+353-1-416-8900REST OF WORLD
+44-20-3973-8888REST OF WORLD
1-917-300-0470EAST COAST U.S
1-800-526-8630U.S. (TOLL FREE)

6G Communications: Materials and Hardware Markets, Technology 2024-2044

  • PDF Icon


  • 298 Pages
  • September 2023
  • Region: Global
  • Zhar Research
  • ID: 5602124

New report gives latest 6G materials and hardware opportunities

The materials and devices needed for 6G Communications will be a large market but the situation is changing with new breakthroughs and setbacks. Necessarily up-to-date reports critically assessing the latest needs and market sizes are hard to find. The answer is the new report, “6G Communications: Materials and Hardware Markets, Technology 2024-2044”. There is a Glossary at the start of the report but terms are also explained in the text with a minimum of jargon because this is a commercially oriented analysis, emphasising clarity, business opportunities and your best ways to participate, including possible business partners and acquisitions. 

Smartphone Thermal Materials Million Square Meters Yearly Globally 2023-2044 If 6G Succeeds

The Executive Summary and Conclusions (50 pages) are easy to absorb by those in a hurry. Here are the basics, targets, challenges, players, 13 key conclusions, a 6G SWOT appraisal and many infograms clearly showing your opportunities in materials and devices. The precise materials needed and their function gets particular attention from the latest data-based analysis. An additional 12 pages gives 15 forecast lines as data and graphs and the action geographically.

Chapter 2 Introduction (20 pages) is frank about impediments to 6G and possible delay in its implementation, not just the many benefits and possible business cases. It explains the serious problems that are your opportunities such as cost, power consumption, green credentials and reach of the massive infrastructure and frequency choices, including tackling the Terahertz Gap. Your required manufacturing technologies are covered. 

Chapter 3 (23 pages) concerns burgeoning 6G thermal management including for closer packing of hotter client electronics, thermal interfaces and heat spreaders, cooling ubiquitous 6G photovoltaics and base stations. Understand why 6G thermal management opportunities are greater than those for 5G. See SWOT appraisal. Identify 5G thermal materials suppliers and their leading-edge products that are appropriate. Learn how they can enter 6G and who they should buy for what missing thermal management capability. 

Chapter 4 (21 pages) does much the same for reconfigurable intelligent surfaces - a curiosity for 5G but essential for 6G. Understand passive vs semi-passive vs active RIS opportunities. SWOT appraisal. Chapter 5 (33 pages) is on 6G devices - optical, electronic and electrical. It scopes development status and potential including semiconductors, THz alternatives and THz waveguides. There are two SWOT appraisals.

Chapter 6 (21 pages) explores the considerable variety of opportunities for graphene and other 2D materials for 6G Communications. It finds graphene to be the most significant of these, spanning 6G plasmonics, transistor surrogates, RIS, modulators, splitters, routers, pseudocapacitors, supercapacitors.  Chapter 7 takes a full 36 pages to cover the considerable scope for other emerging materials for 6G: optical, electronic, electrical and micro-mechanical. The big recent advances feature strongly and there is a forecast for indium phosphide.

The report closes with Chapter 8 (48 pages) on 6G Communications projects world-wide involving material and component research. This is very revealing about the nature of the 6G material and components development that is most-strongly funded and why. 

In short, this report surfaces how billion-dollar businesses can emerge that make 6G added-value materials and components. That means from fine metal patterning, flexible and thin film electronics to the heavy end of facility energy harvesting, giant base-station thermal management and RIS facades across skyscrapers. The time to get involved is now. 

Questions answered include:

  • Likely winners and losers
  • Progress and intentions by region
  • Unbiassed appraisal of pros and cons
  • Gaps in the market that you can address
  • Analysis of research pipeline and its trends
  • Your potential partners, acquisitions, competitors
  • What 6G frequencies are likely and in what sequence
  • Types of materials and hardware needed, when and why
  • 15 forecasting lines for the materials. devices, host equipment
  • Technology, launches and standards roadmaps for 2024-2044
  • The unsolved problems that are opportunities for materials, devices
  • Preferred compounds, devices, frequencies and active regions emerging
  • The 20-year roadmap of decision making, technical capability and adoption

What's included:

  • SWOT appraisals 5
  • Chapters 8
  • Key conclusions 13
  • Forecast lines (2024-2044) 15
  • Comparison tables and infograms 89
  • Companies 101

Table of Contents

1 Executive Summary and 15 forecasts 2023-2043
1.1 Purpose of this report
1.2 Methodology of this analysis
1.3 6G need, frequency and other choices and 13 key conclusions
1.3.1 New needs and 5G inadequacies
1.3.2 Arguments against and challenges ahead
1.3.3 Disruptive 6G aspects
1.3.4 Widening list of 6G aspirations - impact on hardware
1.3.5 Some key conclusions - incremental aspects
1.3.6 Some key conclusions - disruptive aspects
1.4 Detailed 6G benefits, standards situation and rollouts 1980-2044
1.5 Some 6G global architecture proposals including complementary systems
1.6 Likely 6G hardware and allied manufacturers
1.7 SWOT appraisal of 6G Communications as currently understood
1.8 Proliferation of 6G materials and device opportunities
1.8.1 General aspects
1.8.2 Frequency choice recommended
1.8.3 Considerable opportunities for thermal materials emerging
1.8.4 8 tuning device families for RIS that are emerging
1.9 Recent hardware advances that can aid 6G 2024-2044
1.10 Primary needs for advanced materials in envisaged 6G systems
1.10.1 Overview
1.10.2 14 applications of 20 emerging inorganic compounds in potential 6G communications
1.10.3 14 applications of 10 elements in potential 6G communications
1.10.4 14 applications of 16 families of organic compounds in potential 6G communications
1.10.5 Semiconductor 6G opportunities by device and material
1.11 System aspects of emerging hardware needs 2024-2044
1.11.1 6G optical transmission system hardware opportunities
1.11.2 6G Reconfigurable intelligent surfaces and metamaterials opportunities
1.11.3 6G RIS and other metamaterial in action
1.11.4 RIS materials potential areas, costs in volume, formulations
1.12 6G thermal materials become a large market
1.12.1 Extra thermal management challenges
1.13 Market and technology roadmaps and 16 forecasts 2024-2044
1.13.1 6G hardware roadmap 2024-2032
1.13.2 6G hardware roadmap 2033-2044
1.13.3 6G RIS market yearly area added bn. sq. m., price, value market table 2024-2044
1.13.4 6G RIS market yearly area added bn. sq. m. 2024-2044 graph
1.13.5 Average RIS price $/ square meter. ex-factory 2028-2044 graph with explanation
1.13.6 6G reconfigurable intelligent surfaces cumulative panels number deployed billion by year end 2024-2044 table and
1.13.7 Global yearly RIS sales by five types and total $ billion 2024-2044 table
1.13.8 Global yearly RIS sales by five types $ billion 2028-2048: graph with explanation
1.13.9 Smartphone units sold globally 2023-2044 if 6G is successful
1.13.10 Smartphone thermal materials market area million square meters 2023-2044
1.13.11 Smartphone thermal materials trend in location
1.13.12 Market for 6G vs 5G base stations units millions yearly 3 categories 2024-2044: table and graphs
1.13.13 6G base stations thermal interface materials million square meters 2024-2044
1.13.14 X-Reality hardware market with possible 6G impact $ billion 2024-2044
1.14 Location of primary 6G material and component activity worldwide

2. Introduction
2.1 Methodology, presentation, situation
2.2 Situation in 2024
2.2.1 Troubled waters
2.2.2 Making 5G then 6G ubiquitous: land, airborne, underwater
2.2.3 6G vertical ubiquity: SAGIN and under water
2.3 6G is more than communications
2.4 Progress from 1G-6G rollouts 1980-2044
2.5 6G adds equipment: opportunity or threat to viability?
2.6 Arguments against 6G and possible slippage
2.7 Transmission distance dilemma
2.8 The going green dilemma
2.9 SWOT appraisal of 6G Communications material and component opportunities
2.10 Manufacturing technologies for the main 6G high added value materials

3. Thermal management: 6G materials, devices, facilities
3.1 Overview
3.2 Diverse new challenges emerging allow in new suppliers
3.3 SWOT appraisal of 6G Communications thermal material opportunities
3.4 Thermal materials and structures for 6G smartphones and other client devices
3.4.1 Structures
3.4.2 Materials: Dow, GLPOLY, Laird, NeoGraf, Nitrium, Parker Lord etc.
3.4.3 Thermal interface materials TIM for all potential 6G devices: Henkel etc.
3.4.5 Aerogel thermal insulation W.L.Gore
3.5 Energy harvesting and on-site zero-emission power become important with 6G
3.5.1 Future needs and trends for 6G devices up to MW power provision for 6G
3.5.2 Thermal hydrogels for passive cooling of 6G microelectronics and photovoltaics
3.5.3 Thermal metamaterials for devices and photovoltaics
3.5.4 Radiative cooling of photovoltaics generally
3.5.5 Water-cooled photovoltaics for heating and electricity: Sunovate
3.5.6 Thermally conductive concrete for on-site 6G power transmission
3.6 Thermoelectrics for 6G temperature control and electricity
3.6.1 Overview
3.6.2 Thermoradiative photovoltaics

4. Reconfigurable Intelligent surfaces
4.1 Overview
4.1.1 Progression of functionality needed in 6G infrastructure
4.1.2 Terminology thicket
4.1.3 What is a metamaterial?
4.1.4 What is a metasurface?
4.1.5 Many benefits from RIS
4.1.6 Different levels of beam management
4.2 6G RIS and other metamaterial in action
4.3 RIS materials potential areas, costs in volume, formulations
4.4 6G RIS materials and component opportunities
4.5 8 tuning device families for 6G RIS from recent research pipeline: our appraisal, references
4.6 Other progress
4.6.1 Joint modulations assist hardware
4.6.2 RIS for Industry-5
4.7 SWOT appraisal of 6G Communications RIS opportunities

5. Devices - 6G Optical, electronic and electrical devices: development status and potential
5.1 Overview
5.1.1 Different from 5G
5.1.2 Examples of component categories needed for 6G infrastructure and client devices
5.1.3 6G component examples by material family: many reasons for graphene
5.1.4 Examples of formats considered for future 6G devices and infrastructure
5.2 The terahertz gap
5.2.1 Mature research and commercial products
5.2.2 Best research results
5.3 Diodes - Schottky better but still problematic
5.4 How CMOS and HEMT compete
5.4.1 Overview
5.4.2 CMOS and hybrid lll-V+CMOS approaches sub-THz
5.4.3 6G CMOS design
5.4.4 PD-SOI CMOS and SiGe BiCMOS for 6G
5.4.5 High-Electron Mobility Transistor HEMT sub-THz
5.5 Fiber optics materials, designs, deployment, issues with SWOT appraisal for 6G
5.6 THz waveguides materials, designs, deployment, issues with SWOT appraisal for 6G

6. Graphene and other 2D materials for 6G Communications
6.1 Overview of THz 2D materials
6.2 Graphene landscape
6.3 Supercapacitors, LiC and pseudocapacitors for 6G
6.3.1 Addressing problems
6.3.2 Pseudocapacitor materials, mechanisms: MXenes etc.
6.3.3 Flexible supercapacitors for 6G client devices: graphene, MXenes, V Manganese dioxide
6.4 Graphene transistor surrogates and metasurfaces
6.4.1 Gated graphene
6.4.2 Graphene plasmonics at THz
6.5 Graphene THz device structures
6.5.1 Graphene THz modulator
6.5.2 Silicon plasmon graphene SPG sub-THz emitter
6.5.3 Graphene splitter and router

7. Other materials: 6G Optical, electronic, electrical and micromechanical
7.1 Overview
7.2 14 applications of 46 elements and compounds in potential 6G communications compared
7.3 Some physical tuning material choices compared for metasurfaces
7.4 Semiconductor material choices
7.4.1 Lessons from 5G advances
7.4.2 Status of some 6G semiconductor and active layer candidates
7.4.3 lll-V compounds and SiGe
7.4.4 Photoactive materials for 6G around 1THz
7.5 Silicon carbide electro-optic modulator
7.6 Phase-Change Materials for 6G electronics overview
7.7 Vanadium dioxide for many 6G uses
7.7.1 Properties exploited
7.7.2 Developments for RIS tunability - review
7.7.3 Terahertz coding metasurface research trends
7.7.4 US DOE February 2022 onwards
7.8 Chalcogenide phase change materials
7.9 Liquid crystal polymers LCP Nematic liquid crystals NLC
7.9.1 Useful for 6G THz and optics
7.9.2 Current research trends
7.9.3 Future research trends
7.9.4 Advances in 2022
7.10 Materials for photovoltaics at 6G infrastructure and client devices
7.11 ENZ and low loss materials for THz and optical
7.12 Micro- mechanics, MEMS and microfluidics for 6G

8. 6G Communications projects worldwide involving materialand component research
8.1 Overview
8.2 Leaders by expenditure and patents
8.3 Global: International Consortium for Development of High-Power THz Science and Technology
8.4 Canada
8.5 China
8.6 European Union with Finland important
8.7 Germany
8.8 India
8.9 Japan
8.10 Korea
8.11. North America
8.12 Pakistan
8.13 Taiwan
8.14 United Kingdom
8.15 USA



Companies Mentioned

  • Akela Laser
  • AGC
  • Anritsu
  • Aowei
  • Apple
  • AT&C
  • AT&T
  • Azo Materials
  • B Com
  • Bladon Jets
  • BT
  • CEA
  • Centro Ricercha FIAT
  • China Mobile Technology
  • China Telecommunications
  • Commscope
  • Corelab
  • Corning
  • CNRS
  • DCMS
  • Dow
  • DuPont
  • Eaton
  • Echdyne
  • Elbana Photonics
  • Eurocom
  • Evolv Technology
  • Ericsson
  • Fractal Antenna Systems
  • Fraunhofer HHI
  • GLPoly
  • google
  • Greenerwave
  • Heidelberg
  • Henkel
  • Homesun
  • Honda
  • Huawei
  • ICS
  • IMEC
  • INO
  • Inmarsat
  • iQLP
  • Intel
  • Interdigital
  • Ionic Materials
  • Keysight Technologies
  • Kymeta
  • Laird
  • Latis
  • LG
  • Lumentum
  • Mediatek
  • Meta
  • Motorola Mobility
  • Neograf
  • Nextnav
  • Nitrium
  • Nokia
  • NPL
  • NTT
  • NTTDoCoMo
  • Nubia
  • Nur Energie
  • Nvidia
  • Oppo
  • Orange
  • Oxford PV
  • Parker Lord
  • Protemics
  • Qualcomm
  • Rohde & Schwartz
  • Samsung
  • Sekisui
  • Seminex
  • Sheen
  • Shin-Etsu
  • Skoltech
  • SKTelecom
  • SNCF
  • SolAero
  • Sony
  • Spacety
  • Spectrolab
  • Starlink
  • Sunovate
  • Telecom Italia
  • Telefonica
  • Telus
  • Tencent
  • Tesla
  • TII
  • ThinP
  • Toyota
  • Tubitak Uekae
  • Western Digital
  • WB Photovoltaics
  • WL Gore
  • Verizon
  • Vivotech
  • ZTE
  • ZTE Winston


Research Inputs Include:

  • Appraisal of which targeted needs are genuine
  • Web, literature, databases, experience and patents
  • Close study of research pipeline
  • Appraisal of regional initiatives
  • Actitivies of standard bodies
  • Limitations of physics and chemistry
  • Interviews