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Coronaviruses: Volume 2

  • Book

  • December 2021
  • Bentham Science Publishers Ltd
  • ID: 5521021
Scientific literature on SARS-COV-2 viruses and its variants (especially variants of concern such as the ‘Delta variant’) and important cellular targets is crucial to help researchers, virologists and clinicians around the globe to develop a new generation of safer and more effective vaccines, and other treatments to address COVID-19 disease. The accompanying damage to the many organs and tissues of SARS-Co-2-infected people also needs to be understood and researchers are using data to devise meaningful protocols for treating these symptoms.

This second volume of Coronaviruses brings together more useful information about the prevention/vaccination, and chemotherapies for the potential treatment of coronavirus infections.

The volume includes eight chapters:

1 Broad spectrum antivirals to combat COVID-19 The reality and challenges
2 COVID-19: Preventive and protective control management strategies
3 Plant-derived extracts and bioactive compounds against coronavirus progression: preventive effects, mechanistic aspects, and structures
4 Gastroenteritis: symptoms and epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2
5 The chronicles of coronavirus: A Chinese king who conquered the entire world
6 Traditional medicine as a natural remedy in ARDS & COVID-19
7 Molecular pathogenesis of human coronaviruses of the 21st century
8 COVID-19, mental health and neuropathophysiology of pain related to temporomandibular disorder.

The volume serves as a novel compilation of key data on SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 and represents a resource of the utmost value for all scholars studying SARS-CoV infections. It should also be of great interest to clinicians who may be facing an overwhelming number of individuals affected with COVID-19, with over 267 million global cases documented as of the first week of December 2021).

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Broad-Spectrum Antivirals To Combat Covid-19: The Reality And Challenges

  • Wafaa A. Hewedy
  • Introduction
  • Drugs Targeting Entry Process
  • Viral Envelope Proteins
  • Nelfinavir
  • Arbidol
  • Host Cell Proteins
  • Tmprss2 Inhibitors
  • Furin Inhibitors
  • Drugs Targeting Viral Replication
  • Ribavirin
  • Remdesivir
  • Sofosbuvir
  • Favipiravir
  • Protease Inhibitors
  • Lopinavir/Ritonavir
  • Jak Inhibitors
  • Baricitinib
  • Abl Inhibitors
  • Imatinib
  • Niclosamide
  • Nitazoxanide
  • Conclusion
  • Consent For Publication
  • Conflict Of Interest
  • Acknowledgements
  • References

Chapter 2 Covid19: Preventive And Protective Control Management Strategies

  • Kalyani Pathak, Manash Pratim Pathak, Urvashee Gogoi, Riya Saikia And Aparoop Das
  • Introduction
  • Preventive And Protective Control Management Strategies Practiced In Different Levels
  • Environmental Measures
  • Ensure Adequate Sanitization By Standard Disinfectants
  • Ensure Proper Ventilation, Temperature, And Humidity In Confined Places
  • Reduction Of Close Contact In A Closed Environment
  • Identification And Management Of Isolation Room For Suspected Cases
  • Organizational Measures
  • Engineering Controls
  • Administrative Controls
  • Personal Controls
  • Laboratory And Testing Controls
  • Personal Measures
  • Ensure Proper Use Of Ppe (Personal Protective Equipment) And Disposal After Use 47 Donning Of Ppe Kit
  • Doffing Of Ppe Kit
  • Disposal Of Contaminated Ppe Kit
  • Ensure Proper Coughing Etiquettes
  • Use Of Face Masks
  • Proper Handwash Procedure
  • Societal Measures
  • Ensure Proper Social Distancing
  • Ensure Proper Quarantine And Home Isolation Norms
  • Role Of Mass And Social Media In Public Health Education System
  • Awareness At The Community Level
  • The Need Of The Hour
  • Early Diagnoses Of The Disease
  • Upgradation Of The Hospital Management System
  • Efficient Training For Health Care Professionals
  • Appeal For A Change In Lifestyle
  • Conclusion
  • Consent For Publication
  • Conflict Of Interest
  • Acknowledgements
  • References

Chapter 3 Plant-Derived Extracts And Bioactive Compounds Against Coronavirus Progression: Preventive Effects, Mechanistic Aspects, And Structures

  • Heba A.S. El-Nashar, Ahmed E. Elissawy, Omayma A. Eldahshan And Abdel Nasser B. Singab
  • Introduction
  • Materials And Methods
  • Results And Discussion
  • Medicinal Plants With Antiviral Activity Against Coronavirus
  • Plant Extracts
  • Plant Essential Oils
  • Natural Compounds With Antiviral Activity Against Coronavirus 70 Phenolic Compounds
  • Alkaloids
  • Terpenoids
  • Conclusion
  • Consent For Publication
  • Conflict Of Interest
  • Acknowledgements
  • References

Chapter 4 Gastroenteritis: Symptoms And Epidemiology Of Sars-Cov-2 97 Aditi Nag, Sudipti Arora And Sonia Sethi

  • Introduction
  • Sars-Cov-2 - The Pathogen Characteristics
  • Epidemiology And Transmission
  • Phases Of Infection:
  • Gastrointestinal Manifestations Of Covid-19
  • Discussion On Wastewater Based Epidemiology Studies And Their Findings
  • Detection Of Sars- Cov-2 Genomic Rna And Genes In The Wastewater
  • Future Scope
  • Consent For Publication
  • Conflict Of Interest
  • Acknowledgements
  • References

Chapter 5 The Chronicles Of Coronavirus: A Chinese King Who Conquered The Entire World

  • Sanaullah Sajid, Sajjad-Ur Rahman, Muhammad Ali, Maliha Sarfraz, Imran Abdullah And Samiullah Sajid
  • Introduction
  • History
  • Structural Proteins
  • Assembly Of Sars-Cov
  • Covid-19
  • Infection By Covid-19
  • Transmission
  • When Should A Person Be Tested?
  • Care Of Critically Ill Patients
  • Prevention And Control
  • Treatment
  • Ncov-19 Pandemic And Way Forward
  • Treatments And Potential Targets Against Sars-Cov-2
  • Future Perspectives And Conclusion
  • Consent For Publication
  • Conflict Of Interest
  • Acknowledgements
  • References

Chapter 6 Traditional Medicine As Natural Remedy In Ards & Covid-19 Through Interleukins

  • Suresh Kumar Karri And Sheela Angappan
  • Introduction To Covid-19
  • Covid-19 - Global Challenges
  • Pathology Of Ards (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome) Or Ali (Acute Lung Injury)
  • Ards/Ali In The Context Of Covid-19
  • Il17S Role In Ards/Ali
  • Cytokine Release Syndrome (Crs)
  • Treatment Options
  • Antiviral Drugs
  • Antimalarial Drugs
  • Anti-Hiv Drugs
  • Anti-Inflammatory Drugs
  • Monoclonal Antibodies
  • What Are Their Adverse Effects?
  • Ongoing Clinical Studies, Their Cost, And Disadvantages
  • Herbal Medicine For Covid-19
  • Effects Of Traditional Indian Medicine In Covid-19
  • Mechanism Of Action Of B Erecta Extract In Il17 Inhibition & Its Efficacy In Ards 147 Limitations & Prospects Of B. Erecta
  • Conclusion
  • Consent For Publication
  • Conflict Of Interest
  • Acknowledgements
  • References

Chapter 7 Molecular Pathogenesis Of Human Coronaviruses Of 21St Century Ruma Karmakar, Satya Vadlamani, Jyoti Verma, Sakshi Kumari And Maitreyi Syamala Rajala

  • Introduction
  • Comparison Of All Three Human Coronaviruses
  • Proteome Comparison
  • Subtypes Of Human Coronaviruses
  • Host Cell Receptors Used By Coronaviruses For Infection
  • Molecular Pathogenesis
  • Virus Infection
  • Entry Into The Host
  • Transmission Dynamics
  • Clinical Features Of Human Coronaviruses
  • Pathogenesis Of Human Coronavirus Associated Diseases
  • Lung Pathology
  • Multiple Organ Dysfunction
  • Immune Response
  • The Cytokine Storm Induced By Coronaviruses
  • The Adaptive Response With Respect To The Humoral And The Cellular Immunity
  • Immune Evasion Strategies
  • Animal Models To Study The Molecular Pathogenesis Of Human Coronaviruses
  • Mouse Models
  • Non-Human Primate Models
  • Conclusion
  • Consent For Publication
  • Conflict Of Interest
  • Acknowledgements
  • References

Chapter 8 Covid-19, Mental Health And Neuropathophysiology Of Pain Related To Temporomandibular Disorder

  • Karen Dantur Batista Chaves And Maria Cristina Munerato
  • Introduction
  • Temporomandibular Disorder And Orofacial Pain Mechanisms
  • Mechanisms Of Orofacial Pain
  • Mental Health And Temporomandibular Disorder
  • Covid-19
  • Conclusion
  • Consent For Publication
  • Conflict Of Interest
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Subject Index


  • Jean-Marc Sabatier