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Frontiers in Clinical Drug Research - CNS and Neurological Disorders: Volume 10

  • Book
  • April 2022
  • Bentham Science Publishers Ltd
  • ID: 5591410
Frontiers in Clinical Drug Research - CNS and Neurological Disorders is a book series that brings updated reviews to readers interested in advances in the development of pharmaceutical agents for the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) and other nerve disorders. The scope of the book series covers a range of topics including the medicinal chemistry, pharmacology, molecular biology and biochemistry of contemporary molecular targets involved in neurological and CNS disorders. Reviews presented in the series are mainly focused on clinical and therapeutic aspects of novel drugs intended for these targets. Frontiers in Clinical Drug Research - CNS and Neurological Disorders is a valuable resource for pharmaceutical scientists and postgraduate students seeking updated and critical information for developing clinical trials and devising research plans in the field of neurology.

Volume 10 of the series continues to present novel information about new and interesting approaches to treat common neurological disorders, with a focus on neurodegeneration and pain medicine. The volume presents 7 detailed reviews in total.

  • Neurodegenerative disease: prevention and treatment through plant extracts therapy
  • Emerging novel approaches and recent advances in Parkinson’s disease treatment and diagnosis
  • Neurotrophic factors to combat neurodegeneration
  • Neural bases of executive function in ADHD children as assessed using FNIRS
  • Modulation of mesenchymal stem cells, glial cells and the immune system by oligodeoxynucleotides as a novel multi-target therapeutic approach against chronic pain
  • Chronic pain: focus on anticonvulsants
  • A review of the impact of testosterone on brain and aging-related decline in brain behavioural function

Table of Contents

PREFACE

CHAPTER 1 NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASE: PREVENTION AND TREATMENT THROUGH PLANT EXTRACTS THERAPY
  • Mayookha V., Geetha V., Moumita Das and Suresh Kumar G. INTRODUCTION
  • Alzheimer’s Disease (AD)
  • CURRENT PHARMACEUTICAL TREATMENT
  • CURRENT DRUG FROM PLANT ORIGIN AGAINST DEMENTIA
  • Overview of Treatment Strategies Based on Medicinal Plants
  • Important Medicinal Plants Used for the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Disorders
  • Ginkgo Biloba
  • Panax Ginseng C.A. Meyer (Ginseng)
  • Curcuminoids from Genus Curcuma
  • Glycyrrhiza Species
  • Camellia Sinensis Kuntze
  • Moringa Oleifera
  • Parkinson’s Disease
  • Pathophysiology of PD
  • Antioxidant Property of the Plant Extracts
  • Neuroprotective Activity of Bioactive Compounds from Herbs
  • Huntington’s Disease
  • Plant Extracts Proven to be Effective for Treatment in in-vitro, in-vivo and Clinical Studies 36 a). Bacopa Monnieri
  • b). Ginkgo Biloba (Maidenhair Tree, Family: Ginkgoaceae)
  • c). Withania Somnifera
  • d). Curcuma Longa
  • e) Panax Ginseng C. A. Meyer and Panax Quinquefolium L (Ginsenosides)
  • f). Centella asiatica (syn. Hydrocotyleasiatica)
  • Challenges on the Usage of Plant Extracts for Drug Preparation
  • Scope and Future of the Usage of Plant Extracts for the Preparation of Drugs
  • CONCLUSION
  • CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION
  • CONFLICT OF INTEREST
  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
  • REFERENCE

CHAPTER 2 EMERGING NOVEL APPROACHES AND RECENT ADVANCES IN PARKINSON’S DISEASE TREATMENT AND DIAGNOSIS
  • Virendra Tiwari, Akanksha Mishra, Sonu Singh, Parul, Pratibha Tripathi and Shubha Shukla INTRODUCTION
  • BIOCHEMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISM OF PD
  • Types of Dopaminergic Neurons, Systems, and Functions
  • Four Major Pathways in the Brain, Related to the Dopaminergic System
  • Nigrostriatal Pathway
  • Mesolimbic Pathway
  • Mesocortical Pathway
  • Tuberoinfundibular Pathway
  • Pathophysiology of PD
  • Involvement of Extrastriatal DA in PD
  • Basal Ganglia Output Nuclei
  • Nucleus Accumbens Region
  • Role of DA
  • PD Related non-DAergic Changes
  • Role of Serotonin
  • Role of Acetylcholine
  • Role of GABA and Ca2+system
  • Research on the Origin and Biosynthesis of DA
  • Role of the Tyrosine Hydroxylase Enzyme in DA Metabolism
  • Role of BH4 and GTPCH
  • Role of Aromatic Amino Acid Decarboxylase (AADC)
  • Process of DA Degradation
  • DA Oxidation and Inflammation
  • Neuromelanin
  • Role of Oxidative Damage and Inflammation in PD
  • Biochemical Aspects of PD Pathogenesis
  • Biochemical Changes that Compensate for the Striatal DA Depletion
  • Involvement of DA Transporters in PD Pathogenesis
  • CONVENTIONAL THERAPEUTIC TARGETS IN PD
  • Therapeutic Targets to Treat PD
  • Targeting α-Synuclein
  • Targeting Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammation
  • Targeting Mitochondrial Dysfunction
  • Targeting Autophagy-Lysosome System
  • Targeting Ubiquitin-Proteasome System
  • Epigenome as a Therapeutic Target
  • Gut Microbiota as a Therapeutic Target
  • Neurotrophic Factors as a Therapeutic Target
  • MANAGEMENT AND TREATMENT OF PD
  • Current Scenario of Approved Drugs for PD
  • Levodopa
  • Dopamine Agonists
  • Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) Inhibitors
  • Monoamine Oxidase - B (MAO-B) Inhibitors
  • Anticholinergics
  • Amantadine
  • Phytotherapeutic Approach for PD
  • Recent Advances in PD Therapy
  • Deep Brain Stimulation
  • Cell Transplantation
  • New Insight in Mitochondrial Abnormalities in PD
  • Electron Transport Chain (etc) Inhibition: A Determining Factor for PD Pathogenesis
  • CONCLUSION
  • CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION
  • CONFLICT OF INTEREST
  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
  • REFERENCES

CHAPTER 3 NEUROTROPHIC FACTORS TO COMBAT NEURODEGENERATION
  • Yulia A. Sidorova NEUROTROPHIC FACTORS
  • What are Neurotrophic Factors?
  • Classification of Neurotrophic Factors
  • Neurotrophic Factor Receptors and Signaling
  • Neurotrophins
  • Glial Cell Line-derived Neurotrophic Factor Family Ligands
  • Neuropoietic Cytokines
  • MANF/CDNF
  • Biology of Neurotrophic Factor Signaling: Aspects Important for Clinical Translation
  • NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS
  • Alzheimer’s Disease
  • Parkinson’s Disease
  • Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
  • Huntington’s Disease
  • Neuropathic Pain
  • Neurodegenerative Disorders in Translational Context
  • Preclinical Models of Neurodegenerative Disorders
  • Pharmacokinetics of Neurotrophic Factors in the Context of Clinical Translation
  • Expression of Neurotrophic Factor Receptors in the Healthy and Diseased Nervous System 148 EFFICACY OF NEUROTROPHIC FACTORS IN PRECLINICAL MODELS OF NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS AND NEUROPATHIC PAIN
  • GFLs in Preclinical Models of Neurodegenerative Disorders and Neuropathic Pain
  • Neurotrophins in Preclinical Models of Neurodegenerative Disorders and Neuropathic Pain 151 Neurokines in Preclinical Models of Neurodegenerative Disorders and Neuropathic Pain
  • EFFICACY OF NEUROTROPHIC FACTORS IN CLINICAL TRIALS IN PATIENTS WITH NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS AND NEUROPATHIC PAIN
  • Neurotrophins in a Clinical Trials in Alzheimer’s Disease Patients
  • Neurotrophic Factors in Clinical Trials in Parkinson’s Disease Patients
  • GFLs in Clinical Trials in Parkinson’s Disease Patients
  • CDNF in Clinical Trials in Parkinson’s Disease Patients
  • Neurotrophic Factors in a Clinical Trials in Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
  • Neurotrophic Factors in Clinical Trials in Patients with Neuropathy
  • GFLs in Clinical Trials in Patients with Neuropathic Pain
  • Neurotrophins in Patients with Neuropathy
  • ALTERNATIVE APPROACHES TO UTILIZE THE POTENTIAL OF NEUROTROPHIC FACTORS FOR THE TREATMENT OF NEURODEGENERATION
  • GFLs
  • Neurotrophins
  • Neurokines
  • CDNF/MANF
  • Targeting Multiple Neuronal Populations in the Organism
  • CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES
  • CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION
  • CONFLICT OF INTEREST
  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
  • REFERENCES

CHAPTER 4 NEURAL BASES OF EXECUTIVE FUNCTION IN ADHD CHILDREN AS ASSESSED USING FNIRS
  • Takahiro Ikeda, Akari Inoue, Masako Nagashima-Kawada, Tatsuya Tokuda, Takanori Yamagata, Ippeita Dan and Yukifumi Monden INTRODUCTION
  • MONITORING NEUROPHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF MPH AND ATX USING FNIRS MEASUREMENT DURING A RESPONSE INHIBITION TASK (GO/NO-GO TASK) AND AN ATTENTION TASK (ODDBALL TASK)
  • Introduction
  • Method
  • Experimental Design
  • Task Design
  • fNIRS Measurement
  • Analysis of fNIRS Data
  • Statistical Analyses
  • Results
  • Go/No-Go Task
  • Discussion
  • INDIVIDUAL CLASSIFICATION OF ADHD CHILDREN USING FNIRS WITH A RESPONSE INHIBITION TASK (GO/NO-GO TASK)
  • Introduction
  • Method
  • Experimental Design and fNIRS Measurement
  • Results
  • ROC Analysis of the Integral Value of Oxy-Hb Signals
  • Modified Individual fNIRS-Based Classification Using Well-Formed Formulae
  • Discussion
  • DIFFERENTIATION OF NEUROPHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECT BETWEEN ADHD WITH AND WITHOUT ASD
  • Introduction
  • Experimental Design
  • fNIRS Measurement and Analysis of fNIRS Data
  • Statistical Analyses
  • Results
  • Questionnaire Results
  • fNIRS Results
  • Discussion
  • GENERAL DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
  • fNIRS-Based Differentiation Between DA and NA Systems in ADHD Children
  • fNIRS-Based Differentiation Between ADHD Children and Control
  • Clinical Implications
  • CONCLUSION
  • CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION
  • CONFLICT OF INTEREST
  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
  • REFERENCES

CHAPTER 5 MODULATION OF MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS, GLIAL CELLS AND THE IMMUNE SYSTEM BY OLIGODEOXYNUCLEOTIDES AS A NOVEL MULTI-TARGET THERAPEUTIC APPROACH AGAINST CHRONIC PAIN

Author

  • Atta-ur-Rahman
  • Zareen Amtul