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An Introduction to Nephroprotective Plants

  • Book
  • December 2021
  • Bentham Science Publishers Ltd
  • ID: 5521034
The kidneys are a vital organ present in humans and vertebrate animals. Various toxic chemicals, present in food and water adversely affect the kidneys. Plants and plant-derived compounds have been a major source for the treatment and cure of diseases since ancient times. Even today, almost 25% of the prescription drugs for renal problems are sourced from plants. An Introduction to Nephroprotective Plants gives an overview of nephrotoxicity and medicinal plants used for protecting the kidney and reducing the effect of kidney toxicity and managing renal diseases. This book is an answer to the current gaps in knowledge resources on nephroprotective plants.

The reader is introduced to the basic physiology of the renal excretory system and its disorders. The introduction is followed by chapters which give information on medicinal plants used in traditional systems of medicine (both codified and noncodified). Information about plant parts used, method of use and dosage is provided along with references.

Key Features

  • Simple structured presentation in six chapters
  • Includes an introduction to the urinary system and its diseases
  • Includes information about codified and noncodified medicinal plants used for neuroprotection
  • Covers phytochemicals extracted from medicinal plants which are screened and used in modern medicine for nephroprotection in detail.
  • Covers ethnobotanical and polyherbal formulations

References for further reading An Introduction to Nephroprotective Plants serves as a convenient desk reference for all researchers (pharmacologists, medicinal chemists, ethnobotanists) and healthcare professionals (physicians, pharmacists, nurses and medical students) who require complete information on nephroprotective plants. Audience: Researchers (pharmacologists, medicinal chemists, ethnobotanists) and healthcare professionals (physicians, pharmacists, nurses and medical students) who require complete information on nephroprotective plants, readers in traditional medicine.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Urinary System, Its Functions And Disorders
  • Introduction
  • Functions Of The Kidneys
  • Disorders Of Urinary System
  • Nephrotoxicity
  • Diabetic Nephropathy
  • Kidney Stones
  • Types Of Stones
  • Physiologically
  • Clinically
  • Calcium Stones
  • Struvite Stones
  • Uric Acid Stones
  • Cystine Stones
  • Drug Induced Stones
  • 2, 8-Dihydroxyadenine Stones
  • Prevention
  • Conclusion
  • Abbreviations
  • References

Chapter 2 Screening Models Of Nephroprotection, Nephrocurative And Antiurolithiatic Plants
  • Introduction
  • In Vivo Animal Models
  • Spontaneous Models [1]
  • Lupus Nephritis
  • Aging
  • Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats
  • Ckd As A Result Of Intense Kidney Injury
  • Intrinsic Insufficiency Of Nephrons
  • Acquired Models [1]
  • Surgical Methods
  • Animal Models Of Chronic Nephrotoxicity [1]
  • Adenine Induced Ckd
  • Adriamycin Induced Ckd
  • Diabetic Nephropathy
  • Other Models Of Chronic Nephrotoxicity
  • Radiation Nephropathy
  • Model For Assessing The Nephroprotective Activity
  • Biochemical Parameters
  • Experimental Animals
  • Acute Oral Toxicity Studies
  • Evaluation Of Nephroprotective Activity By Animal Model
  • Assortment Of Blood Tests And Planning Of Post-Mitochondrial And Microsomal Parts Of Kidney Samples
  • Renal Function Tests
  • Plasma Creatinine Estimation
  • Blood Urea Nitrogen Estimation
  • Determination Of Catalase Activity
  • Determination Of Superoxide Dismutase (Sod) Activity
  • Determination Of Reduced Glutathione Level
  • Estimation Of Glutathione-S-Transferase Activity
  • Determination Of Lipid Peroxidation
  • Determination Of Renal Glucose-6-Phosphatase Activity
  • In Vitro Nephroprotective Activity
  • Epiflourescence Staining
  • Cytoprotective Assay
  • Docking Studies
  • Screening Models Of Medicinal Plants For Treating Urolithiasis 26 Preclinical Animal Models Of Urolithiasis
  • Ethylene Glycol Induced Urolithiasis In Rats
  • Diet Induced Model
  • By Sodium Oxalate
  • By Zinc Disc Implantation
  • Xenoplantation Model
  • Chemical (Tpa/Dmt) Induced Urolithiasis In Weaned Rats
  • Urinary Calculi By Sulfamonomethoxine In Pigs
  • Mild Tubular Damage In Hyperoxaluric Rodents Initiates Renal Lithogenesis
  • In-Vitro Models
  • In Vitro Crystallization
  • Nucleation Assay
  • Growth Assay
  • Calcium Phosphate Assay
  • Calcium Oxalate Crystal Assay
  • Lactate Dehydrogenase Leakage Assay
  • Conclusion
  • References

Chapter 3 Medicinal Plants With Nephroprotective, Nephrocuratve And Antiurolithiatic Activitites
  • Introduction
  • Conclusion
  • Abbreviations
  • References

Chapter 4 Polyherbal Formulations For Nephroprotection, Nephrocuration And Antiurolithiasis
  • Introduction
  • Amirthathi Churna And Nandukkal (Fossil Crab) Churna
  • Ashmarihara Kashaya And Nagaradi Kashaya
  • Bilva Agada
  • Crashcal
  • Cystone®
  • Gokshuradi Kashaya
  • Gokshuradi Yog Polyherbal Formulation
  • Jawarish Zarooni Sada
  • Lithocare
  • Neeri -Kft
  • Pashanabhedadi Ghrita
  • Renomet
  • Rilith
  • Sirupeelai Samoola Kudineer
  • Shwadanstradi Ghana Vati
  • Takusha
  • Takusha And Kagosou
  • Triphala Karpa Churna
  • Unex
  • Varunadi Ghrita
  • Varuna Guda
  • Wu Ling San
  • Zhu Ling Tang
  • Polyherbal Formulation 1
  • Polyherbal Formulation 2
  • Polyherbal Formulation 3
  • Polyherbal Formulation 4
  • Polyherbal Formulation 5
  • Polyherbal Formulation 6
  • Polyherbal Syrup
  • Biherbal Formulation Bryophyllum Pinnatum (Syn.: Kalanchoe Pinnata) And Rotula Aquatica
  • Purslane, Pumpkin, And Flax Seeds
  • Biherbal Formulation Gongronema Latifolium And Ocimum Gratissimum
  • Vediuppu Churna And Aerva Lanata
  • Conclusion
  • References

Chapter 5 Ethnomedicinal Plants For Nephroprotection
  • Introduction
  • Ethnobotany Of Nephroprotective Plants
  • Conclusion
  • References

Chapter 6 Nephroprotective, Nephrocurative And Antiurolithiatic Phytochemicals
  • Introduction
  • Phytochemicals With Nephroprotective, Nephrocurative And Antiurolithiatic Properties
  • Allicin And Ascorbic Acid
  • Andrographolide
  • Berberine
  • Betulin
  • Capsaicin
  • Carnosine
  • Catechin
  • Celastrol
  • Cerpegin
  • Chlorogenic Acid
  • Chrysin
  • Crocin
  • Curcumin
  • Curcumin And Α-Tocopherol
  • Diosmin
  • Edarabone
  • Ellagic Acid
  • Epicatechin
  • Esculentoside A
  • Ferulic Acid
  • Flavocoxid
  • Ginsenosides From Panax Ginseng
  • Ginsenosides From Panax Vietnamensis
  • Glycyrrhizin (Or Glycyrrhizic Acid Or Glycyrrhizinic Acid)
  • 7-Hydroxy-4′-Methoxyisoflavone And 7-Hydroxy-2′,4′, 5′-Trimethoxyiso Flavone And From Kidneywood Tree Eysenhardtia Polystachya
  • Hyperin
  • Kaempferol
  • Kolaviron
  • Licochalcone A
  • Lipoic Acid
  • Lupeol
  • Luteolin
  • Lycopene
  • Madecassoside
  • Naringin
  • Naringenin
  • Paeonol
  • Picroliv
  • Protein From Cajanus Indicus
  • Proteins From Terminalia Arjuna
  • Protein From Tribulus Terrestris
  • Quercetin
  • Resveratrol
  • Rutin (Also Known As Rutoside, Sophorin And Quercetin-3-O-Rutinoside)
  • Safranal
  • Saponins From American Ginseng (Panax Quinquefolium L.)
  • Silibinin (Also Called Silybin)
  • Steroidal Constituents Of Solanum Xanthocarpum
  • Taraxasterol (Anthesterin)
  • Thymol And Carvacrol
  • Thymoquinone
  • Xanthorrhizol
  • Zingerone (Also Known As Vanillylacetone)
  • Bioactive Substances From Carthamus Tinctorius
  • Crataeva Magna (Lour.) Dc. Phytocompounds
  • Rotula Aquatica Phytocompounds
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Subject Index

Author

  • T. Pullaiah
  • M. Ramaiah