat different strains. f) Evolution of specific capacitance with strain. d-f)
Figure 306. Origami disposable battery.
Figure 307. Zn-MnO2 batteries produced by Brightvolt.
Figure 308. Charge storage mechanism of alkaline Zn-based batteries and zinc-ion batteries.
Figure 309. Zn-MnO2 batteries produced by Blue Spark.
Figure 310. Ag-Zn batteries produced by Imprint Energy.
Figure 311. Transparent batteries.
Figure 312. Degradable batteries.
Figure 313. Schematic of supercapacitors in wearables.
Figure 314. (A) Schematic overview of a flexible supercapacitor as compared to conventional supercapacitor.
Figure 315. Stretchable graphene supercapacitor.
Figure 316. Wearable self-powered devices.
Figure 317. Various applications of printed paper batteries.
Figure 318.Schematic representation of the main components of a battery.
Figure 319. Schematic of a printed battery in a sandwich cell architecture, where the anode and cathode of the battery are stacked together.
Figure 320. Manufacturing Processes for Conventional Batteries (I), 3D Microbatteries (II), and 3D-Printed Batteries (III).
Figure 321. Main printing methods for supercapacitors.
Figure 322. Schematic illustration of the fabrication concept for textile-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) made by sewing textile electrodes onto cloth or paper.
Figure 323. Origami-like silicon solar cells.
Figure 324. Schematic illustration of the fabrication concept for textile-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) made by sewing textile electrodes onto cloth or paper.
Figure 325. Global market for flexible and printed energy storage, generation and harvesting electronics, 2018-2033, millions of US dollars.
Figure 326. 24M battery.
Figure 327. 3DOM battery.
Figure 328. AC biode prototype.
Figure 329. Ampcera’s all-ceramic dense solid-state electrolyte separator sheets (25 um thickness, 50mm x 100mm size, flexible and defect free, room temperature ionic conductivity ~1 mA/cm).
Figure 330. Amprius battery products.
Figure 331. All-polymer battery schematic.
Figure 332. All Polymer Battery Module.
Figure 333. Resin current collector.
Figure 334. Ateios thin-film, printed battery.
Figure 335. 3D printed lithium-ion battery.
Figure 336. Blue Solution module.
Figure 337. TempTraq wearable patch.
Figure 338. Cymbet EnerChip™
Figure 339. E-magy nano sponge structure.
Figure 340. SoftBattery®.
Figure 341. Roll-to-roll equipment working with ultrathin steel substrate.
Figure 342. 40 Ah battery cell.
Figure 343. FDK Corp battery.
Figure 344. 2D paper batteries.
Figure 345. 3D Custom Format paper batteries.
Figure 346. Fuji carbon nanotube products.
Figure 347. Gelion Endure battery.
Figure 348. Portable desalination plant.
Figure 349. Grepow flexible battery.
Figure 350. Hitachi Zosen solid-state battery.
Figure 351. Ilika solid-state batteries.
Figure 352. ZincPoly™ technology.
Figure 353. TAeTTOOz printable battery materials.
Figure 354. Ionic Materials battery cell.
Figure 355. Schematic of Ion Storage Systems solid-state battery structure.
Figure 356. ITEN micro batteries.
Figure 357. LiBEST flexible battery.
Figure 358. 3D solid-state thin-film battery technology.
Figure 359. Lyten batteries.
Figure 360. Nanotech Energy battery.
Figure 361. Hybrid battery powered electrical motorbike concept.
Figure 362. NBD battery.
Figure 363. Schematic illustration of three-chamber system for SWCNH production.
Figure 364. TEM images of carbon nanobrush.
Figure 365. EnerCerachip.
Figure 366. Cambrian battery.
Figure 367. Printed battery.
Figure 368. Prieto Foam-Based 3D Battery.
Figure 369. Printed Energy flexible battery.
Figure 370. ProLogium solid-state battery.
Figure 371. QingTao solid-state batteries.
Figure 372. Sakuú Corporation 3Ah Lithium Metal Solid-state Battery.
Figure 373. SES Apollo batteries.
Figure 374. Sionic Energy battery cell.
Figure 375. Solid Power battery pouch cell.
Figure 376.TeraWatt Technology solid-state battery
Figure 377. LG Signature OLED TV R.
Figure 378. Flexible display.
Figure 379. LG display stretchable display.
Figure 380. Samsung FLEX Hybrid foldable display.
Figure 381. DELL Ori.
Figure 382. LG Media Chair.
Figure 383. LG Virtual Ride.
Figure 384. Organic LCD with a 10-mm bend radius.
Figure 385. AMOLED schematic.
Figure 386. Mirage smart speaker with wraparound touch display.
Figure 387. LG rollable OLED TV.
Figure 388. OLED structure.
Figure 389. TCL printed OLED panel.
Figure 390. OLEDIO 32-inch printed display by JOLED.
Figure 391. AU Optonics Flexible MicroLED Display.
Figure 392. Schematic of the TALT technique for wafer-level microLED transferring.
Figure 393. Foldable 4K C SEED M1.
Figure 394. Stamp-based transfer-printing techniques.
Figure 395: Flexible & stretchable LEDs based on quantum dots.
Figure 396. Samsung S-foldable display.
Figure 397. Samsung slideable display.
Figure 398. Samsung foldable battery patent schematic.
Figure 399. Rollable 65RX OLED TV.
Figure 400. Lenovo ThinkPad X1 Fold.
Figure 401. LG Chem foldable display.
Figure 402. Samsung Display Flex G folding smartphones.
Figure 403. Asus Foldable Phone.
Figure 404. Asus Zenbook 17 Fold.
Figure 405. Dell Concept Ori.
Figure 406. Intel Foldable phone.
Figure 407. ThinkPad X1 Fold.
Figure 408. Motorola Razr.
Figure 409. Oppo Find N folding phone.
Figure 410. Royole FlexPai 2.
Figure 411. Galaxy Fold 3.
Figure 412. Samsung Galaxy Z Flip 3
Figure 413. TCL Tri-Fold Foldable Phone
Figure 414. TCL rollable phone.
Figure 415. Xiaomi Mi MIX Flex.
Figure 416. LG OLED flexible lighting panel.
Figure 417. Flexible OLED incorporated into automotive headlight.
Figure 418. Audi 2022 A8 .
Figure 419. Electrophoretic display applications.
Figure 420. Passive reflective displays with flexibility.
Figure 421. Plastic Logic 5.4” Iridis™ display.
Figure 422. Argil electrochromic film integrated with polycarbonate lenses.
Figure 423. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of several metalens antenna forms.
Figure 424. Design concepts of soft mechanical metamaterials with large negative swelling ratios and tunable stress-strain curves.
Figure 425. Global market for flexible and printed displays, 2018-2033, millions of US dollars.
Figure 426. Global market for flexible and printed displays, 2018-2033, millions of US dollars.
Figure 427. 1.39-inch full-circle microLED display
Figure 428. 9.4" flexible MicroLED display.
Figure 429. Transparent 3D touch control with LED lights and LED matrix.
Figure 430. Flexible microLED.
Figure 431. Hyperfluorescence™ OLED display.
Figure 432. 9.4" flexible MicroLED display.
Figure 433. 7.56-inch transparent Micro LED display.
Figure 434. Micro-LED stretchable display.
Figure 435. TCL phone and tablet concepts.
Figure 436. 7.56” Transparent Display.
Figure 437. Mercedes-Benz’s Hyperscreen.
Figure 438. Global market for flexible and printed automotive electronics, 2018-2033, millions of US dollars.
Figure 439. Global market for flexible and printed electronics in the automotive sector, revenues (millions USD) by applications.
Figure 440. Use of sensors in smart buildings.
Figure 441. Global market for flexible and printed smart buildings electronics, 2018-2033, millions of US dollars.
Figure 442. Sensor surface.
Figure 443. Printed moisture sensors.
Figure 444. Smart packaging for detecting bacteria growth in milk containers.
Figure 445. Active packaging examples.
Figure 446. Initelligent packaging examples.
Figure 447. Active packaging film.
Figure 448. Anti-counterfeiting smart label.
Figure 449. Printed electronics packaging label.
Figure 450. Security tag developed by Nanotech Security.
Figure 451. Commerical examples of time-termperature indictors.
Figure 452. Fundamental principle of a gas sensor for detecting CO2 (gas) after food spoilage
Figure 453. A standard RFID system.
Figure 454. RFID functions and applications of silver nanoparticle inks.
Figure 455. OHMEGA Conductive Ink Touchcode box.
Figure 456. Wiliot RFID.
Figure 457. Smart blister pack.
Figure 458. Global market for flexible and printed smart packaging electronics, 2018-2033, millions of US dollars.
Figure 459. Asahi Kasei Invisible Metal Mesh (IMA) for packaging.
Figure 460. Avery Dennion smart labels.
Figure 461. Varcode Smart Tag.

Companies Mentioned

A selection of companies mentioned in this report includes:

  • 1drop
  • 24M Technologies, Inc.
  • 3DEYES Co., Ltd.
  • 3DOM Inc.
  • Lightyear
  • Meggitt
  • Metamaterial Technologies Inc.
  • Molex
  • Plastic Electronic
  • PolyIC
  • Pyzoflex
  • Sono Motors
  • Tacterion
  • Chasm
  • TactoTek
  • Tangio
  • Toyota
  • Visteon
  • Webasto
  • Classic Stripes
  • Emberion
  • Fiat
  • Flexbright
  • Fraunhofer FEP
  • GE Research
  • Hyundai
  • Abbott Laboratories
  • ABEye SA
  • AC Biode
  • ActionSense Ltd
  • Acurable
  • Adamant Health Oy
  • Adapttech
  • Add Care Ltd.
  • Addionics
  • AerBetic, Inc
  • AerNos
  • AerNos, Inc.
  • AffordSENS Corporation
  • AG Texteis
  • AGFA-Gevaert N.V.
  • Agx, Inc.
  • AI Silk Corporation
  • Aidar Health
  • Aidee
  • AIQ Smart Clothing, Inc.
  • AirMembrane Corporation
  • Alertgy
  • Alimetry Ltd.
  • Allevion Therapeutics
  • Allterco Robotics
  • AlmaScience
  • Almawave S.p.A.
  • Alphaclo
  • Altek Biotechnology Corporation
  • Alva Health
  • Alvalux Medical SA
  • Ambiotex GmbH
  • Ambri
  • AMF Medical
  • AMO Lab
  • Amorepacific Corporation
  • Ampcera, Inc.
  • Amprius, Inc.
  • AMSU (Shenzhen) New Technology Co. Ltd.
  • Anaphite Limited
  • Anicca Wellness
  • Anthro Energy
  • APB Corporation
  • APDM Wearable Technologies, Inc.
  • Apollo Neuro
  • AposHealth
  • AquilX, Inc.
  • Arcascope, Inc.
  • Archelis Inc.
  • Ares Materials, Inc.
  • Artemis
  • Articulate Labs
  • Arylla
  • Asahi Kasei
  • AshChromics Corporation
  • Asiatic Fiber Corporation
  • Asics
  • AspiraDAC Pty Ltd.
  • Ateios Systems
  • Atheer, Inc.
  • Athos
  • Atmosic
  • ATsens Co., Ltd.
  • AU Optronics Corporation
  • Augmency
  • Augumenta Ltd.
  • AURA Devices
  • Australian Advanced Materials
  • Avanix srl
  • Avegant
  • Avery Dennison Smartrac
  • Awarewear
  • Azalea Vision
  • AZUL Energy Co., Ltd
  • Bally Ribbon Mills
  • Bando Chemical Industries, Ltd.
  • BeBop Sensors
  • BeFC
  • Beijing BOE Display Technology Co., Ltd
  • Bekaert
  • Belun Technology
  • Biobeat Technologies Ltd.
  • Biofourmis, Inc.
  • BioIntelliSense
  • Biolinq, Inc.
  • Bionet Co., Ltd.
  • Bionic Vision Technologies (BVT)
  • BioRICS NV
  • Biorithm Pte Ltd
  • BioSenseTek Coporation
  • BioSensics LLC
  • BioSerenity SAS
  • BioTelemetry, Inc.
  • Biotricity
  • biped.ai
  • Bittium Corporation
  • Black Diamond Structures, LLC
  • Blackstone Resources
  • BloomerTech
  • Blue Current, Inc.
  • Blue Solutions
  • Blue Spark Technologies, Inc.
  • Blulog
  • Blumio
  • Boco, Inc.
  • Bodi, Inc.
  • BodiGuide
  • Bodimetrics
  • Bold Diagnostics
  • Bonbouton
  • BONX
  • Borsam Biomedical Instruments Co., Ltd.
  • Bosch Sensortec
  • Bostonclub Co., Ltd.
  • BrainQ Technologies
  • BrainStem Biometrics, Inc.
  • Brewer Science
  • Brewer Science, Inc.
  • BrightVolt, Inc.
  • Britishvolt
  • Brochier Technologies SAS
  • B-Secur
  • C2 Sense, Inc
  • C2Sense
  • C3Nano
  • Cala Health
  • Cambridge Touch Technologies
  • Canatu
  • Canatu Oy
  • Cardiac Insight, Inc.
  • CardiacSense
  • CardieX
  • Carelight Limited
  • CareWear Corporation
  • Cari Health, Inc.
  • CellsX
  • CENS Materials Ltd.
  • CeQur Corporation
  • Cerathrive
  • Charco Neurotech
  • Chasm Advanced Materials
  • Chromatic Technologies Inc (CTI)
  • Chronolife SAS
  • Cionic, Inc.
  • Cipher Skin
  • Cipher Skin, Inc.
  • City Bright Co., Ltd.
  • Clim8
  • C-mo Medical Solutions
  • Coachwhisperer GmbH
  • Cognito Therapeutics
  • Cogwear
  • Cogwear LLC
  • CollectID
  • Comftech srl
  • Commwell Research and Development Ltd.
  • CondAlign AS
  • Conductive Transfers
  • Connexx Systems Corp
  • Corporation Guangzhou Automobile New Energy (GAC)
  • Corsano Health
  • Corsano Health B.V.
  • Cortrium APS
  • Cosinuss
  • Creact International Corporation
  • CurveSYS GmbH
  • CuteCircuit
  • Cymbet
  • Cyrcadia Asia
  • DaVinci Wearables
  • Debiotech S.A.
  • Deep Nordic ApS
  • deltatrak
  • Descente Ltd.
  • Dexcom, Inc.
  • Diabeloop
  • DiaMonTech AG
  • Digimarc
  • DipoleRFID
  • Directa Plus
  • Dispelix Oy
  • Doccla
  • dorsaVi Ltd.
  • Dotz Nano
  • Dreamweaver International
  • Dupont
  • DuPont Advanced Materials
  • Durak Tekstil
  • DyAnsys Inc.
  • Dynocardia
  • E. Textint Corp.
  • Earable Neuroscience
  • EarSwitch
  • Eccrine Systems, Inc.
  • EchoCare Technologies Inc.
  • Ectosense
  • Eeonyx Corporation
  • Elastimed
  • Electroninks
  • Eleksen
  • Element Science, Inc.
  • Elephantech, Inc.
  • Elevre Medical Limited
  • Elidah
  • Elitac B.V.
  • E-Magy
  • Embr Labs
  • Emglare, Inc.
  • Empathy Design Labs
  • Enable Injections
  • Enfucell Oy
  • Enhanlabo Co., Ltd.
  • Ennoventure
  • Ensurge Micropower ASA
  • EOFlow Co, Ltd.
  • Epicore Biosystems
  • Epicore Biosystems Ltd.
  • Epitel
  • Epi-Watch
  • EPS BioTechnology Corp / EasyMax Diabetes Care
  • Epson
  • EPTATech S.R.L.
  • Equivital
  • ERT (eResearchTechnology, Inc.)
  • eSight
  • Etulipa
  • Evigence
  • EXO2
  • Extriple Co, Ltd
  • EyeControl
  • Factorial Energy
  • Far Eastern New Century
  • Fathom
  • FDK Corporation
  • Feel The Same
  • FeelIT
  • Feelmore Labs
  • FeetMe
  • FeetWings Pvt. Ltd.
  • FibriCheck
  • FinnAdvance
  • Fleep Technologies
  • Fleming Medical
  • FlexEnable Limited
  • FlexEnable Ltd.
  • FlexEnergy LLC
  • Flexterra, Inc.
  • Flextrapower
  • Flosonics Medical
  • Flow Bio
  • Footfalls & Heartbeats (UK) Limited
  • Forciot Oy Ltd
  • Forcz, Inc.
  • Forge Nano, Inc.
  • Formosa Taffeta
  • Forster Rohner AG
  • Fraunhofer Institute for Electronic Nano Systems (ENAS)
  • Fronics
  • Front Edge Technology
  • Fuelium
  • Fuji Pigment Co., Ltd.
  • Fujian Huafeng Industry Co., Ltd.
  • Fujita Medical Instruments
  • Fujitsu Laboratories Ltd.
  • Futaba Corporation
  • FutureCure Health
  • Gait Up SA
  • Ganfeng Lithium
  • Gaugewear, Inc.
  • GE Healthcare
  • Gelion Technologies Pty Ltd.
  • General Motors (GM)
  • Gentag, Inc.
  • German Bionic
  • GlakoLens
  • Global Graphene Group
  • Glooko
  • GlucoRx
  • Glucovation
  • Glucovibes
  • GluSense
  • GlySens Incorporated
  • GOGO Band
  • GQenergy srl
  • Grafoid
  • Grafren AB
  • Grapheal
  • Graphene Batteries AS
  • Graphene Manufacturing Group Pty Ltd
  • Graphene One LLC
  • Graphwear Technologies
  • greenTEG AG
  • Group14 Technologies, Inc.
  • G-Tech Medical
  • Guangdong Nanhai ETEB Technology Co., Ltd.
  • H.E.A.T. Inc
  • H2L, Inc.
  • h2o Therapeutics
  • Hansol Chemical
  • HC SemiTek Corporation
  • HE3DA Ltd.
  • Healables
  • Healbe Corporation
  • healthsign Ltd.
  • Healthwatch Technologies
  • HeiQ Materials AG
  • Heraeus Epurio
  • HeroWear
  • Heru, Inc.
  • Hexalayer LLC
  • Hexoskin
  • Hilu
  • Hinge Health, Inc
  • Hitachi Ltd.
  • Hitachi Zosen Corporation
  • Hivok Biotek, Inc.
  • Holst Centre
  • Hoya Digital Solutions Corp.
  • HP1 Technologies
  • HPQ Nano Silicon Powders Inc.
  • Humane
  • Humanox
  • Hybrid Kinetic Group
  • Hyprint
  • iBeam Materials, Inc.
  • ible Technology, Inc.
  • IcosaMed Sarl
  • Idemitsu Kosan Co., Ltd.
  • Identiv
  • IDRO
  • IDUN Technologies AG
  • Ilika plc
  • Imagine Intelligent Materials Pty Ltd
  • iMediSync
  • Imprint Energy, Inc.
  • Indiafoot
  • Indigo Diabetes n.v.
  • Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI)
  • Infratab
  • Inkcups Now
  • Innolux Corporation
  • InnovationLab
  • Innovega, Inc
  • Insignia
  • Insulet Corporation
  • Intecells
  • Intento SA
  • Interactive Wear
  • Inuheat Group AB
  • Inuru
  • Inuru GmbH
  • Invicta Medical, Inc.
  • InviSense AB
  • Ion Storage Systems LLC
  • Ionic Materials
  • IONIQ Skincare GmbH & Co. KG
  • iRhythm Technologies, Inc.
  • Iristick
  • Is it fresh
  • Isansys Lifecare
  • i-SENS, Inc.
  • iSono Health
  • I-Ten SA
  • ivWatch, LLC
  • iWEECARE Co., Ltd.
  • Japan Display Inc. (JDI)
  • Jenax, Inc.
  • Johnson Energy Storage, Inc.
  • Johnson Matthey
  • Joled Inc.
  • JuneBrain, Inc.
  • JUNOdts
  • Karl Knauer KG
  • keepMED
  • KEMET: Flexible Haptic Actuators
  • Kenzen
  • Kenzen, Inc.
  • Kernel
  • Kiffik Biomedical, Inc.
  • Kinetic
  • Know Labs
  • Kokoon
  • Kokoromi, Inc.
  • Komodo Technologies, Inc.
  • Koya, Inc.
  • Kubota
  • Kureha Corporation
  • Kwant.ai
  • Kyocera Corporation
  • Kyulux, Inc
  • Laronix
  • Laxmi Therapeutic Devices
  • Leaf Healthcare, Inc.
  • LG Chemical, Ltd.
  • LG Display (LGD)
  • Liangdong Technology
  • LiBEST
  • LiBest, Inc.
  • LiCAP Technologies, Inc.
  • Lief Therapeutics, Inc.
  • LifePlus
  • LifePlus Inc.
  • LifeSense
  • LifeSignals Group Inc.
  • LifeSpan
  • LimeLoop
  • linktop
  • Lionrock Batteries
  • LionVolt BV
  • Liquid Wire, Inc.
  • Liquid X Printed Metals
  • Lithium Werks BV
  • Litho
  • Logbar
  • Loomia Technologies, Inc.
  • Luboo
  • Lucid Audio, LLC
  • LumenAstra
  • Lumeo Technology AB (Lumeotech)
  • Lumify Care, Inc.
  • Luminit, LLC
  • Lyten, Inc.
  • MagArray, Inc.
  • Magic Leap, Inc.
  • Maka RFID
  • Marani Health, Inc.
  • Matrix Industries
  • Matrix Sensors, Inc.
  • MAWI
  • MC10, Inc.
  • MCK Tech Co., Ltd.
  • MEDEXO Robotics
  • Medherant Ltd
  • MediBioSense Ltd.
  • Medita
  • MediThinQ
  • Medtor LLC
  • MedVigilance
  • Merck & Co., Inc
  • MesoMat
  • Metaphysiks Engineering SA
  • Mezoo Co., Ltd
  • mHealth Technologies
  • Mictic AG
  • Milbotix
  • Milo Sensors, Inc
  • MindPortal, Inc.
  • miomove s.r.o.
  • Mithras Technology AG
  • Mitsufuji Corporation
  • Mobio Interactive
  • Mode Sensors AS
  • Modjoul
  • Modoo
  • Mojo Vision, Inc.
  • Molecular Glasses, Inc.
  • Molex
  • Movano Inc.
  • Movesense Ltd
  • MTEC GLOBAL Co., Ltd.
  • munevo GmbH
  • Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd.
  • Muse Diagnostics Pvt. Ltd.
  • Myant, Inc.
  • MyEli
  • Myontec Oy
  • Mysteria Colorum (MyCol)
  • Nano Engineered Applications, Inc.
  • Nano One Materials
  • NanoGraf Corporation
  • Nanoleq AG
  • Nanolumi
  • Nanom
  • Nanoramic Laboratories
  • Nanotech Energy Inc.
  • NanoVation-GS
  • Nanowear, Inc.
  • Nanusens
  • Nawa Techonologies
  • NDB
  • NEC Corporation
  • NeckCare
  • NEI Corporation
  • Nemaura Medical, Inc.
  • Neopenda
  • Neosensory
  • Neuphony
  • Neuralert
  • Neurava
  • Neurovalens Ltd.
  • Nextiles, Inc.
  • NextVPU (Shanghai) Co., Ltd.
  • NGK Insulators Ltd.
  • Nimbus Materials, Inc.
  • Nippon Chemicon
  • Nippon Mektron, Ltd.
  • Nippon Paper Group
  • Nix Biosensors
  • Noble Biomaterials, Inc.
  • Noctrix Health, Inc.
  • Novalogy Ltd.
  • Novasentis
  • NS Nanotech
  • NthDegree
  • NTT (New Textile Technologies) GmbH
  • Nuada
  • Nukute Ltd
  • Nunaps
  • Nurvv
  • Nutronimcs
  • NUUBO Smart Solutions Technologies, SL
  • Nuvo Group Ltd.
  • Nymbl Science, Inc.
  • Nyoka Technologies
  • NYX Technologies
  • Ohmatex
  • Oji Holdings Corporation
  • OKW Odenwälder Kunststoffwerke Gehäusesysteme GmbH
  • OliTec
  • Omniply Technologies
  • Omron Healthcare
  • Onalabs Inno-Hub
  • OneD Material
  • OnVuTM
  • Optotune AG
  • OrCam Technologies Ltd.
  • Orchestra Scientific S.L
  • Organic Robotics Corporation
  • Origami Group Limited
  • ORORO Heated Apparel
  • Orpyx Medical Technologies
  • Orpyx Medical Technologies Inc.
  • Osaka Organic Chemical Industry Ltd.
  • Otolith Labs, Inc.
  • Outlast Technologies LLC
  • Ovie Smarterware
  • Oxitone Medical Ltd
  • OxiWear
  • Oxsight Ltd.
  • Oy Morphona Ltd.
  • Pacific Diabetes Technologies
  • Palarum, LLC
  • Paragit Solutions Aps
  • PARC
  • Patchd, Inc.
  • PDNeurotechnology
  • Peerbridge Health
  • Phase IV Engineering
  • Pie Crystal Co., Ltd.
  • Piomic Medical AG
  • PJP Eye Ltd.
  • PKvitality
  • Plastic Logic
  • PlayNitride, Inc.
  • PMD Solutions
  • POCTech Co., Ltd.
  • Point Fit Technology
  • PolyPlus Battery Company
  • Power Textiles Limited
  • PragmatIC
  • prelonic technologies
  • Prevayl Limited
  • Preventice Solutions, Inc.
  • Prieto Battery
  • Primo1D
  • Printed Energy Pty Ltd.
  • Prologium Technology Co., Ltd.
  • Promethean Particles Ltd.
  • Pronat Medical
  • Prooftag
  • Propel LLC
  • Protxx, Inc.
  • Proxxi
  • Qardio, Inc.
  • Qing Tao Energy Development
  • QT Medical, Inc.
  • Quad Industries
  • Quantum Operation Co., Ltd.
  • QuantumScape Battery Corporation
  • RealWear
  • Reflex
  • Remedee Labs
  • Resilient Lifescience
  • Resmetrix Medical Ltd.
  • Respira Labs
  • Respiray OÜ
  • Rhaeos, Inc.
  • Rhythm Diagnostic Systems
  • Rithmi
  • Rockley Photonics
  • Roddy Medical Inc.
  • Rokid
  • Rooti Labs Limited
  • Royole Corporation
  • Ruentex Industries Limited
  • RxFunction
  • SafKan, Inc.
  • Sakuú Corporation
  • SaltX Technology AB
  • Samay
  • Samsung
  • Samsung SDI
  • Sankiconsys Co., Ltd.
  • Sanofi
  • sansirro GmbH
  • Saratoga Energy Corporation
  • Scaleo Medical
  • Schoeller Textil AG
  • Schöffel
  • Schott AG
  • Screentec Oy
  • Securikett
  • Seer Medical
  • Seers Technology Co., Ltd.
  • Seismic
  • Sekisui Polymatech
  • Sekisui Polymatech Japan Co., Ltd.
  • Semiconductor Energy Laboratory Co., Ltd.
  • Sencure B.V.
  • Sensemodi
  • Senseonics Holdings, Inc.
  • SensFit Technologies
  • Sensi.ai
  • Sensifree
  • Sensing Tex
  • Sensium (Surgical Company Group)
  • Sensoria
  • Sensoria Health
  • Sepio Products
  • Sequent AG
  • SES
  • SES-imagotag
  • Seventh Sense Biosystems
  • Shenzhen Danbond Technology Co Ltd
  • Shenzhen Grahope New Materials Technologies Inc
  • Shenzhen Grepow Battery Co., Ltd. (Grepow)
  • Shift Robotics Inc.
  • Shinano Kenshi Co., Ltd.
  • Sibel Health
  • Sicona Battery Technologies Pty Ltd
  • Sigknow Biomedical Inc.
  • Sila Nanotechnologies
  • Silatronix
  • Silvertree
  • Singular Wings Medical Co., Ltd.
  • Sinopulsar Technology, Inc.
  • Sionic Energy
  • Siren
  • SkinBreeze B.V.
  • Skinos Co., Ltd.
  • SkyLabs
  • Skyscrape Inc
  • SleepActa
  • Smardii, Inc.
  • SmartCap Technologies
  • SmartIR Ltd.
  • SmartKem Limited
  • SMARTR Health Limited
  • Snore Circle
  • SnowCookie
  • Soelect, Inc.
  • Softmatter
  • Solid Power Inc.
  • Somatix
  • Sonceboz SA
  • Sorrel Medical
  • Soter Analytics
  • SpaceBands Ltd.
  • Sparkz, Inc.
  • Spiber Technologies AB
  • Spirit of Wonder Co., Ltd.
  • Statex Produktions- und Vertriebs GmbH
  • StaTwig
  • SteadySense GmbH
  • StimAire
  • STMicroelectronics
  • StoreDot
  • StretchSense
  • StretchSkin
  • Stridelink, Inc.
  • Strive
  • Subcuject
  • Sun Corporation
  • SuraMedical
  • Sympatient
  • Synchron, Inc.
  • SyncMOF Co., Ltd.
  • Tacterion GmbH
  • TactoTek Oy
  • TAG Sensors
  • Taiwan Alpha Electronic Co., Ltd.
  • Taiyo Industrial Co., Ltd.
  • Tapwow
  • TCL
  • TDK
  • Tech-Wave Industrial Co., Ltd.
  • Tec-Innovation GmbH
  • Teijin Limited
  • Tekscan, Inc.
  • Tempdrop Inc.
  • Tempix
  • TempTRIP
  • Tentok Paper Co. Ltd.
  • TeraWatt Technology
  • Teslasuit
  • Teveri
  • Texis
  • Tex-Ray Industrial Co., Ltd.
  • Textile Two Dimensional
  • Theranica
  • Thermaband, Inc.
  • Thread In Motion
  • Thync
  • Tianma Display Technology Co., Ltd.,
  • TickerFit
  • Ticto
  • Timestrip
  • Tivic Health Systems, Inc.
  • Tobii Technology KK
  • Token
  • Tokushu Tokai Paper Co., Ltd.
  • Tonus
  • Toray Industries
  • Toray Industries, Inc.
  • Touchcode Progress
  • Touchlab
  • Toyobo Co., Ltd
  • Triple W Japan Co., Ltd.
  • Tyme Wear
  • Ultrahuman
  • Ulvac
  • Unhindr
  • UNIGRID Battery
  • Urbix Resources
  • Vagustim
  • Valencell
  • Varcode
  • Vaulta
  • Vaxxas
  • Velox
  • Verily Life Sciences LLC
  • Versarien plc
  • Verve Motion
  • Vesta Smart Packaging
  • Vibrato Medical
  • Vielight, Inc.
  • Virility Medical
  • Visca LLC
  • Visionox
  • Vista Medical
  • VitalConnect
  • Vitls Inc
  • VitreaLab GmbH
  • vitsab
  • VivaLNK
  • Viveat
  • VivoSense
  • Vixion
  • Volexion
  • Vollebak
  • Volt Wearable Tech Corporation
  • Voxel8
  • Waire Health Ltd.
  • Wakecap Technologies
  • Walk With Path
  • Watz
  • WaveForm Technologies
  • WBD101 Well Being Digital Ltd.
  • Wearable Devices Ltd.
  • Wearable X
  • WearOptimo
  • Wellysis
  • Wergonic AB
  • West Pharmaceutical Services, Inc.
  • Westunitis
  • Wiliot
  • WIrobotics
  • Wispr AI Inc
  • Withings SA
  • Wusa
  • Xenoma, Inc.
  • Xmetix Ltd.
  • Xsensio
  • X-trodes
  • Yamaha Motor Co., Ltd.
  • Ybrain
  • Ynvisible
  • Ynvisible Interactive Inc.
  • Yodel Technologies, Inc.
  • Zeit Medical
  • ZetrOZ
  • Zhuhai AdvanPro Technology Co., Ltd.
  • Zive
  • ZOZO Group
  • ZTE Corporation