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Transformer Report Edition 9 2021

  • ID: 5397896
  • Report
  • August 2021
  • Region: Global
  • 396 Pages
  • StatPlan Energy Ltd

FEATURED COMPANIES

  • Aditya Birla Nuovo Ltd
  • EHV Bushings
  • Hitachi (ABB)
  • Hyundai
  • Lapp
  • Seves Group

The 9th edition of the Transformer Report sizes demand for power and distribution transformers in 2019 and 2020 and forecasts sales to 2026, with expanded coverage including LV transformers, before and after the meter.

  • HV, MV, LV
  • Central Generator Transformers
  • Distributed Generator Transformers
  • Power Network Transformers
  • Distribution Network Transformers
  • Industrial Transformers
  • Low Voltage Transformers
  • TL Inverters

The installed base of transformers in 2020 is analysed by these factors:

  • By region and 157 countries
  • Transformer type - Central GSU, Utility PT, Industrial PT, Distributed GSU, Network DT, Industrial DT, User LV
  • Power generation capacity MW
  • Transformer capacity MVA, number of transformers, kVA per transformer
  • Power and Distribution transformers analysed by ownership - Generator, Utility, Industry
  • Distribution MV and LV transformers analysed in units

Sales analysis in MVA and $ value of HV, MV and LV transformers, and units for MV distribution transformers and LV:

  • Regions (in North America, Europe, CIS, Middle East, Africa, Asia Pacific, LAC) and country
  • HV (CGSU & Power Network), MV(DGSU & Distribution Network), LV (Network & User)
  • 2019 to 2026
  • Unit capacity in kVA is analysed for MV and LV transformers over 10/20 kVA in the regions of Europe and North America, and in selected countries in Europe and Asia.
  • Transformer sales compared at ex-factory cost and installed cost.
  • The impact of Covid 19 on the transformer industry, markets and Supply Chain.
  • The Supply Chains for power transformers and distribution transformers are outlined. Changes in the Chinese Supply Chain for transformers and other products are reviewed, with actions by the USD Federal government and Japan to relocate it to other producing countries.
  • The long term demand cycle is plotted - based on new build and historical replacement over decades.
  • Recent trends in a generation, Central and Distributed.
  • Solar PV, step-up transformers and transformerless TL inverters.
  • Transformer: Generator capacity ratios MVA: MW for each transformer segment:
  • By regions and 157 countries
  • By type - Central GSU, Power Network, DG GSU, Distribution Network
  • Hosting capacity of distribution networks for renewables load to avoid overvoltage
  • Transformer production capacity is assessed in MVA by country and major manufacturer.
  • Customer list - utility landscape with Transcos and DSOs with summary customer analysis.
  • Distribution utilities are analysed by numbers of distribution transformers by country
  • Price trends and factors affecting price are analysed; input costs for raw materials, labour, energy, production capacity and capacity utilisation.
  • Production capacity in tonnes and manufacturers of electrical steel is analysed.
  • Market shares of the top 21 transformer manufacturers, country reviews and listings.
  • The transformation process - transformers are needed at any stage where the voltage changes up or down. Alternative stages and parameters are mapped as power is stepped up from generating plant to the high voltage transmission grid, down to medium voltage distribution grid and down to low voltage end user.
  • N-1, N-2, 2N, 2N+1 security and redundancy - Load factors range from 40% to > 100% within networks, reflecting levels of redundancy. Ignoring these fundamentals distorts estimates of transformer populations by large factors. In the various parts of a network different load factors are used to achieve a cost-effective security standard usually N-1 or N-2. What are N-1 or N-2 security standards, where are they applied and how do they affect the transformer population?
  • The Grid Edge is impacting on electricity systems; a changing generating mixture and increases in distributed power and renewables, the growth of DER and renewables, energy efficiency, electrification and digitalisation are in flux, and the distribution networks are not yet ready for the Grid Edge.
  • Smart Transformers - The ageing power grid, increasing energy demands, distributed generation and the environment all point toward the need for a smart grid. Transformers serve as a hub for the collection and distribution of energy and are key components of a smart grid.
  • MEPS - Minimum Energy Performance Standards and Energy Efficiency - Losses in transmission and distribution networks constitute the single biggest loss in any electrical system and 70% of these losses occur in the distribution network. Government regulations and programmes to reduce losses are outlined for different regions, with an analysis of the amorphous distribution transformer industry and market uptake. MEPS standards for transformers are listed for countries that have enacted them and the market for high-efficiency transformers analysed.
  • Smart transformers, characteristics and technical requirements, inputs to the smart grid, current market up-take.
  • The Grid Edge is already impacting the transformer mix in distribution networks and this will accelerate. The distribution networks are not ready yet. The changing landscape of electricity systems, with the growth of DER and renewables, GTW Gas to Wire, energy efficiency, electrification and digitalisation are discussed.
  • Logistics - Power transformers can be the size of a house and weigh 400-500 tons. They often have to be transported large distances over difficult terrain with poor roads, underpasses and overpasses and limited load weight limits. For LPTs, the parameters of the move must be incorporated at the design stage before manufacture. Logistics problems and solutions are discussed together with their implications for transformers.
  • Electrification - Electrification rates around the world vary considerably and these are charted, with their impact on electrical markets.
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown

FEATURED COMPANIES

  • Aditya Birla Nuovo Ltd
  • EHV Bushings
  • Hitachi (ABB)
  • Hyundai
  • Lapp
  • Seves Group

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

  • The power transformer market
  • The impact of Covid
  • United States
  • Europe
  • CIS
  • Middle East
  • Asia Pacific
  • China
  • Japan
  • India
  • Korea
  • LAC
  • Long term demand cycle
  • Transformer: generator capacity ratios - MVA - MW
  • Categories of generation
  • Recent trends in Generation
  • Solar PV and Transformerless inverters
  • Renewables and hosting capacity
  • Distribution Utility Customer Base
  • Channels to market
  • Transformer types
  • Efficiency transformers
  • Smart transformers
  • Manufacturing capacity, global and by region
  • Price trend
  • Redundancy
  • Logistics
  • Electrification

1. THE POWER AND DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER MARKET

2. THE GROWTH OF THE WORLD’S TRANSFORMER FLEET

3. THE IMPACT OF COVID-19

  • The origin of the Covid pandemic in China
  • Global waves of Covid
  • World reactions to the 1st wave in China, 1st and 2nd Quarters 2020
  • The impact on industrial production in China
  • Mass disruption
  • Electrical equipment manufacturers - transformers
  • China
  • India
  • Industrial growth in India as a % of month in previous year
  • Disruptions & switching
  • Distribution transformers
  • Impact On Transformer Demand
  • Short to medium term impacts
  • Generation sector
  • Renewables
  • Transmission and Distribution
  • Industry owned transformers
  • Regional trend of transformer sales

4. TRANSFORMER TYPES - GSU, POWER AND DISTRIBUTION, INDUSTRIAL TRANSFORMERS

  • Power transformers
  • Large Power Transformers (LPT)
  • Classification according to application
  • Generator step-up transformers (GSU)
  • System intertie (interconnecting) transformers.
  • Distribution Transformers
  • Pad mounted distribution transformers
  • Pole-mounted distribution transformers
  • Industrial transformers
  • Transformerless TL Inverters

5. LOW VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS BACKGROUND INFORMATION

  • AC Voltage levels
  • Low voltage terminology
  • Low voltage differences in Europe and the United States
  • Utility-side Distribution networks
  • North American system
  • European system
  • Six substation and industrial and commercial transformer types commonly used behind the meter in the United States
  • 3 phase 4 wire connection LV for North American industry and commercial users
  • European LV for industrial users
  • Commercial buildings
  • Examples of LV projects in the United States
  • Industry
  • USA industrial market
  • Residential buildings
  • Multi-storey buildings and the usage f LV transformers
  • Power distribution in small buildings
  • Power distribution in large residential or commercial buildings
  • Large buildings, the vertical supply system (rising mains).
  • Burj Kalifa Dubai,
  • Conclusion

6. NORTH AMERICAN TRANSFORMER MARKETS

  • Transformer stock
  • Demand for power transformers
  • Composition of demand
  • The utility market in the United States
  • Transformer market drivers
  • Utility investment
  • Manufacturing industry review - facilities
  • Power transformers
  • USA plant
  • NAFTA suppliers in Canada and Mexico
  • Large power transformers (LPT)
  • Medium power transformers
  • Distribution transformers
  • MV distribution transformer
  • Liquid-immersed
  • Dry-type
  • LV distribution transformers
  • Dry-type
  • Amorphous core transformer manufacturers
  • Canadian manufacturers
  • Purchase considerations and delivery channels
  • National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA)
  • CEE - Consortium for Energy Efficiency
  • MEPS standards
  • Canadian standards
  • MEXICO
  • Annual demand power and distribution transformers
  • Transformer stock
  • MEPS Standards
  • Transformer manufacturers

7. EUROPEAN TRANSFORMER MARKETS

  • Transformer voltages in the utility network and industry
  • Voltage differences in the European distribution networks
  • Figure 25: Distribution voltages in Europe (EU 27)
  • High-efficiency transformers
  • A changing network landscape - distributed power - smart transformers
  • Transformer market drivers
  • MEPS Standards
  • European transformer manufacturing industry review
  • FRANCE
  • Transformer stock
  • Market drivers
  • Market leaders - Alstom, Schneider, development in France
  • Transformer manufacturers
  • GERMANY
  • Transformer stock
  • Market drivers
  • Market leader - Siemens
  • SGB- SMIT
  • German energy transition and utility reorganisation
  • Transformer manufacturers
  • ITALY
  • Transformer stock
  • Market drivers
  • Transformer manufacturers
  • SPAIN
  • Transformer stock
  • Market drivers
  • Transformer manufacturers
  • SWITZERLAND
  • Transformer stock
  • UNITED KINGDOM
  • Transformer stock
  • Market drivers
  • Transformer manufacturers
  • TURKEY
  • Transformer stock
  • Market drivers
  • Transformer manufacturers

8. CIS TRANSFORMER MARKET

  • RUSSIA
  • Transformer stock
  • The Russian power system
  • Market drivers
  • Russian transformer manufacturers
  • Ukrainian transformer manufacturer

9. MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA TRANSFORMER MARKETS

  • Oil price fall and COVID-19
  • IRAN
  • Transformer stock
  • Transformer manufacturers
  • SAUDI ARABIA
  • Transformer stock
  • Transformer manufacturers
  • UAE
  • Transformer stock
  • Transformer manufacturers

10. ASIA PACIFIC TRANSFORMER MARKETS

  • Investment as a % of GDP
  • CHINA
  • Transformer stock
  • UHV AC and HVDC transformer markets in China
  • Chinese suppliers and foreign suppliers
  • UHV market participants
  • International firms in China’s UHV Market
  • Power and distribution transformers ≥ 220 kV ≤ UHV
  • Power and distribution transformers ≤ 220 kV
  • Distribution transformers for MV and LV distribution
  • Market drivers
  • MEPS Standards
  • The structure of the Chinese power sector
  • Manufacturing industry review
  • JAPAN
  • Transformer stock
  • Market drivers
  • MEPS Standards
  • Transformer manufacturers
  • Overseas production
  • INDIA
  • Transformer stock
  • Electrification
  • Captive generation
  • Market drivers
  • MEPS Standards
  • Manufacturing industry review
  • Capacity and utilisation
  • INDONESIA
  • Transformer stock
  • Market drivers
  • Transformer manufacturers
  • KOREA
  • Transformer stock
  • Market drivers
  • Transformer manufacturers
  • TAIWAN
  • Transformer stock
  • Market drivers
  • Transformer manufacturers
  • THAILAND
  • Transformer stock
  • Market drivers
  • Transformer manufacturers

11. LAC TRANSFORMER MARKETS

  • BRAZIL
  • Transformer stock
  • Market drivers
  • Manufacturing industry review

12. RECENT TRENDS IN TRANSFORMER CAPACITY, CENTRAL AND DISTRIBUTED

13. SOLAR PV SOLAR PV AND TRANSFORMERLESS INVERTERS

  • Transformerless inverters
  • High Frequency Inverters (HF)
  • Low Frequency Inverters (LF)
  • TL in Europe
  • TL in China
  • TL in the USA
  • TL in Australia
  • Impact of TL inverters on the distribution transformer market

14. THE VALUE CHAIN - FROM MATERIALS TO CAPEX

  • The value chain at 6 levels
  • Sales channels
  • Utilities
  • Manufacturers’ direct sales
  • Distributor sales
  • Industry
  • Raw material inputs

15. THE UTILITY LANDSCAPE

16. UTILITY CUSTOMER ANALYSIS

17. TRANSFORMER SALES AT RETAIL PRICE AND INSTALLED COST

18. GSU, UTILITY & INDUSTRIAL POWER AND DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER INSTALLED CAPACITY, NUMBERS AND AVERAGE DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER KVA PER UNIT

19. NETWORK TRANSFORMER LAYOUT

  • The Transformation Process
  • Stage 1
  • Stage 2
  • Stage 3
  • Stage 4
  • Stage 5
  • Network configurations for distribution - Radial, Loop and Network systems
  • Industry
  • Review of regional utility network practices - The link from medium voltage to low voltage
  • North America
  • Japan
  • Europe
  • Types of transformer
  • Liquid dielectric transformers
  • Dry-type transformers
  • Gas filled transformers
  • Evolution of power transformers by size and capacity
  • Offshore systems
  • Gas to Wire GTW
  • The development of high voltage transmission
  • Ownership of power and distribution transformers
  • Ownership of GSU transformers

20. A REVIEW OF GENERATION

  • Categories of generation
  • Central generation
  • Independent power producers (IPPs) and merchant generators
  • Captive power producers (CPPs)
  • Embedded or distributed generators (DG or DER)
  • Hidden generators
  • The cost of electricity
  • The use of electricity by sector
  • Captive Power Producers
  • India
  • China
  • Indonesia
  • Japan
  • Sub-Saharan Africa
  • South Africa
  • Nigeria
  • Middle East
  • Distributed Generation
  • In terms of size
  • Publisher definition of distributed generation
  • DG in the USA
  • DG in Europe
  • DG in Germany
  • Wind power onshore
  • Wind power offshore
  • DG in Italy
  • DG in Spain
  • Figure 56: Installed capacity wind power in Spain, 1998 to 2019
  • DG in the UK
  • DG in Japan
  • DG in Brazil
  • DG in China
  • HIDDEN POWER < 1 MW

21. HOSTING CAPACITY OF DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS AND DG PENETRATION

  • Overvoltage
  • Overloading and power loss problems
  • Power quality problem
  • Protection problems
  • Solutions
  • Network reconfiguration and reinforcement
  • Reactive power control
  • Voltage control using On Load Tap Changer (OLTC)
  • Active power curtailment
  • Battery energy storage technologies (BESS)
  • Costs
  • Conclusion

22. DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS BY kVA UNIT CAPACITY

  • Europe
  • Selected European Markets
  • France
  • Germany
  • Ireland
  • Italy
  • Netherlands
  • Poland
  • Spain
  • UK
  • Selected Asian Markets
  • Philippines
  • India
  • Indonesia
  • Malaysia
  • Pakistan
  • Thailand
  • Vietnam
  • Selected Pacific Markets
  • Australia
  • New Zealand

23. THE LONG-TERM DEMAND CYCLE 1900-2050

  • Installed Capacity
  • Installed Capacity Versus Demand
  • The China Factor
  • Demand versus supply

24. TRANSFORMER GENERATOR RATIOS - MVA: MW

25. SMART TRANSFORMERS

  • Smart transformers and the smart grid
  • Basic characteristics of smart transformers
  • The basic technical requirements of smart transformers
  • Intelligent transformer substations
  • Smart transformer in current infrastructure
  • Dissolved gas analysis (DGA)

26. N+1 STANDARD, N+2 AND 2N, REDUNDANCY AND REPLACEMENT

  • Network failure
  • Transformer failure
  • Industrial reliability
  • Levels of redundancy
  • N+1 Redundancy
  • N+2 Redundancy
  • 2N Redundancy
  • Fault tolerance
  • 2N+1 Redundancy
  • Network reliability
  • N+1 and the networks
  • Reliability standards SAIFI and SAIDI
  • Electricity transmission
  • Large power transformers (LPTs)
  • Transformer/generator ratios and redundancy
  • Generation
  • Transmission
  • Distribution

27. PRICE TRENDS AND FACTORS DRIVING TRANSFORMER PRICES

  • PPI - Producer Price Index
  • USA
  • EU
  • China
  • Japan
  • Factors impacting on manufacturing cost and selling price of transformers
  • Manufacturing cost
  • Selling price
  • Cost of materials
  • The core - electrical steel
  • Amorphous steel
  • The coil - windings - copper and aluminium
  • Advantages of copper windings
  • Disadvantages of copper windings
  • Advantages of aluminium windings
  • Disadvantages of aluminium windings
  • Transformer oil
  • Fluctuations in commodity prices
  • Demand for transformers, market and industry trends
  • Production capacity and utilisation

28. MEPS - MINIMUM ENERGY PERFORMANCE STANDARDS

  • MEPS (Minimum Energy Performance Standards)
  • United States
  • Efficiency regulations
  • Canada
  • Brazil
  • Mexico
  • European Union
  • The European Norms EN50588-1:2014 and EU No 548/2014 apply.
  • Australia and New Zealand
  • Israel
  • Vietnam
  • Japan
  • China
  • Korea
  • India
  • Summary of efficiency standards

29. HIGH EFFICIENCY TRANSFORMERS

  • Development of a new technology - amorphous core transformers
  • The market for AMTs
  • AMT manufacturers
  • Amorphous metal ribbon manufacturers
  • Amorphous metal transformers - AMTs
  • Japan
  • China
  • United States
  • India
  • Taiwan
  • Other
  • HTS -high temperature superconductor transformers

30. TRANSFORMER PRODUCTION CAPACITY

  • Manufacturing capacity, global and by region
  • Capacity utilisation
  • North America (United States, Canada)
  • Japan
  • Europe
  • CIS
  • Mexico
  • Latin America (excluding Mexico)
  • China
  • India
  • Korea
  • Africa
  • South Africa

31. THE SUPPLY CHAIN

  • The political dimension of the global supply chains
  • US Federal Executive Order - Telecoms
  • Japanese programme to diversify Chinese supplies
  • Supply of transformers
  • Electrical system equipment
  • US LPT Seizure
  • Australia
  • Market impacts
  • US supply of power transformers and LPTs
  • Global supply chains
  • Supply chains for transformer components
  • The role of Wuhan in the global supply chain - the impact of Covid-19
  • The transformer supply chain
  • Key global supply chains for transformers
  • Reinhausen Machinenfabiken
  • Huaming/CZ
  • Hitachi ABB
  • Hyundai
  • Jin Li
  • SPX DETC
  • Brush
  • Crompton Greaves - CG Power
  • EHV bushings
  • Siemens
  • Trench
  • HSPHochspannungsgeräte GmbH
  • Hitachi ABB
  • GE - Alstom
  • Lapp, USA and Germany - Pfisterer
  • Seves Group, France
  • Aditya Birla Nuovo Ltd, India
  • China
  • Disruptions & switching
  • Distribution transformers

32. GLOBAL MARKET SHARE POWER AND DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS

33. LOGISTICS

  • An LPT logistical operation from China to the USA
  • Guidance for the safe transport of transformers
  • Design of transformers
  • Preparation of a Transformer
  • Faults or damages to transformers
  • Voyage Assessment
  • Transport execution
  • Handling
  • Securing
  • Impact Recorders
  • Rail transport
  • North America
  • Europe
  • Africa
  • Asia Pacific
  • Road transport
  • Rear wheel drive
  • Clearance
  • Alternative solutions

34. ELECTRIFICATION

  • Sub-Saharan Africa
  • Asia
  • MENA
  • Latin America
  • Europe
  • CIS
  • North America
  • The impact of electrification on the electrical supply industry

35. Methodology

  • Short term demand forecast
  • Long term demand cycle
  • Demand cycles and the market
  • Publisher Databases
  • Production and trade data
  • International and national information agencies
  • Industry interviews and cooperation
  • Review of the transformer databases
  • Utility/industry ownership
  • The proportion of GSU/transmission PTs
  • Redundancy.
  • Transformation capacity

List of Figures
Figure 1: The global transformer population, GVA, 2020
Figure 2: The global transformer fleet 2010-2020, generator and transformer capacity
Figure 3: LPT, 265 MVA, 525 kV
Figure 4: MPT 60 MVA, 275 kV.
Figure 5: SPT with 12.5 MVA with OLTC ( On-Load Tap Changer)
Figure 6: An 800 kV UHVDC converter transformer by ABB
Figure 7: Oil-filled distribution transformer,
Figure 8: Dry-type distribution transformer
Figure 9: Pad-mounted distribution transformer
Figure 10: A bank of 3 single phase pole top distribution transformers for 3 phase supply
Figure 11: The German Electricity Grid
Figure 12: American distribution system
Figure 13: European distribution system
Figure 14: Wiring diagram for 3 phase 4 wire delta-wye
Figure 15: Wiring diagram for 3 phase 4 wire
Figure 16: Electrical distribution system for a small building
Figure 17: Single rising main
Figure 18: Grouped supply
Figure 19: Individual floor supply
Figure 20: A large building using distributed transformers - splitting the system into two supply sections with 2 transformer modules with 3 × 630 kVA each.
Figure 21: A large building using distributed transformers with main route busbars
Figure 22: Consumption of power transformers in US, 1990 to 2020, GVA
Figure 23: USA Electric power system with substation types
Figure 24: Imports of power transformers (Oil filled ≥ 10 MVA), into the United States from Canada, Mexico and Korea 2000-2017 $ value
Figure 25: Distribution voltages in Europe (EU 27)
Figure 26: RWE and E.ON reorganize the German power sector, splitting up Innogy.
Figure 27: Oil price fiscal breakevens: oil price needed for the budget to break even (2020 projections)
Figure 28: Investment as a % of GDP, selected countries and economic groupings, 1980-2020
Figure 29: Market shares for UHV AC and HVDC transformers in China
Figure 30: Market shares of leading transformer manufacturers for SGCC’s HV, MV and LV tenders
Figure 31: Structure of the Chinese electric power industry
Figure 32: Top 20 markets for solar PV additions, 2018 to 2022.
Figure 33: Distribution utility customers by regions, 1950 to 2030
Figure 34: An example of a network before the meter, with Central and Distributed Generation
Figure 35: Basic scheme of an electric power system
Figure 36: The UK electrical power transmission and distribution system
Figure 37: The traditional centralised electricity system compared with distributed power
Figure 38: North American versus European distribution layouts.
Figure 39: GTW development Options
Figure 40: The overall concept of GTW
Figure 41: Evolution of transformers in voltage kV and capacity MVA
Figure 42: Proportion of capacity (MVA) generator, utility and private industry ownership of power and distribution transformers by region, 2018
Figure 43: Composition of the retail cost of electricity
Figure 44: The Electrification Wheel
Figure 45: Distributed energy, gas and electricity
Figure 46: Overview of distributed generation (based on [2, 3]) and of typical uses
Figure 47: Distributed power history
Figure 48: Growth in distributed generation in the US, 2010 to 2019
Figure 49: Residential distributed solar PV capacity, 2015 to 2050
Figure 50: Commercial distributed solar PV capacity, 2015 to 2050
Figure 51: The smart grid and distributed generation
Figure 52: Annual development of onshore wind energy capacity in Germany
Figure 53: Annual development of offshore wind energy capacity in Germany
Figure 54: Solar PV capacity in Germany, 1990 to 2019
Figure 55: Total installed and annual capacity of solar PV in Italy, 2000 to 2017
Figure 56: Installed capacity wind power in Spain, 1998 to 2019
Figure 57: The electricity network in the UK
Figure 58: International DSOs’ experience and rules of thumb for DG integration
Figure 59: HC enhancement techniques
Figure 60: Europe, MV/LV distribution transformer population in units and total GVA capacity, by unit capacity in kVA, 2020
Figure 61: USA, MV/LV distribution transformer population in units and total MVA capacity, by unit capacity in kVA
Figure 62: Distribution transformer population in Europe, units by kVA rating, 2020
Figure 63: Distribution transformer population in Europe, total MVA by kVA rating, 2020
Figure 64: Installed capacity of power and distribution transformers, GVA, 1900 - 2050
Figure 65: Global installed transformation capacity and demand, GVA, 1900 - 2050
Figure 66: Global utility transformation capacity installed base by region, GVA, 1900 - 2050
Figure 67: Conventional grid with unidirectional power flow
Figure 68: Active distribution grid with intelligent transformer substations
Figure 69: Producer Price Indices for power and distribution transformers in the United States 1967 to 2020
Figure 70: EU 28 Producer Price Index for industrial manufactures 2012 to 2020
Figure 71: China Producer Price Index for industrial goods 2016 to 2021
Figure 72: Japan Producer Price Index for electrical machinery and equipment 1996 to 2021
Figure 73: The manufacturing processes for CRGO and CNRGO
Figure 74: Copper prices 1970 to 2020
Figure 75: Aluminium prices 1970 to 2020
Figure 76: Transformer commodity price index 2009 to 2018
Figure 77: The vast majority of countries have yet to take such action.
Figure 78: The world’s largest HVDC transformer at Xiangjiaba, China
Figure 79: Global market share power and distribution transformers, $ value, 2020
Figure 80: Schnabel car with load
Figure 81: The largest load ever transported by road in the United Kingdom
Figure 82: Goldhofer heavy duty load
Figure 83: Goldhofer rear wheel drive vehicle
Figure 84: The trailer approaches a narrow turning
Figure 85: The trailer’s rear wheels begin the turn
Figure 86: The trailer has turned the corner
Figure 87: Overhead obstructions
Figure 88: Transformer off the road
Figure 89: Share of people without electricity access for developing countries, 2016
Figure 90: World electrification - % of households with electricity, 1900 - 2050
Figure 91: World electrification - number and % of households with electricity, 1900 - 2050
Figure 92: Selected major countries - % of households with electricity, 1900 - 2050
Figure 93: Selected major countries - Number of households with electricity, 1900 - 2050
Figure 94: Regional totals of electrified households 2010 to 2050
Figure 95: Additions of electrified households in each decade by region, 2010 to 2050
Figure 96: Diagram of new plus total replacement capacity

List of Tables
Table 1: Transformer demand, GVA and $ in real and nominal values, 2019-26
Table 2: World transformer demand forecast,
Table 3: World distribution transformer demand forecast, 2019-2026, Units
Table 4: Ownership of power and distribution transformers by capacity, 2020
Table 5: The global transformer fleet before the meter by transformer type, GVA, 2020
Table 6: The global transformer fleet by transformer type, 2010-2020, generator & transformer capacity
Table 7: Typical applications for distribution transformer technologies
Table 8: Six substation and industrial and commercial transformer types used behind the meter
Table 9: Installed base of LV dry type transformers in commercial buildings in the USA
Table 10: Installed base of LV dry type transformers in commercial buildings in USA by kVA capacity
Table 11: Population of electric motors in US industry, 2002
Table 12: Population and residential housing stock in the United States and Europe
Table 13: North America, total transformer sales forecast at ex-factory cost, 2019-2026, $ nominal million
Table 14: North America, total transformer sales by voltage, HV, MV, LV 2019-2026, $ nominal million
Table 15: North America, CGSU and network power transformer sales forecast, 2019-2026, MVA capacity
Table 16: North America, DGSU and network MV distribution transformer sales forecast, 2019-2026, MVA capacity
Table 17: North America, network and user LV transformer sales forecast, 2019-2026, MVA
Table 18: North America, distribution transformer MV and LV before the meter sales forecast, 2019-2026, units
Table 19: North America, LV transformers after the meter sales forecast, 2019-2026, units
Table 20: North America, transformer by type - CGSU, Net PT, DGSU, Net DT - sales forecast, 2019-2026, MVA capacity
Table 21: US power and distribution transformer stock, 2020
Table 22: Detailed shipment data for power and distribution transformers in the US, 2009
Table 23: Market shares of Power Transformer Producers in the United States, 2016
Table 24: Mexican power and distribution transformer stock, 2020
Table 25: Europe, total transformer sales forecast at ex-factory cost, 2019-2026, $ nominal million
Table 26: Europe, total transformer sales by voltage, HV, MV, LV 2019-2026, $ nominal million
Table 27: Europe, CGSU and network power transformer sales, 2019-2026, MVA
Table 28: Europe, DGSU and network MV distribution transformer sales, 2019-2026, MVA
Table 29: Europe, network and user LV distribution transformer sales, 2019-2026, MVA
Table 30: Europe, distribution transformer MV and LV before the meter sales, 2019-2026, units
Table 31: Europe, LV transformer after the meter sales, 2019-2026, units
Table 32: Europe, transformer by type - CGSU, Net PT, DGSU, Net DT - sales forecast, 2019-2026, MVA capacity
Table 33: Annual demand power and distribution transformers
Table 34: French power and distribution transformer stock, 2020
Table 35: Annual demand power and distribution transformers
Table 36: German power and distribution transformer stock, 2020
Table 37: Annual demand power and distribution transformers
Table 38: Italian power and distribution transformer stock, 2020
Table 39: Annual demand power and distribution transformers
Table 40: Spanish power and distribution transformer stock, 2020
Table 41: Annual demand power and distribution transformers
Table 42: Swiss power and distribution transformer stock, 2020
Table 43: Annual demand power and distribution transformers
Table 44: UK power and distribution transformer stock, 2020
Table 45: Annual demand power and distribution transformers
Table 46: Turkish power and distribution transformer stock, 2020
Table 47: CIS, total transformer sales forecast at ex-factory cost, 2019-2026, $ nominal million
Table 48: CIS, total transformer sales by voltage, HV, MV, LV 2019-2026, $ nominal million
Table 49: CIS, CGSU and network power sales, 2019-2026, MVA
Table 50: CIS, DGSU and network MV distribution sales, 2019-2026, MVA
Table 51: CIS network and user LV transformer sales, 2019-2026, MVA
Table 52: CIS distribution transformer MV and LV before the meter sales, 2019-2026, Units
Table 53: CIS LV transformer after the meter sales, 2019-2026, Units
Table 54: CIS, transformer by type - CGSU, Net PT, DGSU, Net DT - sales forecast, 2019-2026, MVA capacity
Table 55: Annual demand power and distribution transformers
Table 56: Russian power and distribution transformer stock, 2020
Table 57: ME & Africa, total transformer sales forecast at ex-factory cost, 2019-2026, $ nominal
Table 58: Middle East and Africa, total transformer sales by voltage, HV, MV, LV 2019-2026, MVA
Table 59: ME & Africa, CGSU and network power transformer sales, 2019-2026, MVA
Table 60: ME & Africa, DGSU and network MV distribution transformer sales, 2019-2026, MVA
Table 61: ME & Africa, network and user LV distribution transformer sales, 2019-2026, MVA
Table 62: ME & Africa, distribution transformer MV and LV before the meter sales, 2019-2026, Units
Table 63: ME & Africa, LV transformer after the meter sales, 2019-2026, Units
Table 64: Middle East, transformer by type - CGSU, Net PT, DGSU, Net DT - sales forecast,
Table 65: North Africa, transformer by type - CGSU, Net PT, DGSU, Net DT - sales forecast,
Table 66: Sub-Saharan Africa, transformer by type - CGSU, Net PT, DGSU, Net DT - sales forecast,
Table 67: Annual demand power and distribution transformers
Table 68: Iranian power and distribution transformer stock, 2020
Table 69: Annual demand power and distribution transformers
Table 70: Saudi Arabian power and distribution transformer stock, 2020
Table 71: Annual demand power and distribution transformers
Table 72: UAE power and distribution transformer stock, 2020
Table 73: Asia Pacific, total transformer sales forecast at ex-factory cost, 2019-2026, $ nominal
Table 74: Asia Pacific, total transformer sales by voltage, HV, MV, LV 2019-2026, $ nominal million
Table 75: Asia Pacific, CGSU and network power transformer sales, 2019-2026, MVA
Table 76: Asia Pacific, DGSU and network MV distribution transformer sales, 2019-2026, MVA
Table 77: Asia Pacific, network and user LV transformer sales, 2019-2026, MVA
Table 78: Asia Pacific, distribution transformer MV and LV before the meter sales, 2019-2026, Units
Table 79: Asia Pacific, LV transformer after the meter sales, 2019-2026, Units
Table 80: Asia Pacific, transformer by type - CGSU, Net PT, DGSU, Net DT - sales forecast,
Table 81: Annual demand power and distribution transformers
Table 82: Chinese power and distribution transformer stock, 2020
Table 83: The operational UHV circuits in China in 2019
Table 84: UHV circuits under construction in China in 2019
Table 85: Key Technologies for UHV AC systems
Table 86: Key technologies for UVH DC systems
Table 87: Japanese power and distribution transformer stock, 2020
Table 88: Transformer manufacturers in Japan
Table 89: Annual demand power and distribution transformers
Table 90: Indian power and distribution transformer stock, 2020
Table 91: Indian transformer production capacity GVA
Table 92: Transformer manufacturers in India
Table 93: Annual demand power and distribution transformers
Table 94: Indonesian power and distribution transformer stock, 2020
Table 95: Annual demand power and distribution transformers
Table 96: Korean power and distribution transformer stock, 2020
Table 97: Annual demand power and distribution transformers
Table 98: Taiwanese power and distribution transformer stock, 2020
Table 99: Annual demand power and distribution transformers
Table 100: Thai power and distribution transformer stock, 2020
Table 101: LAC, total transformer sales forecast at ex-factory cost, 2019-2026, $ nominal million
Table 102: LAC, total transformer sales by voltage, HV, MV, LV 2019-2026, $ nominal million
Table 103: LAC, CGSU and network power transformer sales, 2019-2026, MVA
Table 104: LAC, DGSU and network MV distribution transformer sales, 2019-2026, MVA
Table 105: LAC, network and user LV transformer sales, 2019-2026, MVA
Table 106: Latin America, distribution transformer MV and LV before the meter sales, 2019-2026, Units
Table 107: Latin America, LV transformer after the meter sales, 2019-2026, Units
Table 108: Latin America, transformer by type - CGSU, Net PT, DGSU, Net DT - sales forecast,
Table 109: Annual demand power and distribution transformers
Table 110: Brazilian power and distribution transformer stock, 2020
Table 111: Installed transformer capacity, GVA, 1950 to 2020
Table 112: Costs and mark-up from Bill of Materials to Capex
Table 113: Electricity transmission and distribution companies of the world.
Table 114: Utility customer analysis; Transmission and Distribution utilities by size, World by Region, 2019
Table 115: Utility customer analysis; Transmission and Distribution utilities by size, Europe, 2019
Table 116: Utility customer analysis; Transmission and Distribution utilities by size, CIS, 2019
Table 117: Utility customer analysis; Transmission and Distribution utilities by size, Middle East, 2019
Table 118: Utility customer analysis; Transmission and Distribution utilities by size, North Africa, 2019
Table 119: Utility customer analysis; Transmission and Distribution utilities by size, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2019
Table 120: Utility customer analysis; Transmission and Distribution utilities by size, Asia, 2019
Table 121: Utility customer analysis; Transmission and Distribution utilities by size, Pacific, 2019
Table 122: Utility customer analysis; Transmission and Distribution utilities by size, North America, 2019
Table 123: Utility customer analysis; Transmission and Distribution utilities by size, South America, 2019
Table 124: Utility customer analysis; Transmission and Distribution utilities by size, Central America, 2019
Table 125: Transformer demand at ex-factory and installed cost by region, 2018-2025, $ million
Table 126: Generator, Power and Distribution & LV User transformer capacity (MVA) by country, World, 2020
Table 127: Generator, Utility and Industrial Power and Distribution transformer capacity (MVA) by country and ownership, World, 2020
Table 128: Number and average capacity in kVA of Distribution transformers by country and ownership, World, 2020
Table 129: Generator, Power and Distribution & LV User transformer capacity (MVA) by country, North America, 2020
Table 130: Generator, Utility and Industrial Power and Distribution transformer capacity (MVA) by country and ownership, North America, 2020
Table 131: Number and average capacity in kVA of Distribution transformers by country and ownership North America, 2020
Table 132: Generator, Power and Distribution & LV User transformer capacity (MVA) by country, Europe, 2020
Table 133: Generator, Utility and Industrial Power and Distribution transformer capacity (MVA) by country and ownership, Europe, 2020
Table 134: Number and average capacity in kVA of distribution transformers by country and ownership, Europe, 2020
Table 135: Generator, Power and Distribution & LV User transformer capacity (MVA) by country, CIS, 2020
Table 136: Generator, Utility and Industrial Power and Distribution transformer capacity (MVA) by country and ownership, CIS, 2020
Table 137: Number and average capacity in kVA of distribution transformers by country and ownership, CIS, 2020
Table 138: Generator, Power and Distribution & LV User transformer capacity (MVA) by country, Middle East & North Africa, 2020
Table 139: Generator, Utility and Industrial Power and Distribution transformer capacity (MVA) by country and ownership, Middle East & North Africa, 2020
Table 140: Number and average capacity in kVA of distribution transformers by country and ownership, Middle East and North Africa, 2020
Table 141: Generator, Power and Distribution & LV User transformer capacity (MVA) by country, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2020
Table 142: Generator, Utility and Industrial Power and Distribution transformer capacity (MVA) by country and ownership, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2020
Table 143: Number and average capacity in kVA of distribution transformers by country and ownership, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2019
Table 144: Generator, Power and Distribution & LV User transformer capacity (MVA) by country, Asia Pacific, 2020
Table 145: Generator, Utility and Industrial Power and Distribution transformer capacity (MVA) by country and ownership, Asia Pacific, 2020
Table 146: Number and average capacity in kVA of distribution transformers by country and ownership Asia Pacific, 2020
Table 147: Generator, Power and Distribution & LV User transformer capacity (MVA) by country, LAC, 2020
Table 148: Generator, Utility and Industrial Power and Distribution transformer capacity (MVA) by country and ownership, LAC, 2020
Table 149: Number and average capacity in kVA of distribution transformers by country and ownership, LAC, 2020
Table 150: Highest voltage levels of distribution in Europe
Table 151: Average consumers per LV distribution transformer in selected countries, 2018
Table 152: Commonly used DG technologies with size
Table 153: Number of installed solar PV capacity plants by size in the UK, 2010 to 2018
Table 154: Installed solar PV capacity plants by capacity MW in the UK, 2010 to 2018
Table 155: Population of distribution transformers in the Netherlands by kVA rating
Table 156: Population of utility-owned distribution transformers Meralco and two smaller utilities in Luzon and Mindanao.
Table 157: Population of utility-owned distribution transformers in Pakistan by kVA rating
Table 158: Population of utility-owned distribution transformers in PEA by kVA rating.
Table 159: Population of utility-owned distribution transformers in Vietnam by kVA rating.
Table 160: Utility distribution transformer population in Australia by kVA rating, 2019
Table 161: Private distribution transformer population in Australia by kVA rating, 2019
Table 162: Total distribution transformer population in Australia by kVA rating, 2019
Table 163: Distribution transformer population in New Zealand by kVA rating, 2018
Table 164: Ratios of transformation capacity (MVA) to generating capacity (MW), World, 2020
Table 165: Ratios of transformation capacity (MVA) to generating capacity (MW), Europe, 2020
Table 166: Ratios of transformation capacity (MVA) to generating capacity (MW), CIS, 2020
Table 167: Ratios of transformation capacity (MVA) to generating capacity (MW), Middle East and North Africa, 2020
Table 168: Ratios of transformation capacity (MVA) to generating capacity (MW), Sub-Saharan Africa, 2020
Table 169: Ratios of transformation capacity (MVA) to generating capacity (MW), Asia Pacific, 2020
Table 170: Ratios of transformation capacity (MVA) to generating capacity (MW), North America, 2020
Table 171: Ratios of transformation capacity (MVA) to generating capacity (MW), Latin America, 2020
Table 172: Cost of materials.
Table 173: Network losses by region
Table 174: A summary of liquid filled distribution transformer efficiency programmes
Table 175:Summary of dry-type distribution transformer efficiency programmes
Table 176: Manufacturers of energy efficient transformers in China, 2013
Table 177: World production capacity for transformers, GVA, 2019
Table 178: Global leaders’ production capacity power and distribution transformers, GVA, 2019
Table 179: CIS, production capacity power and distribution transformers, GVA, 2013
Table 180: China, domestic production capacity power and distribution transformers, GVA, 2019
Table 181: India, production capacity power and distribution transformers, GVA, 2007 - 2020
Table 182: Population and electrical parameters of South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown

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FEATURED COMPANIES

  • Aditya Birla Nuovo Ltd
  • EHV Bushings
  • Hitachi (ABB)
  • Hyundai
  • Lapp
  • Seves Group

CHAPTER 1 - THE POWER AND DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER MARKET

Total demand for power and distribution transformers in 2018 is summarised with cagr in real and nominal values, in MVA capacity, and in real and nominal price per unit, for 2019 and forecast to 2026. For all transformers, GSU transformers, power transformers, distribution transformers. - 

CHAPTER 2 - THE GROWTH OF THE WORLD’S TRANSFORMER FLEET

A comparison of data of the growth of the transformer stock as measured in the last seven Transformer Surveys- analysis EHV HV GSU/utility PTs/industry DTs/DG GSU/utility DTs/industry DTs. 

CHAPTER 3 - THE IMPACT OF COVID-19

The progress of Covid and its impact on the transformer industry and markets. 

CHAPTER 4 - TRANSFORMER MARKET, GSU, POWER AND DISTRIBUTION, INDUSTRIAL

The classifications of transformers - GSU, LPT, MPT power, SPT power, pad-mounted DT, pole top DT, industrial. 

CHAPTER 5 - LOW VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS BACKGROUND INFORMATION 

A mix of information about the LV market and the usage of LV transformers. An outline of the European and North America distribution systems with differences in LV mains. Configurations of industrial and commercial transformer systems are described linking with this with Low voltage transformers. 

CHAPTER 6 - NORTH AMERICAN TRANSFORMER MARKET 

Analysis of demand and transformer stock by category; GSU, power transformers and distribution transformers. Detailed shipment data for distribution transformers in the US is only available for the years 2009 by transformer type. Market drivers and utility investments are outlined. The manufacturing industry is analysed in detail by transformer category; LPT, power, medium power transformers, liquid and dry type MV transformers, LV dry type. Purchase influences and delivery channels are analysed. Efficiency are outlined. 

CHAPTER 7 - EUROPEAN TRANSFORMER MARKETS

The European market for power and distribution transformers in estimated at ex-factory cost, for generator transformers, transmission power transformers and distribution transformers for every country. Regional overview of the European utility system is provided, with details of utilizes and network structure, including voltage analysis. Efficiency measures are outlined. The changing network landscape of Distributed Power and Smart Transformers are outlined. Over the last five years, the EU power sector has been hit by a “perfect storm” of macroeconomic and industry-specific factors that have led to overcapacity and low prices. MPS and market drivers are analysed. As a result, the region’s large publicly traded utilities have, on average, lost half of their market capitalisation since 2008, destroying around EUR 500 billion of shareholder value. Tis is outlined and analysed in detail focusing on the major utilizes affected. The Chapter contains detailed marketing sections for the major countries in Europe; France, Germany, Italy, Spain, United Kingdom and Turkey, analysis of manufacturing facilities, especially the global leaders - ABB, Siemens, Alstom, Schneider, Legrand. 

CHAPTER 8 - CIS TRANSFORMER MARKET 

The CIS market for power and distribution transformers in estimated at ex-factory cost, for generator transformers, transmission power transformers and distribution transformers for every country. The Chapter contains a separate report on the major CIS country, Russia. 

CHAPTER 9 - MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA TRANSFORMER MARKETS

The Middle Eastern and African markets for power and distribution transformers in estimated at ex-factory cost, for generator transformers, transmission power transformers and distribution transformers for every country. Individual sections on Iran, Saudi Arabia and UAE. 

CHAPTER 10 - ASIA PACIFIC TRANSFORMER MARKETS

The Asia Pacific markets for power and distribution transformers in estimated at ex-factory cost, for generator transformers, transmission power transformers and distribution transformers for every country. Separate detailed sections are included for China, India, Japan, Korea, Indonesia, Taiwan and Thailand. An interesting analysis is provided of investment as a % of GDP, which shows clearly the dominance of the Asian countries and MENA with implications for markets. 

CHAPTER 11 - LAC TRANSFORMER MARKETS

The LAC markets for power and distribution transformers in estimated at ex-factory cost, for generator transformers, transmission power transformers and distribution transformers for every country. The two largest market, Brazil and Mexico are analysed individually. 

CHAPTER 12 - RECENT TRENDS IN TRANSFORMER CAPACITY, CENTRAL AND DISTRIBUTED, NEW & REPLACEMENT

Growth of distributed generation. 

CHAPTER 13 - SOLAR PV SOLAR PV AND TRANSFORMERLESS INVERTERS

Inverters, step-up transformers for grid connected solar PV plants, and transformerless TL inverters for grid connected solar PV plants. 

CHAPTER 14 - THE VALUE CHAIN - FROM MATERIALS TO CAPEX

The cost of any product such as transformers or switchgear can be measured in a number of ways, from being a piece of unworked metal, to its final installation in working order and finally as a constituent of capital expenditure. Different price levels are important in this supply chain. These are defined and analysed with % ratios for each step in the sequence. The value chain differs for different routes to market and is a fundamental issue for channel strategy. 

CHAPTER 15 - THE UTILITY LANDSCAPE

Customer list - utility landscape with transmission and distribution companies listed for 204 countries with hundreds of utilities named. 

CHAPTER 16 - UTILITY CUSTOMER ANALYSIS

The world population of electricity distribution utilities summary analysis by country and size of customer base. 

CHAPTER 17 - TRANSFORMERS SALES AT RETAIL PRICE AND INSTALLED COST

Demand by region is summarised at retail price and installed cost. 

CHAPTER 18 - UTILITY, GSU & INDUSTRIAL POWER AND DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER INSTALLED CAPACITY, NUMBERS AND AVERAGE DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER KVA PER UNIT 

A detail set of tables of Generator, Utility and Industrial Power and Distribution transformer capacity (MVA), numbers of units and kVA/unit for distribution transformers, by country and ownership, for 2017. 

CHAPTER 19 - NETWORK TRANSFORMER LAYOUT 

In the T&D industry, GSU, power network and distribution network transformers are one of the major components of equipment, in addition to switchgear, cables and other items of equipment. Transformers are needed at all stages in an electrical supply system when the voltage level changes, either up or down and the transport of power goes through several stages between generation and final delivery to the consumer. These stages vary according to the design of the system. The Chapter outlines the various stages of the power networks in detail and identifies where the different types of transformers are positioned, flagging regional differences in practice, with regional summaries. 

CHAPTER 20 - A REVIEW OF GENERATION

Categories of generation; central, captive, distributed, hidden. 

CHAPTER 21 - HOSTING CAPACITY OF DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS AND DG PENETRATION 

A revies of overvoltage caused by superimposition of renewables on existing networks, power quality, power loss, solutions and rule of thumb hosting capacity calculations. 

CHAPTER 22 - DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS BY kVA UNIT CAPACITY

A regional breakdown of kVA distribution transformer capacity in Europe and North America, and counts for selected countries in Europe and in Asia. 

CHAPTER 23 - THE LONG-TERM DEMAND CYCLE

1900-2050 Global installed transformer capacity has risen every year throughout the last and current centuries, from 22 GVA in 1900 to 45,188 GVA in 2016. The growth has been linear and it will continue as such until 2050. At face value the steady rise in installed capacity suggests that annual demand for power and distribution transformers will rise steadily every year on a linear path, but this is not the case. It was such an assumption as this which led to unsustainable surpluses of production capacity in the electro-technical industry in the 1990s and the demise of many hitherto respected and successful companies. Over 200 transformer factories were closed between 1970 and 2000. Figures plot installed transformer capacity and annual demand based on replacement cycles of 40 years for power transformers and 30 years for distribution transformers. The long-term demand cycle of new and renewal does not equate to short term expenditure. At present, if replacement had been carried out as needed demand would be going down. However, replacement has been delayed for years, especially in the transmission sector and short-term market is increasing. The long- term demand cycle is a tool for long-term planning, while the short-term expenditure projections are for immediate sales and marketing purposes. 

CHAPTER 24 - TRANSFORMER:GENERATOR RATIOS - MVA:MW

The ratio of transformer capacity to generating capacity is a useful statistic because generating capacity is comprehensively recorded whereas transformer capacity is less well documented. This enables us not only to confirm snapshots of transformation capacity at any point in time but also to plot long term trends and demand cycles for transformers based on the historical data for generating capacity. Power transformers have along service lives, often 40 years or more, with some still in service aged 60-80 years and even a few 100 years old. It is therefore essential to plot long term installed capacity. There are variations between countries, which are the result of different network designs and voltage classes. The ratios are given for every country at four stages; GSU, power network, distribution network and total generator transformer capacity. 

CHAPTER 25 - SMART TRANSFORMERS

Challenges such as the aging power grid, increasing energy demands, spiraling cost of generating electricity and its cost on the environment all point toward the need for a grid that can produce and distribute energy more efficiently and reliably. The smart grid is being developed to deal with these problems. Transformers serve as a hub for collection and distribution of energy and are a key component of a successful transition to a smart grid. The smart grid concept ties together all aspects of the power system, from the plug in the wall at a house or office to a factory, to the distribution system, to power plants of all kinds. For the smart grid to work efficiently, there will be a need for smart transformers. As part of the distribution network, there are millions of transformers in the world; unfortunately, very few have any intelligence or communication capabilities that meet advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) standards or are parts of an advanced sensor infrastructure (ASI) network. 

CHAPTER 26 - N-1 STANDARD, N-2 AND 2N, REDUNDANCY AND REPLACEMENT

Redundancy is a crucial consideration in infrastructure design and has major implications for market size calculations. The following factors are reviewed; the impact of network failure, transformer failure, industrial reliability, network reliability, N-1 and the networks, contingency planning for network failure and electricity distribution. 

CHAPTER 27 - PRICE TRENDS AND FACTORS DRIVING TRANSFORMER PRICES

In recent years, the prices of electrotechnical products have been volatile due to variations in many factors which affect them. Price trends are reviewed with commentary on PPI - Producer Price Index, industry trends, production capacity, and the manufacturing input cost composition. A review of electrical steel production and capacity is included. 

CHAPTER 28 - MEPS - MINIMUM ENERGY PERFORMANCE STANDARDS

Losses in transmission and distribution networks constitute the single biggest loss in any electricity system. Approximately 70% of the losses in electricity networks occur in the distribution network with conductor accounting for 42% of these losses and transformers about 30%. Transformers operate 24 hours/day, 365 days per year and have very long lifetimes, typically 40-50 years for power transformers and around 30 years for distribution transformers. Energy consumption during its service life is the dominant factor in their life-cycle assessment of environmental impact. The increased use of electronic equipment can lead to increased harmonic currents and higher losses in transformers. Transformers are already efficient pieces of equipment, with efficiency in the range of 95 to 99 The issue is discussed and details of mandatory efficiency standards around the world supplied. MEPS Aer outlined for each major country. 

CHAPTER 29 - HIGH EFFICIENCY TRANSFORMERS

Development of a new technology - amorphous core transformers. Amorphous core transformers (AMTs) significantly reduce no-load losses by using an amorphous alloy for the iron core, on which the transformer windings that carry the electricity are coiled. The technology and market penetration is outlined by region and major country. 

CHAPTER 30 - TRANSFORMER PRODUCTION CAPACITY

Manufacturers of larger power transformers are easier to identify and their production capacity is either published or can be estimated. Most countries have numbers of small local producers of distribution transformers which are sold to local distribution utilities and are poorly documented. Some large countries have a lot of these companies, notably China, India, Europe and the United States. China, Europe and the United States have large numbers of distribution utilities, India fewer. The Chapter surveys the global situation with detailed reports for the major countries. 

CHAPTER 31 - THE SUPPLY CHAIN

Analysis of supply chains at a geopolitical level, with actions by the governments of the United States and Japan to replace the Chinese dominance of the world supply chains. Outline of the global supply chains for power transformers and regional and local supply chains for distribution transformers. Impact of Covid and its effect on the transformer industries and markets (see Chapter 3). 

CHAPTER 32 - GLOBAL MARKET SHARE POWER AND DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS, VALUE

2017 Global market shares for the major transformer manufacturers. 

CHAPTER 33 - LOGISTICS

Power transformers, especially GSU and quad boosters, are among the largest and heaviest pieces of equipment that must be transported, sometimes over long distances. Because of their size and the small numbers in service there are only a few manufacturers of the largest units in the world, thereby necessitating long and complex logistics. This is increasingly mentioned by vendors as a major cost and a consideration in locating manufacturing sites. It is not our purpose to provide a detailed survey of logistics in this report but to give a flavour of what is an increasingly important issue of the complexities of delivery of large, heavy equipment. The Chapter contains some graphic illustrations of logistical problems and mishaps, which demonstrate the difficulties that planners face more effectively than any descriptions. 

CHAPTER 34 - ELECTRIFICATION

The impact of increased electrification on future markets is described with its advantages in terms of electrical goods and aspirations, which vary according to the sophistication of the electrical market in a country. Factors driving the increase in numbers of electrical connections are assessed with tables of electrification levels for every country, from 1950 to 2050. 

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown

A selection of companies mentioned in this report includes:

  • Aditya Birla Nuovo Ltd
  • Brush
  • Crompton Greaves (CG Power)
  • EHV Bushings
  • GE (Alstom)
  • Hitachi (ABB)
  • HSPHochspannungsgeräte GmbH
  • Huaming/CZ
  • Hyundai
  • Jin Li
  • Lapp
  • Pfisterer
  • Reinhausen Machinenfabiken
  • Seves Group
  • Siemens
  • SPX DETC
  • Trench
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