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Current Status of Carbon Pricing Worldwide

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  • 27 Pages
  • December 2021
  • Region: Global
  • GlobalData
  • ID: 5526833
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Carbon pricing mechanisms include include emissions trading systems (ETS), carbon taxes, carbon credits, and internal carbon pricing. Carbon prices around the world rose during 2021, in large part due to net zero targets and tightening pollution restrictions related to COP26. Other contributing factors have been greater use of coal due to higher natural gas prices, a price floor push from Germany, and upcoming deadlines for options trading. Just 22% of global GHG emissions are priced, and only 4% are priced at Paris-compatible levels. Most ETS’s are focused on heavy industry and power sectors, while carbon taxes sometimes include all sectors. Generally, the taxes are applied to the highest level of the value chain (i.e. producers and importers), and in a minority of cases applied directly to users. In the US, a methane fee is under consideration in Congress. It would apply a tax of $900/ton to oil & gas operations in 2023, increasing to $1500/ton in 2025. Europe has the most mature ETS, with other carbon pricing leaders being Canada and, South Korea, and New Zealand.

Carbon pricing is an effective economic measure for refelcting the true costs associated with greenhous gas emissions. This report provides an introduction to the different types of carbon pricing mechanisms, current global price levels, sectors that are covered by carbon pricing, gives context to the current scope and scale of carbon pricing coverage, addresses the pricing level needed to reduce emissions and the effectiveness of using carbon pricing, and shows which countries or regions currently use or are considering implementing carbon pricing.


  • Introduce the mechanics of carbon pricing schemes
  • Examine the effectiveness of carbon pricing in reducing emissions
  • Review the current price of carbon and sectoral coverage globally
  • Learn where carbon pricing is currently applied or under consideration

Reasons to Buy

  • Learn what factors have led to record-high carbon prices in 2021
  • Understand what pricing levels are needed to meet Paris targets
  • See which oil & gas companies are using carbon pricing
  • Understand where carbon pricing is likely to be implemented

Table of Contents

  • What is Carbon Pricing?
  • Carbon Pricing Effectiveness
  • Emissions Trading Schemes
  • Carbon Taxes
  • Carbon Crediting
  • Internal Carbon Pricing
  • Carbon Prices on the Rise
  • Coverage of Global Emissions
  • Sectors Applied and Tax/Fee Imposition
  • Price Necessary to Achieve Paris Climate Targets
  • Effective Carbon Rates
  • Carbon Crediting Under Article 6 of the Paris Agreement
  • EU ETS Case Study
  • Active and Planned Pricing Schemes: US and Canada; Latin America; Middle East, Asia, and Oceania; Europe; Africa

List of Figures
Figure 1: US Emissions Scenarios and Paris Targets
Figure 2: Cap-and-Trade and Baseline-and-Credit Examples
Figure 3: Carbon Tax Rates, April 2021
Figure 4: National and Sub-national Crediting Systems
Figure 5: Internal Carbon Prices Among Oil & Gas Majors
Figure 6: EU and UK ETS Allowance Prices, 2021
Figure 7: Carbon Prices in 2021
Figure 8: Carbon Price Coverage of Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Figure 9: Allocation of Sector Coverage and Payment Responsibility in Active ETS and Carbon Tax Systems, Worldwide
Figure 10: Percentage of Emissions Priced at Paris-Compatible Level, 2018

Companies Mentioned

A selection of companies mentioned in this report includes:

  • Repsol
  • Equinor
  • Shell
  • ExxonMobil
  • TotalEnergies
  • BP
  • Chevron