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The Global Market for Printed and Flexible Electronics 2024-2034

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  • 1321 Pages
  • February 2024
  • Region: Global
  • Future Markets, Inc
  • ID: 5353540

Printed and flexible electronics are shaping the future. Due to advancements in materials science, printing technology, and other additive manufacturing processes, product designers can now leverage flexible electronics’ many benefits without sacrificing capabilities and functionality. Flexible hybrid electronics (FHE) that combine flexible substrates and low-cost functional ink printing with other traditional components are leading to innovative form factors and product differentiation, including smaller devices, improved comfort for users, and lightweighting.

The Global Market for Printed and Flexible Electronics 2024-2034 provides an in-depth analysis of the global printed, flexible, stretchable and hybrid electronics industry. The report analyses the overall industry landscape including macro trends, latest technical and commercial developments, products, key enabling technologies like sensors, displays, circuits, materials etc. It provides a comparative analysis of manufacturing techniques like screen printing, inkjet printing, 3D printing, roll-to-roll processing etc.

In-depth demand analysis is provided across several verticals:

  • Consumer Electronics: wearables, hearables, sports/fitness monitors etc.
  • Medical & Healthcare: electronic skin patches, continuous glucose monitors, remote patient monitoring, drug delivery, prosthetics etc.
  • Automotive: HMI, sensors, lighting, battery monitoring, EV range enhancement etc.
  • Smart Buildings & Construction: HVAC, lighting, asset tracking etc.
  • Smart Packaging: freshness indicators, track & trace, anti-counterfeiting etc.
  • E-textiles and apparel: temperature monitoring & regulation, stretchable E-fabrics, therapeutic textiles, sports & fitness, smart footwear, wearable displays, smart gloves etc. 
  • Displays: Flexible and foldable displays, Micro-LEDs, lighting etc.  

Additionally, the report analyses the flexible, printed and solid-state battery markets for electronics. It also explores latest advances in flexible photovoltaics, wireless charging, energy harvesting for powering flexible and wearable devices. The report provides a deep dive into the global printed, flexible and hybrid electronics industry with a detailed value chain analysis and benchmarking of over 15 manufacturing methods like screen, inkjet, gravure, flexographic printing, laser processing, photolithography, full 3D printing etc.

Over 50 key enabling materials and components are explored in detail spanning substrates, conductive materials, inks, printable semiconductors, thin film batteries, photovoltaics, lighting solutions etc. Trends in sustainability, biodegradability and recycling of flexible electronics are also analyzed.

On the demand side, the study provides granular ten-year forecasts by 24 key end-use applications and over a dozen vertical markets. For instance, in medical electronics, market revenues are segmented by continuous glucose monitors, cardiovascular monitors, wearable drug delivery devices, electronic skin patches, flexible displays, exoskeletons etc.

For automotive, forecast demand is quantified for sensors, lighting, EV range enhancement, HMI etc. The report also analyzes the integration of printed electronics in smart infrastructure across buildings, factories, warehouses, airports, retail spaces etc. and the key technologies powering this shift.

Emerging areas like the metaverse, flexible OLED lighting, transparent antennas, heaters, biomonitoring and assistive wearables have also been covered.

On the supply side, the report profiles 800+ manufacturers and developers of printed flexible electronics across sensors, batteries, PV, substrates, wearables, medical devices etc. Latest product launches, partnerships, pilot plants and production capacities are tracked for each company. Companies profiled include BeFC, Brewer Science, C3 Nano, Canatu, CHASM, Dracula Technologies, DuPont, e2ip Technologies, Electroninks, Elephantech, Epicore Biosystems, FlexEnable, Fuji Corporation, GE Healthcare, Heraeus Epurio, Inkron Oy (Nagase), Inuru, Japan Display, Inc. (JDI), LG Display, Liquid Wire, Myrias Optics, NovaCentrix, Optomec, Panasonic, PowerON, Pragmatic Semiconductor, Printoptix, PVNanoCell, SmartKem Ltd., Syenta, tacterion GmbH, Tactotek, TracXon, Voltera, Xymox Technologies, Inc. and Ynvisible.

Backed by over 250 tables and 500 figures, the report provides historic revenues from 2018-2022 and market forecasts up to 2034 by technology, components, products, regions and application sectors. 

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Table of Contents

1              EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1.1          The evolution of electronics
1.2          Markets for printed and flexible electronics
1.2.1      Macro-trends
1.2.2      Healthcare and wellness
1.2.3      Automotive
1.2.4      Buildings and construction
1.2.5      Energy storage and harvesting
1.2.6      E-Textiles
1.2.7      Consumer electronics
1.2.8      Smart packaging and logistics
1.3          The wearables revolution
1.4          The wearable tech market in 2023
1.5          Continuous monitoring
1.6          Market map for printed and flexible electronics
1.7          Wearable market leaders
1.8          What is printed/flexible electronics?
1.8.1      Motivation for use
1.8.2      From rigid to flexible and stretchable   Stretchable electronics   Stretchable electronics in wearables   Stretchable electronics in Medical devices   Stretchable electronics in sensors   Stretchable electronics in energy harvesting   Stretchable artificial skin
1.9          Role in the metaverse
1.10        Wearable electronics in the textiles industry
1.11        New conductive materials
1.12        Entertainment
1.13        Growth in flexible and stretchable electronics market
1.13.1    Recent growth in Printed, flexible and hyrbid products
1.13.2    Future growth
1.13.3    Advanced materials as a market driver
1.13.4    Growth in remote health monitoring and diagnostics
1.14        Innovations at CES 2021-2024
1.15        Investment funding and buy-outs 2019-2024
1.16        Flexible hybrid electronics (FHE)
1.17        Sustainability in flexible electronics
1.18        Global market revenues, 2018-2034
1.18.1    Consumer electronics
1.18.2    Medical & healthcare
1.18.3    E-textiles and smart apparel
1.18.4    Displays
1.18.5    Automotive
1.18.6    Smart buildings
1.18.7    Smart packaging

2.1          Comparative analysis
2.2          Printed electronics
2.2.1      Technology description
2.2.2      SWOT analysis
2.3          3D electronics
2.3.1      Technology description
2.3.2      SWOT analysis
2.4          Analogue printing
2.4.1      Technology description
2.4.2      SWOT analysis
2.5          Digital printing
2.5.1      Technology description
2.5.2      SWOT analysis
2.6          In-mold electronics (IME)
2.6.1      Technology description
2.6.2      SWOT analysis
2.7          Roll-to-roll (R2R)
2.7.1      Technology description
2.7.2      SWOT analysis

3.1          Component attachment materials
3.1.1      Conductive adhesives
3.1.2      Biodegradable adhesives
3.1.3      Magnets
3.1.4      Bio-based solders
3.1.5      Bio-derived solders
3.1.6      Recycled plastics
3.1.7      Nano adhesives
3.1.8      Shape memory polymers
3.1.9      Photo-reversible polymers
3.1.10    Conductive biopolymers
3.1.11    Traditional thermal processing methods
3.1.12    Low temperature solder
3.1.13    Reflow soldering
3.1.14    Induction soldering
3.1.15    UV curing
3.1.16    Near-infrared (NIR) radiation curing
3.1.17    Photonic sintering/curing
3.1.18    Hybrid integration
3.2          Conductive inks
3.2.1      Metal-based conductive inks
3.2.2      Nanoparticle inks
3.2.3      Silver inks
3.2.4      Particle-Free conductive ink
3.2.5      Copper inks
3.2.6      Gold (Au) ink
3.2.7      Conductive polymer inks
3.2.8      Liquid metals
3.3          Printable semiconductors
3.3.1      Technology overview
3.3.2      Advantages and disadvantages
3.3.3      SWOT analysis
3.4          Printable sensing materials
3.4.1      Overview
3.4.2      Types
3.4.3      SWOT analysis
3.5          Flexible Substrates
3.5.1      Flexible plastic substrates   Types of materials   Flexible (bio) polyimide PCBs
3.5.2      Paper substrates   Overview
3.5.3      Glass substrates   Overview
3.5.4      Textile substrates
3.6          Flexible ICs
3.6.1      Description
3.6.2      Flexible metal oxide ICs
3.6.3      Comparison of flexible integrated circuit technologies
3.6.4      SWOT analysis
3.7          Printed PCBs
3.7.1      Description
3.7.2      High-Speed PCBs
3.7.3      Flexible PCBs
3.7.4      3D Printed PCBs
3.7.5      Sustainable PCBs
3.8          Thin film batteries
3.8.1      Technology description
3.8.2      SWOT analysis
3.9          Energy harvesting
3.9.1      Approaches
3.9.2      Perovskite photovoltaics
3.9.3      Applications
3.9.4      SWOT analysis

4.1          Macro-trends
4.2          Market drivers
4.3          SWOT analysis
4.4          Wearable sensors
4.5          Wearable actuators
4.6          Recent market developments
4.7          Wrist-worn wearables
4.7.1      Overview
4.7.2      Sports-watches, smart-watches and fitness trackers   Sensing   Actuating
4.7.3      SWOT analysis
4.7.4      Health monitoring
4.7.5      Energy harvesting for powering smartwatches
4.7.6      Main producers and products
4.8          Sports and fitness
4.8.1      Overview
4.8.2      Wearable devices and apparel
4.8.3      Skin patches
4.8.4      Products
4.9          Hearables
4.9.1      Technology overview
4.9.2      Assistive Hearables   Biometric Monitoring
4.9.3      SWOT analysis
4.9.4      Health & Fitness Hearables
4.9.5      Multimedia Hearables
4.9.6      Artificial Intelligence (AI)
4.9.7      Companies and products
4.10        Sleep trackers and wearable monitors
4.10.1    Built in function in smart watches and fitness trackers
4.10.2    Smart rings
4.10.3    Headbands
4.10.4    Sleep monitoring devices                Companies and products
4.11        Pet and animal wearables
4.12        Military wearables
4.13        Industrial and workplace monitoring
4.13.1    Products
4.14        Global market revenues
4.15        Market challenges

5.1          Macro-trends
5.2          Market drivers
5.3          SWOT analysis
5.4          Current state of the art
5.4.1      Electrochemical biosensors
5.4.2      Skin patches for continuous monitoring
5.4.3      Printed pH sensors
5.4.4      Wearable medical device products
5.4.5      Temperature and respiratory rate monitoring
5.5          Wearable and health monitoring and rehabilitation
5.5.1      Market overview
5.5.2      Companies and products
5.6          Electronic skin patches
5.6.1      Electronic skin sensors
5.6.2      Conductive hydrogels for soft and flexible electronics
5.6.3      Nanomaterials-based devices   Graphene
5.6.4      Liquid metal alloys
5.6.5      Conductive hydrogels for soft and flexible electronics
5.6.6      Printed batteries
5.6.7      Materials   Summary of advanced materials
5.6.8      SWOT analysis
5.6.9      Temperature and respiratory rate monitoring   Market overview   Companies and products
5.6.10    Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM)                Market overview
5.6.11    Minimally-invasive CGM sensors                Technologies
5.6.12    Non-invasive CGM sensors                Commercial devices                Companies and products
5.6.13    Cardiovascular monitoring                Market overview                ECG sensors             Companies and products                PPG sensors             Companies and products
5.6.14    Pregnancy and newborn monitoring                Market overview                Companies and products
5.6.15    Hydration sensors                Market overview                Companies and products
5.6.16    Wearable sweat sensors (medical and sports)                Market overview                Companies and products
5.7          Wearable drug delivery
5.7.1      Companies and products
5.8          Cosmetics patches
5.8.1      Companies and products
5.9          Femtech devices
5.9.1      Companies and products
5.10        Smart footwear for health monitoring
5.10.1    Companies and products
5.11        Smart contact lenses and smart glasses for visually impaired
5.11.1    Companies and products
5.12        Smart woundcare
5.12.1    Companies and products
5.13        Smart diapers
5.13.1    Companies and products
5.14        Wearable robotics-exo-skeletons, bionic prostheses, exo-suits, and body worn collaborative robots
5.14.1    Companies and products
5.15        Global market revenues
5.16        Market challenges

6.1          Macro-trends
6.2          Market drivers
6.3          SWOT analysis
6.4          Performance requirements for E-textiles
6.5          Growth prospects for electronic textiles
6.6          Textiles in the Internet of Things
6.7          Types of E-Textile products
6.7.1      Embedded e-textiles
6.7.2      Laminated e-textiles
6.8          Materials and components
6.8.1      Integrating electronics for E-Textiles   Textile-adapted   Textile-integrated   Textile-based
6.8.2      Manufacturing of E-textiles   Integration of conductive polymers and inks   Integration of conductive yarns and conductive filament fibers   Integration of conductive sheets
6.8.3      Flexible and stretchable electronics in E-textiles
6.8.4      E-textiles materials and components   Conductive and stretchable fibers and yarns               Production               Metals               Carbon materials and nanofibers           Graphene           Carbon nanotubes           Nanofibers   Mxenes   Hexagonal boron-nitride (h-BN)/Bboron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs)   Conductive polymers               PDMS               PEDOT: PSS               Polypyrrole (PPy)               Conductive polymer composites               Ionic conductive polymers   Conductive inks               Aqueous-Based Ink               Solvent-Based Ink               Oil-Based Ink               Hot-Melt Ink               UV-Curable Ink               Metal-based conductive inks           Nanoparticle ink           Silver inks           Copper inks           Gold (Au) ink               Carbon-based conductive inks           Carbon nanotubes           Single-walled carbon nanotubes           Graphene               Liquid metals           Properties   Electronic filaments   Phase change materials               Temperature controlled fabrics   Shape memory materials   Metal halide perovskites                Nanocoatings in smart textiles                3D printing             Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM)             Selective Laser Sintering (SLS)             Products
6.8.5      E-textiles components   Sensors and actuators               Physiological sensors               Environmental sensors               Pressure sensors           Flexible capacitive sensors           Flexible piezoresistive sensors           Flexible piezoelectric sensors               Activity sensors               Strain sensors           Resistive sensors           Capacitive strain sensors               Temperature sensors               Inertial measurement units (IMUs)   Electrodes   Connectors
6.9          Applications, markets and products
6.9.1      Current E-textiles and smart clothing products
6.9.2      Temperature monitoring and regulation   Heated clothing   Heated gloves   Heated insoles   Heated jacket and clothing products   Materials used in flexible heaters and applications
6.9.3      Stretchable E-fabrics
6.9.4      Therapeutic products
6.9.5      Sport & fitness   Products
6.9.6      Smart footwear   Companies and products
6.9.7      Wearable displays
6.9.8      Military
6.9.9      Textile-based lighting   OLEDs
6.9.10    Smart gloves
6.9.11    Powering E-textiles                Advantages and disadvantages of main battery types for E-textiles                Bio-batteries                Challenges for battery integration in smart textiles                Textile supercapacitors                Energy harvesting             Photovoltaic solar textiles             Energy harvesting nanogenerators         TENGs         PENGs             Radio frequency (RF) energy harvesting
6.9.12    Motion capture for AR/VR
6.10        Global market revenues
6.11        Market challenges

7.1          Macro-trends
7.2          Market drivers
7.3          SWOT analysis
7.4          Applications of printed and flexible electronics
7.5          Flexible and stretchable batteries for electronics
7.6          Battery market megatrends
7.7          Solid-state thin film batteries
7.7.1      Introduction   Features and advantages   Technical specifications   Types   Microbatteries               Introduction               Materials           Applications               3D designs           3D printed batteries   Bulk type solid-state batteries   Shortcomings and market challenges for solid-state thin film batteries
7.8          Flexible batteries (including stretchable, rollable, bendable and foldable)
7.8.1      Technical specifications   Approaches to flexibility               Flexible electronics               Flexible materials
7.8.2      Flexible and wearable Metal-sulfur batteries
7.8.3      Flexible and wearable Metal-air batteries
7.8.4      Flexible Lithium-ion Batteries   Electrode designs   Fiber-shaped Lithium-Ion batteries   Stretchable lithium-ion batteries   Origami and kirigami lithium-ion batteries
7.8.5      Flexible Li/S batteries   Components   Carbon nanomaterials
7.8.6      Flexible lithium-manganese dioxide (Li-MnO2) batteries
7.8.7      Flexible zinc-based batteries   Components               Anodes               Cathodes   Challenges   Flexible zinc-manganese dioxide (Zn-Mn) batteries   Flexible silver-zinc (Ag-Zn) batteries   Flexible Zn-Air batteries   Flexible zinc-vanadium batteries
7.8.8      Fiber-shaped batteries   Carbon nanotubes   Types   Applications   Challenges
7.8.9      Transparent batteries   Components
7.8.10    Degradable batteries                Components
7.8.11    Flexible and stretchable supercapacitors                Nanomaterials for electrodes                Energy harvesting combined with wearable energy storage devices
7.9          Printed batteries
7.9.1      Technical specifications   Components               Design   Key features   Printable current collectors   Printable electrodes   Materials   Applications   Printing techniques   Applications
7.9.2      Lithium-ion (LIB) printed batteries
7.9.3      Zinc-based printed batteries
7.9.4      3D Printed batteries   3D Printing techniques for battery manufacturing   Materials for 3D printed batteries               Electrode materials               Electrolyte Materials
7.9.5      Printed supercapacitors   Electrode materials   Electrolytes
7.10        Photovoltaics
7.10.1    Conductive pastes
7.10.2    Organic photovoltaics (OPV)
7.10.3    Perovskite PV
7.10.4    Flexible and stretchable photovoltaics                Companies
7.10.5    Photovoltaic solar textiles
7.10.6    Solar tape
7.10.7    Origami-like solar cells
7.10.8    Spray-on and stick-on perovskite photovoltaics
7.10.9    Photovoltaic solar textiles
7.11        Stretchable heaters
7.12        Spray-on thermoelectric energy harvesting
7.13        Paper based fuel cells
7.14        Global market revenues
7.15        Market challenges

8.1          Macro-trends
8.2          Market drivers
8.3          SWOT analysis
8.4          Printed and flexible display prototypes and products
8.5          Organic LCDs (OLCDs)
8.6          Flexible AMOLEDs
8.7          Flexible PMOLED (Passive Matrix OLED)
8.7.1      Printed OLEDs   Performance   Challenges   Commercial inkjet-printed OLED displays
8.8          Flexible and foldable microLED
8.8.1      Foldable microLED displays
8.8.2      Product developers
8.9          Flexible QD displays
8.10        Smartphones
8.11        Laptops, tablets and other displays
8.12        Products and prototypes
8.13        Flexible lighting
8.13.1    OLED lighting
8.13.2    Automotive applications                Commercial activity
8.14        FHE for large area lighting
8.15        Directly printed LED lighting
8.16        Flexible electrophoretic displays
8.16.1    Commercial activity
8.17        Electrowetting displays
8.18        Electrochromic displays
8.19        Perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs)
8.19.1    Types
8.19.2    Challenges
8.19.3    White PeLEDs
8.19.4    Printable and flexible electronics
8.20        Metamaterials
8.20.1    Metasurfaces                Flexible metasurfaces                Meta-Lens                Metasurface holograms                Stretchable displays                Soft materials
8.21        Transparent displays
8.21.1    Product developers
8.22        Global market revenues
8.23        Market challenges

9.1          Macro-trends
9.2          Market drivers
9.3          SWOT analysis
9.4          Applications
9.4.1      Electric vehicles   Applications   Battery monitoring and heating   Printed temperature sensors and heaters
9.4.2      HMI
9.4.3      Automotive displays and lighting   Interiors               OLED and flexible displays               Passive-matrix OLEDs               Active matrix OLED               Transparent OLED for heads-up displays               LCD displays               Micro-LEDs in automotive displays           Head-up display (HUD)           Headlamps           Product developers   Exteriors
9.4.4      In-Mold Electronics
9.4.5      Printed and flexible sensors   Capacitive sensors   Flexible and stretchable pressure sensors   Piezoresistive sensors   Piezoelectric sensors   Image sensors               Materials and technologies
9.4.6      Printed heaters   Printed car seat heaters   Printed/flexible interior heaters   Printed on-glass heater   Carbon nanotube transparent conductors   Metal mesh transparent conductors   3D shaped transparent heaters   Direct heating   Transparent heaters
9.4.7      Transparent antennas
9.4.8      Global market revenues
9.4.9      Market challenges

10.1        Macro-trends
10.2        Market drivers
10.3        SWOT analysis
10.4        Applications
10.4.1    Industrial asset tracking/monitoring with hybrid electronics
10.4.2    Customizable interiors
10.4.3    Sensors                Capacitive sensors                Temperature and humidity sensors                Sensors for air quality                Magnetostrictive sensors                Magneto- and electrorheological fluids                CO2 sensors for energy efficient buildings
10.4.4    Building integrated transparent antennas
10.4.5    Reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RIS)
10.4.6    Industrial monitoring
10.5        Global market revenues

11.1        What is Smart Packaging?
11.1.1    Flexible hybrid electronics (FHE)
11.1.2    Printed batteries and antennas
11.1.3    Flexible silicon integrated circuits
11.1.4    Natural materials in packaging
11.1.5    Extruded conductive pastes and inkjet printing
11.1.6    OLEDs for smart and interactive packaging
11.1.7    Active packaging
11.1.8    Intelligent packaging                Smart Cards                RFID tags             Low-frequency (LF) RFID tags: 30 KHz to 300 KHz             High-frequency (HF) RFID tags: 3 to 30 MHz             Ultra-high-frequency (UHF) RFID tags: 300 MHz to 3GHz             Active, passive and semi-passive RFID tags                Temperature Indicators                Freshness Indicators                Gas Indicators
11.2        SWOT analysis
11.3        Supply chain management
11.4        Improving product freshness and extending shelf life
11.5        Brand protection and anti-counterfeiting
11.6        Printed and flexible electronics in packaging
11.6.1    FHE with printed batteries and antennas for smart packaging
11.6.2    Printed codes and markings
11.6.3    Barcodes (D)
11.6.4    D data matrix codes
11.6.5    Quick response (QR) codes
11.6.6    Augmented reality (AR) codes
11.6.7    Sensors and indicators                Freshness Indicators                Time-temperature indicator labels (TTIs)                Natural colour formulation indicator                Thermochromic inks                Gas indicators                Chemical Sensors                Electrochemical-Based Sensors                Optical-Based Sensors                Biosensors             Electrochemical-Based Biosensors             Optical-Based Biosensors              Edible Sensors
11.6.8    Antennas                Radio frequency identification (RFID)             RFID technologies         Biosensors on RFID tags         Powerless RFID sensor tags         RFID ICs with Large Area Printed Sensors         RFID for anti-counterfeiting             Passive RFID             Active RFID         Real Time Locating Systems (RTLS)         Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) and Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN)             Chipless RFID or Flexible/Printed IC Passive tags             RAIN (UHF RFID) Smart Packaging                Near-field communications (NFC)
11.6.9    Smart blister packs
11.7        Global market revenues

12           COMPANY PROFILES  (690company profiles13           RESEARCH METHODOLOGY14           REFERENCES
List of Tables
Table 1. Macro-trends driving printed/flexible electronics.
Table 2. Applications of printed and flexible electronics in healthcare & wellness.
Table 3. Applications of printed and flexible electronics in automotive.
Table 4. Applications of printed and flexible electronics in buildings and construction.
Table 5. Applications of printed and flexible electronics in energy storage and harvesting.
Table 6. Applications of printed and flexible electronics in E-textiles.
Table 7. Applications of printed and flexible electronics in consumer electronics.
Table 8. Applications of printed and flexible electronics in smart packaging and logistics.
Table 9. Types of wearable devices and applications.
Table 10. Types of wearable devices and the data collected.
Table 11. Main Wearable Device Companies by Shipment Volume, Market Share, and Year-Over-Year Growth, (million units).
Table 12. New wearable tech products 2022-2024.
Table 13. Wearable market leaders by market segment.
Table 14. Applications of stretchable electronics in wearables.
Table 15. Applications of stretchable electronics in sensors.
Table 16.  Applications of stretchable artificial skin electronics
Table 17. Applications for printed flexible and stretchable electronics in the metaverse.
Table 18. Advanced materials for Printed, flexible and stretchable sensors and Electronics-Advantages and disadvantages.
Table 19. Sheet resistance (RS) and transparency (T) values for transparent conductive oxides and alternative materials for transparent conductive electrodes (TCE).
Table 20. Applications of printed flexible and stretchable electronics in the entertainment industry.
Table 21. Wearable, printed and flexible electronics at CES 2021-2024.
Table 22. Wearables Investment funding and buy-outs 2019-2024.
Table 23. Comparative analysis of conventional and flexible hybrid electronics.
Table 24. Materials, components, and manufacturing methods for FHE
Table 25. Research and commercial activity in FHE.
Table 26. Manufacturing methods for printed, flexible and hybrid electronics.
Table 27.  Common printing methods used in printed electronics manufacturing in terms of resolution vs throughput.
Table 28. Manufacturing methods for 3D electronics.
Table 29.  Readiness level of various additive manufacturing technologies for electronics applications.
Table 30. Fully 3D printed electronics process steps
Table 31. Manufacturing methods for Analogue manufacturing.
Table 32. Technological and commercial readiness level of analogue printing methods.
Table 33. Manufacturing methods for Digital printing
Table 34. Innovations in high resolution printing.
Table 35. Key manufacturing methods for creating smart surfaces with integrated electronics.
Table 36. IME manufacturing techniques.
Table 37. Applications of R2R electronics manufacturing.
Table 38. Technology readiness level for R2R manufacturing.
Table 39. Materials for printed and flexible electronics.
Table 40. Comparison of component attachment materials.
Table 41. Comparison between sustainable and conventional component attachment materials for printed circuit boards
Table 42. Comparison between the SMAs and SMPs.
Table 43. Comparison of conductive biopolymers versus conventional materials for printed circuit board fabrication.
Table 44. Low temperature solder alloys.
Table 45. Thermally sensitive substrate materials.
Table 46. Typical conductive ink formulation.
Table 47. Comparative properties of conductive inks.
Table 48. Comparison of the electrical conductivities of liquid metal with typical conductive inks.
Table 49. Conductive ink producers.
Table 50. Technology readiness level of printed semiconductors.
Table 51. Organic semiconductors: Advantages and disadvantages.
Table 52. Market Drivers for printed/flexible sensors.
Table 53. Overview of specific printed/flexible sensor types.
Table 54. Properties of typical flexible substrates.
Table 55. Comparison of stretchable substrates.
Table 56.  Main types of materials used as flexible plastic substrates in flexible electronics.
Table 57. Applications of flexible (bio) polyimide PCBs.
Table 58. Paper substrates: Advantages and disadvantages.
Table 59. Comparison of flexible integrated circuit technologies.
Table 60. PCB manufacturing process.
Table 61. Challenges in PCB manufacturing.
Table 62. 3D PCB manufacturing.
Table 63. Macro-trends in consumer electronics.
Table 64. Market drivers and trends in wearable electronics.
Table 65. Types of wearable sensors.
Table 66. Trends in wearable technology.
Table 67. Different sensing modalities that can be incorporated into wrist-worn wearable device.
Table 68. Overview of actuating at the wrist
Table 69. Wearable health monitors.
Table 70. Sports-watches, smart-watches and fitness trackers producers and products.
Table 71. Wearable sensors for sports performance.
Table 72. Wearable sensor products for monitoring sport performance.
Table 73.  Product types in the hearing assistance technology market.
Table 74. Sensing options in the ear.
Table 75. Companies and products in hearables.
Table 76. Example wearable sleep tracker products and prices.
Table 77. Smart ring products.
Table 78. Sleep headband products.
Table 79. Sleep monitoring products.
Table 80. Pet wearable companies and products.
Table 81. Wearable electronics applications in the military.
Table 82. Wearable workplace products.
Table 83. Global market revenues for printed and flexible in consumer electronics, 2018-2034, (millions USD).
Table 84. Market challenges in consumer wearable electronics.
Table 85. Macro trends in medical & healthcare/ wellness.
Table 86. Market drivers for printed, flexible and stretchable medical and healthcare sensors and wearables.
Table 87. Healthcare/wellness applications for printed/flexible electronics.
Table 88. Examples of wearable medical device products.
Table 89. Medical wearable companies applying products to remote monitoring and analysis.
Table 90. Electronic skin patch manufacturing value chain.
Table 91. Benefits of electronic skin patches as a form factor.
Table 92. Current and emerging applications for electronic skin patches.
Table 93. Applications in flexible and stretchable health monitors, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof.
Table 94. Medical wearable companies applying products to temperate and respiratory monitoring and analysis.
Table 95. Technologies for minimally-invasive and non-invasive glucose detection-advantages and disadvantages.
Table 96. Commercial devices for non-invasive glucose monitoring not released or withdrawn from market.
Table 97. Minimally-invasive and non-invasive glucose monitoring products.
Table 98. Companies developing wearable swear sensors.
Table 99. Wearable drug delivery companies and products.
Table 100. Companies and products, cosmetics and drug delivery patches.
Table 101. Companies developing femtech wearable technology.
Table 102. Companies and products in smart footwear.
Table 103. Companies and products in smart contact lenses.
Table 104. Companies and products in smart wound care.
Table 105. Companies developing smart diaper products.
Table 106. Companies developing wearable robotics.
Table 107. Global market for printed and flexible medical & healthcare electronics, 2018-2034, millions of US dollars.
Table 108. Market challenges in medical and healthcare sensors and wearables.
Table 109. Macro-trends for electronic textiles.
Table 110. Market drivers for printed, flexible, stretchable and organic electronic textiles.
Table 111. Examples of smart textile products.
Table 112. Performance requirements for E-textiles.
Table 113. Commercially available smart clothing products.
Table 114. Types of smart textiles.
Table 115. Comparison of E-textile fabrication methods.
Table 116. Types of fabrics for the application of electronic textiles.
Table 117. Methods for integrating conductive compounds.
Table 118. Methods for integrating conductive yarn and conductive filament fiber.
Table 119. 1D electronic fibers including the conductive materials, fabrication strategies, electrical conductivity, stretchability, and applications.
Table 120. Conductive materials used in smart textiles, their electrical conductivity and percolation threshold.
Table 121. Metal coated fibers and their mechanisms.
Table 122. Applications of carbon nanomaterials and other nanomaterials in e-textiles.
Table 123. Applications and benefits of graphene in textiles and apparel.
Table 124. Properties of CNTs and comparable materials.
Table 125. Properties of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN).
Table 126. Types of flexible conductive polymers, properties and applications.
Table 127. Typical conductive ink formulation.
Table 128. Comparative properties of conductive inks.
Table 129.  Comparison of pros and cons of various types of conductive ink compositions.
Table 130. Properties of CNTs and comparable materials.
Table 131. Properties of graphene.
Table 132. Electrical conductivity of different types of graphene.
Table 133. Comparison of the electrical conductivities of liquid metal with typical conductive inks.
Table 134. Nanocoatings applied in the smart textiles industry-type of coating, nanomaterials utilized, benefits and applications.
Table 135. 3D printed shoes.
Table 136. Sensors used in electronic textiles.
Table 137. Features of flexible strain sensors with different structures.
Table 138. Features of resistive and capacitive strain sensors.
Table 139. Typical applications and markets for e-textiles.
Table 140. Commercially available E-textiles and smart clothing products.
Table 141. Example heated jacket products.
Table 142. Heated jacket and clothing products.
Table 143. Examples of materials used in flexible heaters and applications.
Table 144. Commercialized smart textiles/or e-textiles for healthcare and fitness applications.
Table 145. Example earable sensor products for monitoring sport performance.
Table 146.Companies and products in smart footwear.
Table 147. Wearable electronics applications in the military.
Table 148. Advantages and disadvantages of batteries for E-textiles.
Table 149. Comparison of prototype batteries (flexible, textile, and other) in terms of area-specific performance.
Table 150. Advantages and disadvantages of photovoltaic, piezoelectric, triboelectric, and thermoelectric energy harvesting in of e-textiles.
Table 151. Teslasuit.
Table 152. Global market for printed and flexible E-textiles and smart apparel electronics, 2018-2034, millions of US dollars.
Table 153. Market and technical challenges for E-textiles and smart clothing.
Table 154. Macro-trends in printed and flexible electronics in energy.
Table 155. Market drivers for Printed and flexible electronic energy storage, generation and harvesting.
Table 156. Energy applications for printed/flexible electronics.
Table 157. Battery market megatrends.
Table 158. Market segmentation and status for solid-state batteries.
Table 159. Shortcoming of solid-state thin film batteries.
Table 160. Flexible battery applications and technical requirements.
Table 161. Flexible Li-ion battery prototypes.
Table 162. Electrode designs in flexible lithium-ion batteries.
Table 163. Summary of fiber-shaped lithium-ion batteries.
Table 164. Types of fiber-shaped batteries.
Table 165. Components of transparent batteries.
Table 166. Components of degradable batteries.
Table 167. Applications of nanomaterials in flexible and stretchable supercapacitors, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof.
Table 168. Main components and properties of different printed battery types.
Table 169, Types of printable current collectors and the materials commonly used.
Table 170. Applications of printed batteries and their physical and electrochemical requirements.
Table 171. 2D and 3D printing techniques.
Table 172. Printing techniques applied to printed batteries.
Table 173. Main components and corresponding electrochemical values of lithium-ion printed batteries.
Table 174. Printing technique, main components and corresponding electrochemical values of printed batteries based on Zn-MnO2 and other battery types.
Table 175. Main 3D Printing techniques for battery manufacturing.
Table 176. Electrode Materials for 3D Printed Batteries.
Table 177. Methods for printing supercapacitors.
Table 178. Electrode Materials for printed supercapacitors.
Table 179. Electrolytes for printed supercapacitors.
Table 180. Main properties and components of printed supercapacitors.
Table 181. Conductive pastes for photovoltaics.
Table 182. companies commercializing thin film flexible photovoltaics
Table 183. Examples of materials used in flexible heaters and applications.
Table 184. Global market for printed and flexible energy storage, generation and harvesting electronics, 2018-2034, millions of US dollars.
Table 185. Market challenges in printed and flexible electronics for energy.
Table 186. Macro-trends in displays.
Table 187. Market drivers for Printed and flexible displays and electronic components.
Table 188. Printed and flexible displays products.
Table 189. Flexible miniLED and MicroLED products.
Table 190. Comparison of performance metrics between microLEDs and other commercial display technologies.
Table 191. Foldable smartphones, laptops and tablets and other display products, on or near market.
Table 192. Companies developing OLED lighting products.
Table 193. Types of electrochromic materials and applications.
Table 194. Applications of Mini-LED and Micro-LED transparent displays.
Table 195. Companies developing Micro-LED transparent displays.
Table 196. Global market for printed and flexible displays, 2018-2034, millions of US dollars.
Table 197. Market challenges in printed and flexible displays.
Table 198.  Macro-trends in automotive.
Table 199. Market drivers for printed and flexible electronics in automotive.
Table 200. Printed and flexible electronics in the automotive market.
Table 201. Printed/flexible electronics in automotive displays and lighting.
Table 202. Printed and flexible electronics are being integrated into vehicle interiors.
Table 203. Applications of curved displays in automotive and technology readiness level (TRL).
Table 204. Companies developing curved automotive displays.
Table 205. Applications of Micro-LED in automotive.
Table 206. HUD vs other display types.
Table 207. Automotive display Mini-LED and Micro-LED products.
Table 208. Conductive materials for transparent capacitive sensors.
Table 209. Automotive applications for printed piezoresistive sensors.
Table 210.  Piezoelectric sensors for automotive applications.
Table 211. Printed piezoelectric sensors in automotive applications.
Table 212. SWIR for autonomous mobility and ADAS.
Table 213. Types of printed photodetectors and image sensors developed for automotive applications
Table 214. Comparison of SWIR image sensors technologies
Table 215. Comparison of conventional and printed seat heaters for automotive applications.
Table 216. Printed car seat heaters.
Table 217. Types of Printed/flexible interior heaters.
Table 218. Transparent heaters for exterior lighting / sensors / windows.
Table 219. Types of transparent heaters for automotive exterior applications.
Table 220. Transparent electronics for automotive radar for ADAS.
Table 221. Global market for printed and flexible automotive electronics, 2018-2034, millions of US dollars.
Table 222. Market challenges for printed and flexible electronics in automotive.
Table 223. Macro-trends in smart buildings and construction.
Table 224. Market drivers for smart sensors for buildings.
Table 225. Printed and flexible electronics being applied for building, infrastructure, and industrial applications.
Table 226.  Printed electronics in customizable smart building interiors.
Table 227. Types of smart building sensors.
Table 228. Commonly used sensors in smart buildings.
Table 229. Capacitive sensors integrated into smart buildings.
Table 230. Types of flexible humidity sensors.
Table 231. MOF sensor applications.
Table 232. Global market for printed and flexible smart buildings electronics, 2018-2034, millions of US dollars.
Table 233. Consumer goods applications for printed/flexible electronics.
Table 234. Types of Active packaging.
Table 235. Commercially available food active packaging.
Table 236. Types of intelligent packaging.
Table 237. Types of RFID tags.
Table 238.  Commercially available time-temperature indicators (TTI) indicators.
Table 239. Commercially available freshness indicators.
Table 240. Commercially available gas indicators.
Table 241.  Supply chain management considerations for smart electronic packaging targeted at consumers.
Table 242. Types of printed/flexible electronics and materials that can be used to enhance packaging barcodes.
Table 243. Commercially available freshness indicators.
Table 244. Commercial examples of time-temperature indicators
Table 245. Examples of Chemical Time Temperature Indicators (TTIs).
Table 246. Types of ripeness indicators.
Table 247. Commercially available gas indicators.
Table 248. Chemical sensors in smart packaging.
Table 249. Electrochemical-based sensors for smart food packaging.
Table 250. Optical-based sensors for smart food packaging applications.
Table 251. Electrochemical biosensors for smart food packaging:
Table 252. Optical-Based Biosensors for smart food packaging.
Table 253. Types of edible sensors for food packaging.
Table 254.  Commercially available radio frequency identification systems (RFID) technology.
Table 255. Passive RFID: Technologies by Operating Frequency.
Table 256. Examples of NFC in packaging.
Table 257. Companies in smart blister packs.
Table 258. Global market for printed and flexible smart packaging electronics, 2018-2034, millions of US dollars.
Table 259. 3DOM separator.
Table 260. Battery performance test specifications of J. Flex batteries.
Table 261. TCL Mini-LED product range.

List of Figures
Figure 1. Examples of flexible electronics devices.
Figure 2. Evolution of electronics.
Figure 3. Applications for printed and flexible electronics.
Figure 4. Wearable technology inventions.
Figure 5. Market map for printed and flexible electronics.
Figure 6. Wove Band.
Figure 7. Wearable graphene medical sensor.
Figure 8. 3D printed stretchable electronics.
Figure 9. Artificial skin prototype for gesture recognition.
Figure 10. Applications of wearable flexible sensors worn on various body parts.
Figure 11. Systemization of wearable electronic systems.
Figure 12. Baby Monitor.
Figure 13. Wearable health monitor incorporating graphene photodetectors.
Figure 14. LG 77” transparent 4K OLED TV.
Figure 15. 137-inch N1 foldable TV.
Figure 16. Flex Note Extendable™.
Figure 17. Flex In & Out Flip.
Figure 18. Traxcon printed lighting circuitry.
Figure 19. Global market revenues for Printed & Flexible consumer electronics, 2018-2034, (millions USD).
Figure 20. Global market for Printed & Flexible medical & healthcare electronics, 2018-2034, millions of US dollars.
Figure 21. Global market for Printed & Flexible E-textiles and smart apparel electronics, 2018-2034, millions of US dollars.
Figure 22. Global market for Printed & Flexible displays, 2018-2034, millions of US dollars.
Figure 23. Global market for Printed & Flexible automotive electronics, 2018-2034, millions of US dollars.
Figure 24. Global market for Printed & Flexible smart buildings electronics, 2018-2034, millions of US dollars.
Figure 25. Global market for Printed & Flexible smart packaging electronics, 2018-2034, millions of US dollars
Figure 26. SWOT analysis for printed electronics.
Figure 27. SWOT analysis for 3D electronics.
Figure 28. SWOT analysis for analogue printing.
Figure 29. SWOT analysis for digital printing.
Figure 30. In-mold electronics prototype devices and products.
Figure 31. SWOT analysis for In-Mold Electronics.
Figure 32. SWOT analysis for R2R manufacturing.
Figure 33. The molecular mechanism of the shape memory effect under different stimuli.
Figure 34. Supercooled Soldering™ Technology.
Figure 35. Reflow soldering schematic.
Figure 36. Schematic diagram of induction heating reflow.
Figure 37. Types of conductive inks and applications.
Figure 38. Copper based inks on flexible substrate.
Figure 39. SWOT analysis for Printable semiconductors.
Figure 40.  SWOT analysis for Printable sensor materials.
Figure 41. RFID Tag with Nano Copper Antenna on Paper.
Figure 42. SWOT analysis for flexible integrated circuits.
Figure 43. Fully-printed organic thin-film transistors and circuitry on one-micron-thick polymer films.
Figure 44. Flexible PCB.
Figure 45. SWOT analysis for Flexible batteries.
Figure 46.  SWOT analysis for Flexible PV for energy harvesting.
Figure 47. SWOT analysis for printed, flexible and hybrid electronics in consumer electronics.
Figure 48. EmeTerm nausea relief wearable.
Figure 49. Embr Wave for cooling and warming.
Figure 50. dpl Wrist Wrap Light THerapy pain relief.
Figure 51. SWOT analysis for Wrist-worn wearables.
Figure 52. FitBit Sense Watch.
Figure 53. Wearable bio-fluid monitoring system for monitoring of hydration.
Figure 54. Nuheara IQbuds² Max.
Figure 55. HP Hearing PRO OTC Hearing Aid.
Figure 56. SWOT analysis for Ear worn wearables (hearables).
Figure 57. Beddr SleepTuner.
Figure 58. Global market revenues for printed and flexible in consumer electronics, 2018-2034, (millions USD).
Figure 59. SWOT analysis for printed, flexible and hybrid electronics in medical and healthcare/wellness.
Figure 60. Connected human body and product examples.
Figure 61. Companies and products in wearable health monitoring and rehabilitation devices and products.
Figure 62. Smart e-skin system comprising health-monitoring sensors, displays, and ultra flexible PLEDs.
Figure 63. Graphene medical patch.
Figure 64. Graphene-based E-skin patch.
Figure 65. SWOT analysis for printed and flexible electronics in skin patches.
Figure 66. Enfucell wearable temperature tag.
Figure 67. TempTraQ wearable wireless thermometer.
Figure 68. Technologies for minimally-invasive and non-invasive glucose detection.
Figure 69. Schematic of non-invasive CGM sensor.
Figure 70. Adhesive wearable CGM sensor.
Figure 71. VitalPatch.
Figure 72. Wearable ECG-textile.
Figure 73. Wearable ECG recorder.
Figure 74. Nexkin™.
Figure 75. Bloomlife.
Figure 76. Nanowire skin hydration patch.
Figure 77. NIX sensors.
Figure 78. Wearable sweat sensor.
Figure 79. Wearable  graphene sweat sensor.
Figure 80. Gatorade's GX Sweat Patch.
Figure 81. Sweat sensor incorporated into face mask.
Figure 82. D-mine Pump.
Figure 83. Lab-on-Skin™.
Figure 84. My UV Patch.
Figure 85. Overview layers of L'Oreal skin patch.
Figure 86. Brilliantly Warm.
Figure 87. Ava Fertility tracker.
Figure 88. S9 Pro breast pump.
Figure 89. Tempdrop.
Figure 90. Digitsole Smartshoe.
Figure 91. Schematic of smart wound dressing.
Figure 92. REPAIR electronic patch concept. Image courtesy of the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine.
Figure 93. ABENA Nova smart diaper.
Figure 94. Honda Walking Assist.
Figure 95. ABLE Exoskeleton.
Figure 96. ANGEL-LEGS-M10.
Figure 97. AGADEXO Shoulder.
Figure 98. Enyware.
Figure 99. AWN-12 occupational powered hip exoskeleton.
Figure 100. CarrySuit passive upper-body exoskeleton.
Figure 101. Axosuit lower body medical exoskeleton.
Figure 102. FreeGait.
Figure 103. InMotion Arm.
Figure 104. Biomotum SPARK.
Figure 105. PowerWalk energy.
Figure 106. Keeogo™.
Figure 107. MATE-XT.
Figure 108. CDYS passive shoulder support exoskeleton.
Figure 109. ALDAK.
Figure 110. HAL® Lower Limb.
Figure 111. DARWING PA.
Figure 112. Dephy ExoBoot.
Figure 113. EksoNR.
Figure 114. Emovo Assist.
Figure 115. HAPO.
Figure 116. Atlas passive modular exoskeleton.
Figure 117. ExoAtlet II.
Figure 118. ExoHeaver.
Figure 119. Exy ONE.
Figure 120. ExoArm.
Figure 121. ExoMotus.
Figure 122. Gloreha Sinfonia.
Figure 123. BELK Knee Exoskeleton.
Figure 124. Apex exosuit.
Figure 125. Honda Walking Assist.
Figure 126. BionicBack.
Figure 127. Muscle Suit.
Figure 128.Japet.W powered exoskeleton.
Figure 129.Ski~Mojo.
Figure 130. AIRFRAME passive shoulder.
Figure 131.FORTIS passive tool holding exoskeleton.
Figure 132. Integrated Soldier Exoskeleton (UPRISE®).
Figure 133.UNILEXA passive exoskeleton.
Figure 134.HandTutor.
Figure 135.MyoPro®.
Figure 136.Myosuit.
Figure 137. archelis wearable chair.
Figure 138.Chairless Chair.
Figure 139.Indego.
Figure 140. Polyspine.
Figure 141. Hercule powered lower body exoskeleton.
Figure 142. ReStore Soft Exo-Suit.
Figure 143. Hand of Hope.
Figure 144. REX powered exoskeleton.
Figure 145. Elevate Ski Exoskeleton.
Figure 146. UGO210 exoskeleton.
Figure 147. EsoGLOVE Pro.
Figure 148. Roki.
Figure 149. Powered Clothing.
Figure 150. Againer shock absorbing exoskeleton.
Figure 151. EasyWalk Assistive Soft Exoskeleton Walker.
Figure 152. Skel-Ex.
Figure 153. EXO-H3 lower limbs robotic exoskeleton.
Figure 154. Ikan Tilta Max Armor-Man 2
Figure 155. AMADEO hand and finger robotic rehabilitation device.
Figure 156.Atalante autonomous lower-body exoskeleton.
Figure 157. Global market for printed and flexible medical & healthcare electronics, 2018-2034, millions of US dollars.
Figure 158. SWOT analysis for printed, flexible and hybrid electronics in E-textiles.
Figure 159. Timeline of the different generations of electronic textiles.
Figure 160. Examples of each generation of electronic textiles.
Figure 161. Conductive yarns.
Figure 162. H-Tee by H-Cube.
Figure 163. Electronics integration in textiles: (a) textile-adapted, (b) textile-integrated (c) textile-basd.
Figure 164. Stretchable polymer encapsulation microelectronics on textiles.
Figure 165. Conductive yarns.
Figure 166. Classification of conductive materials and process technology.
Figure 167. Structure diagram of Ti3C2Tx.
Figure 168. Structure of hexagonal boron nitride.
Figure 169. BN nanosheet textiles application.
Figure 170. SEM image of cotton fibers with PEDOT:PSS coating.
Figure 171. Schematic of inkjet-printed processes.
Figure 172: Silver nanocomposite ink after sintering and resin bonding of discrete electronic components.
Figure 173. Schematic summary of the formulation of silver conductive inks.
Figure 174. Copper based inks on flexible substrate.
Figure 175: Schematic of single-walled carbon nanotube.
Figure 176. Stretchable SWNT memory and logic devices for wearable electronics.
Figure 177. Graphene layer structure schematic.
Figure 178. BGT Materials graphene ink product.
Figure 179. PCM cooling vest.
Figure 180. SMPU-treated cotton fabrics.
Figure 181. Schematics of DIAPLEX membrane.
Figure 182. SMP energy storage textiles.
Figure 183. Nike x Acronym Blazer Sneakers.
Figure 184. Adidas 3D Runner Pump.
Figure 185. Under Armour Archi-TechFuturist.
Figure 186. Reebok Reebok Liquid Speed.
Figure 187. Radiate sports vest.
Figure 188. Adidas smart insole.
Figure 189. Applications of E-textiles.
Figure 190. EXO2 Stormwalker 2 Heated Jacket.
Figure 191. Flexible polymer-based heated glove, sock and slipper.
Figure 192. ThermaCell Rechargeable Heated Insoles.
Figure 193. Myant sleeve tracks biochemical indicators in sweat.
Figure 194. Flexible polymer-based therapeutic products.
Figure 195. iStimUweaR .
Figure 196. Digitsole Smartshoe.
Figure 197. Basketball referee Royole fully flexible display.
Figure 198. A mechanical glove, Robo-Glove, with pressure sensors and other sensors jointly developed by General Motors and NASA.
Figure 199. Power supply mechanisms for electronic textiles and wearables.
Figure 200. Micro-scale energy scavenging techniques.
Figure 201. Schematic illustration of the fabrication concept for textile-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) made by sewing textile electrodes onto cloth or paper.
Figure 202. 3D printed piezoelectric material.
Figure 203. Application of electronic textiles in AR/VR.
Figure 204. Global market for printed and flexible E-textiles and smart apparel electronics, 2018-2034, millions of US dollars.
Figure 205. SWOT analysis for printed, flexible and hybrid electronics in energy.
Figure 206. Flexible batteries on the market.
Figure 207. ULTRALIFE thin film battery.
Figure 208. Examples of applications of thin film batteries.
Figure 209. Capacities and voltage windows of various cathode and anode materials.
Figure 210. Traditional lithium-ion battery (left), solid state battery (right).
Figure 211. Bulk type compared to thin film type SSB.
Figure 212. Ragone plots of diverse batteries and the commonly used electronics powered by flexible batteries.
Figure 213. Flexible, rechargeable battery.
Figure 214. Various architectures for flexible and stretchable electrochemical energy storage.
Figure 215. Types of flexible batteries.
Figure 216. Flexible label and printed paper battery.
Figure 217. Materials and design structures in flexible lithium ion batteries.
Figure 218. Flexible/stretchable LIBs with different structures.
Figure 219. Schematic of the structure of stretchable LIBs.
Figure 220. Electrochemical performance of materials in flexible LIBs.
Figure 221. a-c) Schematic illustration of coaxial (a), twisted (b), and stretchable (c) LIBs.
Figure 222. a) Schematic illustration of the fabrication of the superstretchy LIB based on an MWCNT/LMO composite fiber and an MWCNT/LTO composite fiber. b,c) Photograph (b) and the schematic illustration (c) of a stretchable fiber-shaped battery under stretching conditions. d) Schematic illustration of the spring-like stretchable LIB. e) SEM images of a fiberat different strains. f) Evolution of specific capacitance with strain. d-f)
Figure 223. Origami disposable battery.
Figure 224. Zn-MnO2 batteries produced by Brightvolt.
Figure 225. Charge storage mechanism of alkaline Zn-based batteries and zinc-ion batteries.
Figure 226. Zn-MnO2 batteries produced by Blue Spark.
Figure 227. Ag-Zn batteries produced by Imprint Energy.
Figure 228. Transparent batteries.
Figure 229. Degradable batteries.
Figure 230. Schematic of supercapacitors in wearables.
Figure 231. (A) Schematic overview of a flexible supercapacitor as compared to conventional supercapacitor.
Figure 232. Stretchable graphene supercapacitor.
Figure 233.  Wearable self-powered devices.
Figure 234. Various applications of printed paper batteries.
Figure 235.Schematic representation of the main components of a battery.
Figure 236. Schematic of a printed battery in a sandwich cell architecture, where the anode and cathode of the battery are stacked together.
Figure 237. Manufacturing Processes for Conventional Batteries (I), 3D Microbatteries (II), and 3D-Printed Batteries (III).
Figure 238. Main printing methods for supercapacitors.
Figure 239. Schematic illustration of the fabrication concept for textile-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) made by sewing textile electrodes onto cloth or paper.
Figure 240. Origami-like silicon solar cells.
Figure 241. Schematic illustration of the fabrication concept for textile-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) made by sewing textile electrodes onto cloth or paper.
Figure 242. Global market for printed and flexible energy storage, generation and harvesting electronics, 2018-2034, millions of US dollars.
Figure 243. LG Signature OLED TV R.
Figure 244. Flexible display.
Figure 245. SWOT analysis for printed and flexible displays.
Figure 246. f-OLED N-shaped folding display.
Figure 247. C SEED 37-inch N1 foldable TV.
Figure 248. DELL Ori.
Figure 249. Gloshine curved LED screen.
Figure 250. Huawei Mate X3.
Figure 251. LG Media Chair.
Figure 252. LG Virtual Ride.
Figure 253. Microsoft     Surface Duo 2 .
Figure 254. Motorola Razr.
Figure 255. Mirage smart speaker with wraparound touch display.
Figure 256. Samsung Galaxy Fold.
Figure 257. Vivo X Flip.
Figure 258. Organic LCD with a 10-mm bend radius.
Figure 259. Foldable organic light-emitting diode (OLED) panel.
Figure 260. AMOLED schematic.
Figure 261. LG rollable OLED TV.
Figure 262. OLED structure.
Figure 263. AU Optonics Flexible MicroLED Display.
Figure 264. Schematic of the TALT technique for wafer-level microLED transferring.
Figure 265. Foldable 4K C SEED M1.
Figure 266. Stamp-based transfer-printing techniques.
Figure 267: Flexible & stretchable LEDs based on quantum dots.
Figure 268. Samsung S-foldable display.
Figure 269. Samsung slideable display.
Figure 270. Samsung foldable battery patent schematic.
Figure 271. Rollable 65RX OLED TV.
Figure 272. Lenovo ThinkPad X1 Fold.
Figure 273. LG Chem foldable display.
Figure 274. Samsung Display Flex G folding smartphones.
Figure 275. Asus Foldable Phone.
Figure 276. Asus Zenbook 17 Fold.
Figure 277. Dell Concept Ori.
Figure 278. Intel Foldable phone.
Figure 279. ThinkPad X1 Fold.
Figure 280. Motorola Razr.
Figure 281. Oppo Find N folding phone.
Figure 282. Oppo Find N2 Flip.
Figure 283. Royole FlexPai 2.
Figure 284. Royole FlexPai 3 from CES 2024.
Figure 285. Galaxy Fold 3.
Figure 286. Samsung Galaxy Z Flip 3
Figure 287. TCL Tri-Fold Foldable Phone
Figure 288. TCL rollable phone.
Figure 289. Xiaomi Mi MIX Flex.
Figure 290. LG OLED flexible lighting panel.
Figure 291. Flexible OLED incorporated into automotive headlight.
Figure 292. Audi 2022 A8 .
Figure 293. Electrophoretic display applications.
Figure 294. Passive reflective displays with flexibility.
Figure 295. Plastic Logic 5.4” Iridis™ display.
Figure 296. Argil electrochromic film integrated with polycarbonate lenses.
Figure 297. Transparent and flexible metamaterial film developed by Sekishi Chemical.
Figure 298. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of several metalens antenna forms.
Figure 299. Design concepts of soft mechanical metamaterials with large negative swelling ratios and tunable stress-strain curves.
Figure 300. Different transparent displays and transmittance limitations.
Figure 301. 7.56" high transparency & frameless Micro-LED display.
Figure 302. AUO's 13.5-inch transparent RGB microLED display.
Figure 303. 17.3-inch transparent microLED AI display in a Taiwan Ferry.
Figure 304. Global market for printed and flexible displays, 2018-2034, millions of US dollars.
Figure 305. SWOT analysis for printed, flexible and hybrid electronics in automotive.
Figure 306. Automotive display concept.
Figure 307. Mercedes MBUX Hyperscreen.
Figure 308.  AUO Smart Cockpit with 55-inch pillar-to-pillar curved display.
Figure 309. Cadillac XT4 33-inch curved LED touchscreen display
Figure 310. Continental Curved Ultrawide Display.
Figure 311. Hyundai 2024 Sonata panoramic curved display.
Figure 312. Peugeot 3008 fastback SUV curved wide-screen display.
Figure 313. TCL CSOT single, continuous flexible curved automotive display panel.
Figure 314. AUO automotive display.
Figure 315. Micro-LED automotive display.
Figure 316. Issues in current commercial automotive HUD.
Figure 317. Rear lamp utilizing flexible Micro-LEDs.
Figure 318. SWOT analysis for integrated antennas with printed electronics in automotive.
Figure 319. Global market for printed and flexible automotive electronics, 2018-2034, millions of US dollars.
Figure 320. SWOT analysis for printed, flexible and hybrid electronics in smart buildings and construction. Source: Future Markets.
Figure 321. Use of sensors in smart buildings.
Figure 322. Global market for printed and flexible smart buildings electronics, 2018-2034, millions of US dollars.
Figure 323. Active and Intelligent packaging classification.
Figure 324. Smart packaging for detecting bacteria growth in milk containers.
Figure 325. RFID tags with printed silver antennas on paper substrates.
Figure 326. Smart card incorporating an ultra-thin battery.
Figure 327. RFID ultra micro battery.
Figure 328. SWOT analysis for printed, flexible and hybrid electronics in smart packaging.
Figure 329. Active packaging film.
Figure 330. Anti-counterfeiting smart label.
Figure 331. Security tag developed by Nanotech Security.
Figure 332. Fundamental principle of a gas sensor for detecting CO2 (gas) after food spoilage
Figure 333. A standard RFID system.
Figure 334. RFID functions and applications of silver nanoparticle inks.
Figure 335. OHMEGA Conductive Ink + Touchcode box.
Figure 336. Wiliot RFID.
Figure 337. Smart blister pack.
Figure 338. Global market for printed and flexible smart packaging electronics, 2018-2034, millions of US dollars.
Figure 339. 24M battery.
Figure 340. 3DOM battery.
Figure 341. Libre 3.
Figure 342. Abbott Lingo wearable.
Figure 343. Libre Sense Glucose Sport Biowearable.
Figure 344. AC biode prototype.
Figure 345. AcuPebble SA100.
Figure 346. Vitalgram®.
Figure 347. BioMan+.
Figure 348. EXO Glove.
Figure 349. e-Tint® cell in the (a) OFF and in the (b) ON states.
Figure 350. Alertgy NICGM wristband.
Figure 351. ALLEVX.
Figure 352. Gastric Alimetry.
Figure 353. Alva Health stroke monitor.
Figure 354. amofit S.
Figure 355. Ampcera’s all-ceramic dense solid-state electrolyte separator sheets (25 um thickness, 50mm x 100mm size, flexible and defect free, room temperature ionic conductivity ~1 mA/cm).
Figure 356. Amprius battery products.
Figure 357. MIT and Amorepacific's chip-free skin sensor.
Figure 358. All-polymer battery schematic.
Figure 359. All Polymer Battery Module.
Figure 360. Resin current collector.
Figure 361. Sigi™ Insulin Management System.
Figure 362. The Apollo wearable device.
Figure 363. Apos3.
Figure 364. Piezotech® FC.
Figure 365. PowerCoat® paper.
Figure 366. Artemis is  smart clothing system.
Figure 367. KneeStim.
Figure 368. LED hooded jacket.
Figure 369. Heated element module.
Figure 370. Ateios thin-film, printed battery.
Figure 371. 1.39-inch full-circle Micro-LED display
Figure 372. 9.4" flexible Micro-LED display.
Figure 373. Cyclops HMD.
Figure 374. PaciBreath.
Figure 375. Avery Dennison smart labels.
Figure 376. AD Pure™ Line [Sustainable UHF RFID tags and inlays].
Figure 377. Structure of Azalea Vision’s smart contact lens.
Figure 378. BeFC® biofuel cell and digital platform.
Figure 379. Belun® Ring.
Figure 380. Evo Patch.
Figure 381. Neuronaute wearable.
Figure 382. biped.ai device.
Figure 383. 3D printed lithium-ion battery.
Figure 384. Blue Solution module.
Figure 385. TempTraq wearable patch.
Figure 386. BOE Mini-LED display TV.
Figure 387. BOE Mini-LED automotive display.
Figure 388. circul+ smart ring.
Figure 389. Brewer Science printed water sensor.
Figure 390. C2Sense sensors.
Figure 391. Cala Trio.
Figure 392. Transparent 3D touch control with LED lights and LED matrix.
Figure 393. Large transparent heater for LiDAR.
Figure 394. Cionic Neural Sleeve.
Figure 395. Carhartt X-1 Smart Heated Vest.
Figure 396. Coachwhisperer device.
Figure 397. Cognito's gamma stimulation device.
Figure 398. Cogwear headgear.
Figure 399. CardioWatch 287.
Figure 400. Graphene dress. The dress changes colour in sync with the wearer’s breathing.
Figure 401. Cymbet EnerChip™
Figure 402. Descante Solar Thermo insulated jacket.
Figure 403. G+ Graphene Aero Jersey.
Figure 404. Diabeloop wearable.
Figure 405. Inkjet printed OPV module.
Figure 406. First Relief.
Figure 407. FRENZ™ Brainband.
Figure 408. NightOwl Home Sleep Apnea Test Device.
Figure 409. Jewel Patch Wearable Cardioverter Defibrillator .
Figure 410. P-Flex® Flexible Circuit.
Figure 411. enFuse.
Figure 412. Roll-to-roll equipment working with ultrathin steel substrate.
Figure 413. EOPatch.
Figure 414. Epilog.
Figure 415. eQ02+LIfeMontor.
Figure 416. noDiffusion OLED encapsulation film.
Figure 417. TAeTTOOz printable battery materials.
Figure 418. FDK Corp battery.
Figure 419. Cove wearable device.
Figure 420. HiFlex strain/pressure sensor.
Figure 421. FloPatch.
Figure 422. KiTT motion tracking knee sleeve.
Figure 423. 2D paper batteries.
Figure 424. 3D Custom Format paper batteries.
Figure 425. Fuji carbon nanotube products.
Figure 426. German bionic exoskeleton.
Figure 427. UnlimitedHand.
Figure 428. Healables app-controlled electrotherapy device.
Figure 429. Helio materials incorporated into flexible displays.
Figure 430. Apex Exosuit.
Figure 431. Hinge Health wearable therapy devices.
Figure 432. MYSA - 'Relax Shirt'.
Figure 433. Humanox Shin Guard.
Figure 434. Airvida E1.
Figure 435. Sensor surface.
Figure 436. ZincPoly™ technology.
Figure 437. In2tec’s fully recyclable flexible circuit board assembly.
Figure 438. Footrax.
Figure 439. Flexible microLED.
Figure 440. eMacula®.
Figure 441. Printed moisture sensors.
Figure 442. G2 Pro.
Figure 443. Atusa system.
Figure 444. ITEN micro batteries.
Figure 445. Soluboard immersed in water.
Figure 446. Infineon PCB before and after immersion.
Figure 447. Kenzen ECHO Smart Patch.
Figure 448. The Kernel Flow headset.
Figure 449. REFLEX.
Figure 450. KnowU™.
Figure 451. Hyperfluorescence™ OLED display.
Figure 452. LiBEST flexible battery.
Figure 453. LifeSpan patch.
Figure 454. Ring ZERO.
Figure 455. LumeoLoop device.
Figure 456. Lyten batteries.
Figure 457. Mawi Heart Patch.
Figure 458. WalkAid.
Figure 459. Monarch™ Wireless Wearable Biosensor
Figure 460. MetaSCOPE.
Figure 461. HICARDI system.
Figure 462. Modoo device.
Figure 463. Movesense ECG monitor.
Figure 464. Munevo Drive.
Figure 465. Electroskin integration schematic.
Figure 466. Modius Sleep wearable device.
Figure 467. Neuphony Headband.
Figure 468. Nextiles’ compression garments.
Figure 469. Nextiles e-fabric.
Figure 470. Nix Biosensors patch.
Figure 471. Ayo wearable light therapy.
Figure 472. Nowatch.
Figure 473 .Nuada.
Figure 474. ONA DM.
Figure 475. ORII smart ring.
Figure 476. Otolith wearable device.
Figure 477. Oxitone 1000M.
Figure 478. Palarum PUP smart socks.
Figure 479. BEYOLEX™ film.
Figure 480. 55” flexible AM panel.
Figure 481. Peerbridge Cor.
Figure 482. 9.4" flexible MicroLED display.
Figure 483. 7.56-inch transparent Micro LED display.
Figure 484. Point Fit Technology skin patch.
Figure 485. Printed battery.
Figure 486. Printed Energy flexible battery.
Figure 487. Proxxi Voltage.
Figure 488. ProLogium solid-state battery.
Figure 489. Sylvee 1.0.
Figure 490. RealWear HMT-1.
Figure 491. RootiRx.
Figure 492. Micro-LED stretchable display.
Figure 493. Sylvee 1.0.
Figure 494. SES Apollo batteries.
Figure 495. Silvertree Reach.
Figure 496. Flexible Cover Window (FCWTM).
Figure 497. Smardii smart diaper.
Figure 498. Moonwalkers from Shift Robotics Inc.
Figure 499. SnowCookie device.
Figure 500. Softmatter compression garment.
Figure 501. Softmatter sports bra with a woven ECG sensor.
Figure 502. Soter device.
Figure 503. Femsense patch.
Figure 504. MoCap Pro Glove.
Figure 505. Subcuject.
Figure 506. 3D printed electronics.
Figure 507. Tactotek IME device.
Figure 508. TactoTek® IMSE® SiP - System In Package.
Figure 509. TCL Mini-LED TV schematic.
Figure 510. TCL 8K Mini-LED TV.
Figure 511. The Cinema Wall Micro-LED display.
Figure 512. Teslasuit.
Figure 513. Nerivio.
Figure 514. Feelzing Energy Patch.
Figure 515. 7.56” Transparent Display.
Figure 516. 7.56" Flexible Micro-LED.
Figure 517. 5.04" seamless splicing Micro LED.
Figure 518. 7.56" Transparent Micro LED.
Figure 519. A sample of TracXon’s printed lighting circuitry.
Figure 520. Ultrahuman wearable glucose monitor.
Figure 521. Vaxxas patch.
Figure 522. S-Patch Ex.
Figure 523. Wiliot tags.
Figure 524. Zeit Medical Wearable Headband.
Figure 525. ZOZOFIT wearable at-home 3D body scanner.
Figure 526. YouCare smart shirt.

Companies Mentioned (Partial List)

A selection of companies mentioned in this report includes, but is not limited to:

  • BeFC
  • Brewer Science
  • C3 Nano
  • Canatu
  • Dracula Technologies
  • DuPont
  • e2ip Technologies
  • Electroninks
  • Elephantech
  • Epicore Biosystems
  • FlexEnable
  • Fuji Corporation
  • GE Healthcare
  • Heraeus Epurio
  • Inkron Oy (Nagase)
  • Inuru
  • Japan Display, Inc. (JDI)
  • LG Display
  • Liquid Wire
  • Myrias Optics
  • NovaCentrix
  • Optomec
  • Panasonic
  • PowerON
  • Pragmatic Semiconductor
  • Printoptix
  • PVNanoCell
  • SmartKem Ltd.
  • Syenta
  • tacterion GmbH
  • Tactotek
  • TracXon
  • Voltera
  • Xymox Technologies, Inc.
  • Ynvisible