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Electric Vehicles in the United States - Market and Technology Forecast to 2030

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  • 110 Pages
  • February 2022
  • Region: United States
  • Information Gatekeepers Inc
  • ID: 5550365
  • What are EVs?
  • What’s the difference between a BEV and a hybrid?
  • Are EVs pretty much like my regular car?
  • What are the pros and cons of EVs?
  • How many choices of EVs are there?
  • Will the US actually be producing 50% EVs by 2030 as President Biden has mandated?
  • Are EVs really economical?
  • Are many EVs being sold?
  • What is the long-term market for EVs?

These questions and many others are answered in detail in this report.

This report is about electric cars in the United States, in all their flavors. Like many things we think of as new, electric cars are actually rather old. Their origins go back to the beginnings of anything that could be called a ‘car’ in the 1800s. Now, one of the most reported technology/consumer goods items in America is the topic of electric vehicles (EVs). Unfortunately, a great deal in the popular press is reported by people with little or no background in electric vehicles. Much of the writing is from reporters that are generalists and report on various topics as they come up. Also, a lot of the reporting comes from ‘car guy’ reporters, who are standard vehicle experts, but who are not familiar with the vocabulary or technology of electric vehicles. While the author of this report has been a car guy all his life, he also brings his electrical engineering (BS EE, PE) background and many years as a researcher to the report.

This report intends to provide an unbiased but critical view of the subject. It will spend a good bit of time understanding the components of an electric vehicle, the terminology involved, and include a good look at the technologies underlying the field. We will also develop complete economic models and use them to compare the various alternatives on an economic basis.

After understanding the subject, the report will examine the pressures on this market, both pro, and cons. As with much in our lives today, this subject has regrettably become politicized. We will acknowledge that politicization but we will try not to let political opinions cloud our comments.

A common misconception about EVs is ‘free transportation’ (much like the misconception of ‘free power’ from windmills). One section will present a series of economic models for EVs to shed light on the actual comparative costs. These models will try to understand the financial issues involved in owning EVs compared to ICE (internal combustion engine vehicles – our standard car). In addition, the models will provide estimates of the penalty or benefit from owning an EV vs. owning an ICE.

We will examine the car market in the US and look at the positives and negatives for the EV market and its history. Based on this examination, the report will develop a complete set of forecasts to 2026 and to 2030 for the market. In addition, we will perform sensitivity analysis to look at how the results could change if various assumptions prove false. These forecasts will encompass the entire car (including light trucks) US market and the market history.


Table of Contents

  • BEVs    
  • HEVs    
  • PHEV    
  • EV Performance    
  • Where are the EVs?    
  • EV Sales by Type    

  • BEVs' Components    
  • Batteries    
  • Battery Capacities    
  • Lithium-ion Batteries    
  • Nickel-metal Hydride Batteries    
  • AC Motors    
  • AC Induction Motors    
  • PMSM (Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor)    
  • Synchronous Reluctance Motor (SynRM)    
  • BMW AC Synchronous Brush Motor    
  • Brakes and Regenerative Braking    
  • One Pedal Driving    
  • Differentials and Multiple AC Motors    
  • Controllers and Inverters    
  • Chargers and Cables    
  • Chargers and Charging Time    
  • Level 1 Chargers    
  • Level 2 Chargers    
  • Level 3 Chargers    
  • Calculating Charging Time    
  • Where are the Chargers?    
  • Versions of the BEV    
  • Single AC Motor    
  • Multiple AC Motors    
  • Examples of BEVs    

  • HEV Components    
  • Batteries    
  • AC Motors    
  • HEV - Single Motor - FWD    
  • Examples of HEVs    
  • HEV Sales
  • Plug-In HEV (PHEV) Components    
  • Examples of PHEVs    
  • PHEV and HEV Sales

  • Battery Electric Vehicles - BEVs - Economic Model    
  • BEVs Sensitivity Analysis    
  • Hybrid Electric Vehicles - HEVs - Economic Model    
  • HEV - Sensitivity Analysis    
  • Plug-In Electric Vehicles - PHEVs - Economic Model    
  • Sensitivity Analysis - PHEVs    
  • Economic Analysis - Combined View BEVs, HEVs, PHEVs    
  • Overall Economic Model Conclusions    
  • Concluding Comment on Comparative Economics    

  • Range Anxiety    
  • High First Cost    
  • Fire Issue    
  • Other Issues

  • Fire Safety    
  • Battery Improvements    
  • NanoBolt lithium tungsten batteries    
  • Zinc-manganese oxide batteries    
  • Organosilicon electrolyte batteries    
  • Gold nanowire gel electrolyte batteries    
  • String Cell batteries    

  • The Overall US Car Market    
  • Forecast for US Car Market    
  • Dollar Value of US Car Market    
  • Major Manufactures Feeding US Car Market    
  • EV Forecast     
  • Current Market    
  • EV Forecasts by Type    
  • Pressures on EV Sales    
  • Corporation Commitments - Car Manufacturers    
  • GM (2030)    
  • Ford (2030)    
  • Stellantis (2030) - Chrysler    
  • Toyota(2030)    
  • Jaguar (2025)    
  • Nissan (2028)    
  • Bentley (2030)    
  • Lotus (2030)    
  • Mini (2030)    
  • Volvo (2030)    
  • Corporation Commitments - Other Entities    
  • FedEx    
  • ZEV2030 (a California non-profit)    
  • Washington State    
  • Massachusetts (State)    
  • New York (State)    
  • LYFT    
  • US Government (Biden Administration) Support of EVs    
  • Biden Announced 2030 Target for EVs    
  • Joint Office to Develop National Charging Grid    
  • Efficiency and Emissions Standards     
  • Counter-Pressures on EV Sales    
  • Political Issues    
  • Climate Change Views    
  • The Market    
  • Car Dealers Reluctance to Sell    
  • Summary of Pressures and Counter Pressures on EV Sales    
  • Manufacture Commitments and Their Impact    

  • EV (BEV and PHEVs) Forecasts    
  • HEV Forecast    
  • Forecast Summary    

Table of Figures
Figure 1 Abbreviations for this Report    
Figure 2 Best Selling BEVs - US - 2021    
Figure 3 Comparison of HEV to PHEV Sales Through 2020    
Figure 4 Location of the EVs 2020 Data    
Figure 5 People per EV by State 2020 Data    
Figure 6 EV US Sales By Type    
Figure 7 Battery Charging Chemistry    
Figure 8 Motor Speed Equations    
Figure 9 AC Motor Efficiency    
Figure 10 Regenerative Braking - in Normal Motion    
Figure 11 Regenerative Braking - Driver Lifts Foot    
Figure 12 Charging Times for Popular EVs    
Figure 13 Charging Time Formula    
Figure 14 Charging Time Base Equation    
Figure 15 Charging Time Calculation    
Figure 16 Location of Chargers    
Figure 17 Location of Charging Points by State 2020    
Figure 18 FWD BEV, Single Motor    
Figure 19 BEV, Dual Motor, AWD    
Figure 20 BEV, Three Motors, AWD    
Figure 21 List of BEVs - US    
Figure 22 HEV Single Motor, FWD    
Figure 23 List of HEVs - US    
Figure 24 HEV Historical Sales    
Figure 25 PHEV Single Motor, FWD    
Figure 26 List of PHEVs - US    
Figure 27 HEV vs. PHEV Sales    
Figure 28 Future EVs    
Figure 29 BEV vs. ICE Economic Model    
Figure 30 Sensitivity Analysis of BEV Economic Model    
Figure 31 BEV Economic Model Conclusions    
Figure 32 Economic Analysis of Lexus ES - ICE vs. HEV    
Figure 33 Sensitivity Analysis of Lexus ES - ICE vs. Hybrid    
Figure 34 HEV Economic Analysis Conclusions    
Figure 35 Economic Analysis of Chrysler Pacifica - ICE vs. PHEV    
Figure 36 Sensitivity Analysis of Chrysler Pacifica - ICE vs PHEV    
Figure 37 PHEV Economic Analysis Conclusions    
Figure 38 Comparative Chart of Combined BEV, HEV, and PHEV Economics    
Figure 39 Overall Conclusions from Economic Analysis    
Figure 40 Changes Forced by BEVs    
Figure 41 US Car Market    
Figure 42 US Car Market Forecast    
Figure 43 US Car Market in Dollars    
Figure 44 Car Manufactures Selling in the US    
Figure 45 US Car Sales - 2005-2021    
Figure 46 Chart of EVs Sales and 2030 Projection    
Figure 47 EV Sales Projection based on Five Years Actual    
Figure 48 Projection of Car Market, based on 'return to normal'    
Figure 49 Cars Sales Projected to 2030    
Figure 50 Chart of Total Car Sales vs. EV Sales, Projected to 2030    
Figure 51 Biden 2030 Mandate vs. Current Market    
Figure 52 US 2021 Sales by Manufacturer - Top Eight    
Figure 53 Impact of Corporate Commitments on US Car Market    
Figure 54 US Sales Chart with Manufacturers' Commitments    
Figure 55 Forecast for 2030 - EVs (BEVs + PHEVs) - Summary    
Figure 56 Forecast for 2026    
Figure 57 2026 Forecast EVs (BEVs + PHEVs) - Summary    
Figure 58 Car Sales vs. HEV Sales    
Figure 59 HEV Forecast 2026 Summary    
Figure 60 HEV Forecast Chart for 2030    
Figure 61 HEV 2030 Forecast Summary    
Figure 62 Forecast Summary Points    
Figure 63 Forecast Summary Chart



Companies Mentioned

  • GM     
  • Ford     
  • Stellantis - Chrysler
  • Toyota    
  • Jaguar     
  • Nissan     
  • Bentley     
  • Lotus     
  • Mini     
  • Volvo