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6G Communications: Low Loss and Thermal Materials Markets 2023-2043

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  • 254 Pages
  • July 2022
  • Region: Global
  • Zhar Research
  • ID: 5625012
Two billion dollars of new business in 2036? The new report, “6G Communications: Low Loss and Thermal Materials Markets 2023-2043” finds this is possible from low loss and thermal materials and assemblies for 6G Communications which bursts on the scene in 2030. Expect two phases. 

It starts at 0.1-0.3THz with incrementally-improved low loss and thermal materials in a very different mix from that for 5G. They are identified from a close look at the parameters of 19 dielectric families and a similar number of thermal options matched against the new needs. Second phase from around 2035 involves 0.3-1THz capability being added together with high-power infrastructure for driving client devices with no on-board power such as internet of things nodes. Both call for disruptive change in materials so the report even covers epsilon near zero ENZ dielectric surrogates, metamaterial and hydrogel cooling layers and non-toxic thermoelectric temperature holding. Ultra-massive multiple in multiple out UM-MIMO base stations and active reprogrammable intelligent surfaces RIS require high power photovoltaics on-site also needing low loss and thermal materials. Uniquely, this report covers it all with a host of further reading referenced from an intense look at the latest research pipeline and the basics presented without obscure mathematics. 

The report is for added value materials suppliers and users needing clear new analysis without nostalgia or bias. That is why so much is explained in pictures and summaries identifying gaps in the market and commercial opportunity. There is a detailed glossary at the start and terms are also explained throughout. A great deal is presented from 2022 advances and the report is constantly updated so you get the latest - vital with such fast-moving subject. 

The Executive Summary and Conclusions takes 30 pages to briefly explain 6G Communications and extensively reveal the location and nature of its low loss and thermal needs within devices, over the countryside and the world. SOFT analysis, listed conclusions, new infograms and illustrations make this clear, including such things as 0.1-1THz permittivity and dissipation factor of 19 material families in the frame for low loss needs whether high and low permittivity is optimised. Why does 6G bring more variety and urgent need for thermal management? Why will the users largely stay the same but the suppliers sometimes change, creating partnership and acquisition opportunities for you? Who? What is the yearly roadmap 2023-2043?

The 33 page Introduction looks more closely at 6G and how it evolves from 5G with lessons learnt. Here is more detail on land, water and aerospace deployment surfacing aspects boosting low loss and thermal material markets. One such is the THz range increased by larger and more powerful emitters. Another is reduced tolerance of toxic materials and wasted energy. Tables scope 46 material families. See 11 manufacturing options. Assess the research pipeline presented with many new references.

Low loss materials and applications for 6G is the topic of Chapter 3. Its 52 close-packed pages mostly present tables, breakdowns, infograms and graphs pulling it all together. Expect honesty throughout such as the fact that there is no agreement concerning what is a valid measurement of dissipation factor at the terahertz frequencies planned for 6G. Many materials remain to be characterised at these frequencies at all. Why are thermoplastics and inorganic compounds coming center stage and what materials are rather like a gold standard for each? See the large number of parameters that matter with the advantages and disadvantages of many materials. Here is cornucopia of different formulations in the research literature with special cases fully appraised such as switched phase change dielectrics. Understand the implications for you of the trend to integrated materials instead of components-in-a-box, the needs for the new reprogrammable intelligent surfaces and more. 

Chapter 4 covers the wild card dielectric surrogate, “Epsilon near zero ENZ materials and applications for 6G” in nine pages. Chapter 5 then comes mainstream again with “6G thermal management materials and applications: the big picture” in 42 pages. Mostly it is new images, comparisons and infograms prioritising many choices. Here is an intense look at 6G expanding thermal management needs such as for photovoltaics and active RIS, presenting proposals and options with close reference to the latest research pipeline. Why consider bi-porous wick, graphene for platelets or heat pipe and the many new options for self-healing thermal materials?

Chapter 6 focuses on “Thermal management materials for 6G smartphones, IOT nodes and other client devices” in 24 pages capturing everything from locations within the device, focus of 25 suppliers of thermal parts, winning materials for upper frequency 5G and implications for 6G. Thermal conductors remain the main need and here even new microtubes deserve consideration. However, the report finds that thermal insulators will matter more than was the case with 5G. WLGore advances are showcased with others. The chapter mainly considers smartphones - even silica aerogel thermal covers for them - but embracing relevance to other 6G client devices. 

Only this report has the necessary breadth of coverage given the Herculean challenges of 6G and Chapter 6 is further evidence of this. It covers “Wild cards for 6G thermal management: thermal metamaterial, thermal hydrogel, thermoelectric heat pump” in seven pages. Serious players must consider hydrogel- silica aerogel, polyacrylamide double-network hydrogel, pyramid-shaped silicone elastomer, passive metamaterial cooling overlayers and more that is appraised. What are the activities of Plasmonics Inc, Radi-Cool, Nano-Meta Technologies, Thermion? Learn of non-toxic, earth-abundant thermoelectric cooler-heaters such as sulfides, tetrahedrites and silicides. 

The report ends with Chapter 8 taking 17 pages on metamaterials for 6G communications. By then, we have seen them as solutions for low permittivity (Epsilon Near Zero ENZ) and passive cooling layers. However, the chapter explains the basics and how metamaterials are also used in energy harvesting, antennas and radomes using low loss dielectric substrates, all worthy of consideration for 6G. The time to grasp the full breadth of your opportunities and get involved is now. Only the report, “6G Communications: Low Loss and Thermal Materials Markets 2023-2043” assesses it all. 

Questions answered include:

  • New low loss and thermal requirements brought by 6G?
  • 2023-2043 forecasts of materials and devices with assumptions?
  • Current materials that will lose share as 6G arrives: escape routes?
  • Likely suppliers, purchasers, new entrants, winning formulations and formats?
  • Traditional and new needs and inventions with appraisal of latest research pipeline?

Table of Contents

1. Executive Summary and 11 forecasts 2023-2043
1.1 Purpose of this report
1.2 Methodology of this analysis
1.3 Primary conclusions and infogram
1.4 Examples of winning and losing 6G low loss, thermal materials and 6G frequencies
1.5 Organisations developing 6G hardware and likely purchasers
1.6 How material needs change with 6G communications
1.6.1 Effect of changing network structure
1.6.2 Prevalence of low loss and thermal materials in 6G research by formulation
1.7 The quest for 6G low loss materials
1.7.1 Basic mechanisms affecting THz permittivity are challenging at 6G frequencies
1.7.2 THz dielectric permittivity for 19 compounds simplified
1.7.3 Dissipation factor across THz frequency for 16 material families: the big picture
1.7.4 Choice of 14 families of low permittivity, low loss dielectrics for 6G vs five criteria
1.7.5 Seeking low loss through composites and porosity
1.7.6 THz dissipation factor variation for 19 material families: the detail
1.7.7 SWOT appraisal of 6G low loss material opportunities
1.8 The quest for 6G thermal materials
1.8.1 Changing balance of needs
1.8.2 Incremental and disruptive opportunities for 6G thermal materials
1.8.3 Comparison of thermal categories against locations, 5G and 6G needs
1.8.4 Seven thermal material attributes against nine physical options
1.8.5 Infographic: base station thermal issues and latest proposals
1.8.6 Here come energy harvesting thermal needs
1.8.7 SWOT appraisal of 6G Communications thermal material opportunities
1.9 Market roadmaps and 11 forecasts 2023-2043
1.9.1 Assumptions
1.9.2 6G roadmap 2022-2031
1.9.3 6G roadmap 2032-2043
1.9.4 Low loss raw materials for 6G package and laminate $ million 2023-2043
1.9.5 6G reconfigurable intelligent surfaces cumulative panels number deployed billion 2023-2043
1.9.6 6G reconfigurable intelligent surfaces low loss substrate area deployed yearly bn. sq. m. 2023-2043
1.9.7 6G reconfigurable intelligent surfaces panel number sold yearly billion 2023-2043
1.9.8 6G reconfigurable intelligent surfaces global $ billion 2023-2043
1.9.9 Smartphones billion yearly with 6G impact 2023-2043
1.9.10 6G and 6G/5G smartphone combined sales units billion yearly 2023-2043
1.9.11 Smartphone thermal materials market area million square meters 2023-2043
1.9.12 6G base stations thermal interface materials million square meters 2023-2043
1.9.13 Market for 6G base stations millions 2023-2043
1.9.14 Internet of Things nodes with possible 6G impact number billion 2023-2043
1.10 Location of primary 6G material and component activity worldwide
2. Introduction
2.1 Why we need 6G
2.2 Disruptive 6G aspects
2.3 Widening list of 6G aspirations - impact on hardware
2.4 Predictions of NTTDoCoMo, Huawei, Samsung, Nokia and current status
2.5 6G standards procedure settled
2.6 Infogram: Progress from 1G-6G rollouts 1980-2043
2.7 Three infograms: 6G in action land, water, air and low loss and thermal needs
2.8 Likely 6G evolution
2.9 Non-metals gain share
2.10 The arguments against 6G
2.11 SWOT appraisal of 6G Communications as currently understood
2.12 Transmission distance dilemma calls for power, thermal and dielectric advances
2.13 The going green dilemma - impact on materials
2.14 14 applications of 20 emerging inorganic compounds in potential 6G communications
2.15 14 applications of 10 elements in potential 6G communications
2.16 14 applications of 6 emerging organic families in potential 6G communications
2.17 Roundup
2.18 Manufacturing technologies for 6G high added value materials
2.18.1 Reel to reel by technology
2.18.2 Thermal material manufacturing for 6G
2.18.3 New thermal interface material TIM manufacturing technology in 2022
2.18.4 New heat spreader manufacturing technology in 2022
2.19 SWOT appraisal of 6G Communications material and component opportunities
3. Low loss materials and applications for 6G
3.1 Definition, requirements and choices for 6G low-loss materials
3.1.1 Overview
3.1.2 Important parameters for 6G dielectrics at device, board, package and RIS level
3.1.3 Thermoset vs thermoplastic vs inorganic compounds
3.1.4 Example: porous PTFE waveguides instead of free space at 0.3THz
3.1.5 Special case: high resistivity silicon for THz frequencies
3.1.6 Special cases: phase change and electric-sensitive dielectrics for 6G
3.2 Major changes in low-loss material choices from 5G to 6G
3.2.1 Infogram: Changes from 5G to 6G: better parameters, lower costs, larger areas
3.2.2 Low loss materials adoption for 3G, 4G, 5G
3.3 Different dielectric needs and choices for 6G
3.3.1 Compared to 5G
3.3.2 Reasons for the increasing variety of dielectrics needed for 6G
3.3.3 Basic mechanisms affecting THz permittivity are challenging at 6G frequencies
3.3.4 Seeking low loss through composites and porosity
3.4 Permittivity 0.1-1THz for 19 dielectric families
3.5 Dissipation factor 0.1-1THz for 16 dielectric families: the big picture
3.5.1 The loss-frequency map explained
3.5.2 Choice of 14 families of low permittivity, low loss dielectrics for 6G against 5 criteria
3.6 Dissipation factor 0.1-1THz for 19 dielectric families: the detail
3.7 Primary mentions of low loss and thermal materials in 6G research
3.8 Trend to integrated low loss materials for 6G
3.9 Compromises with 6G low loss materials depending on format and application
3.10 Routine and unusual dielectrics have applications in 6G systems
3.10.1 Polyphenylene oxide PPO,PPE and Noryl™
3.10.2 Why silica is one of the most popular porous options for 6G
3.11 Low loss materials for 6G base stations and distributed equipment
3.11.1 Overview
3.11.2 Traditional base station becomes ultra massive MIMO = UM-MIMO for 6G
3.11.3 Metaradomes 3.11.4 Low loss materials for reprogrammable intelligent surfaces
3.12 Contrast: the 2022 barium titanate breakthrough
3.13 SWOT appraisal of 6G low loss material opportunities
4. Epsilon near zero ENZ materials and applications for 6G
4.1 ENZ definition and phenomena
4.1.1 Contrast with low-loss materials covered in Chapter 3
4.1.2 ENZ definition
4.1.3 Unfamiliar functions of familiar materials
4.1.4 Magical functions useful for what?
4.2 Examples of ENZ material development
5. 6G thermal management materials and applications: the big picture
5.1 Greater need for thermal materials in 6G demands more innovation
5.2 Thermal issues with 6G equipment on land and in the air
5.2.1 Overview
5.2.2 Thermal issues with 6G infrastructure on land
5.2.3 Infogram: Base station thermal issues and latest proposals
5.2.4 Large battery thermal management for 6G
5.2.5 Extra thermal management challenges
5.2.6 Future needs and trends for 6G devices up to MW power provision for 6G
5.3 Important considerations when solving thermal challenges
5.3.1 Bonding or non-bonding
5.3.2 Varying heat
5.3.3 Placement
5.3.4 Environmental attack
5.4 Heat management structures
5.4.1 Learning from 5G
5.4.2 Choosing a thermal structure
5.4.3 Research on embedded cooling
5.5 Integration of 6G thermal materials
5.6 Diverse new thermal challenges emerging allow in new suppliers
5.6.1 Overview
5.6.2 Water-cooled photovoltaics for heating and electricity: Sunovate
5.6.3 Thermally conductive concrete for on-site 6G power transmission: Heidelberg
5.6.4 Thermoelectrics for 6G temperature control and electricity: Gentherm
5.6.5 Thermoradiative photovoltaics: Stanford
5.6.6 THz thermal switching of vanadium-dioxide-embedded metamaterials for 6G RIS
5.6.7 Thermally switched chalcogenide phase change materials for 6G RIS
5.6.8 Materials for thermal infrared and other photovoltaics: Sharp, Spectrolab, SolAero
5.6.9 Reconfigurable intelligent surface thermal management for 6G
5.7 New heat pipes in 2021 and 2022: biporous wick, two graphene options
5.8 Lessons from latest patents: self-repairing and better performing thermal interface material
5.9 SWOT appraisal of 6G Communications thermal materials opportunities
6. Thermal management materials for 6G smartphones, IOT nodes and other client devices
6.1 Overview
6.2 Targetted activity of 17 companies against 3 thermal material criteria
6.3 Smartphones billion yearly 2023-2043 with 6G impact
6.4 Smartphone thermal materials market area million square meters 2023-2043
6.5 Thermal progress from 5G to 6G smartphones and other client devices
6.5.1 Thermal management locations for 6G smartphones and other client devices
6.5.2 Thermal conductors currently: Henkel, ShinEtsu, Sekisui, Fujitsu, Suzhou Dasen
6.5.3 Microscale heat pipes
6.6 Thermal interface materials for 6G
6.6.1 Seven current options compared against nine parameters
6.6.2 Thermal pastes compared for 6G devices
6.6.3 Trending: phase change materials
6.6.4 Trending: annealed pyrolytic graphite
6.7 Thermal insulation internally aerogel WL Gore
6.7.2 Thermal insulation to protect smartphones from the sun and cold
6.7.3 other companies involved in silica aerogel insulation
7. Wild cards for 6G thermal management: thermal metamaterial, thermal hydrogel, thermoelectric heat pump
7.1 Overview
7.2 Thermal hydrogels for passive cooling of 6G microelectronics and photovoltaics
7.3 Thermal metamaterials for 6G devices, infrastructure and photovoltaics
7.4 Radiative cooling of photovoltaics generally
7.5 Thermal metamaterial - Plasmonics Inc and Radi-Cool
7.6 Nano Meta technologies Inc.
7.7 Thermoelectric temperature control for 6G chips
7.8 Non-toxic thermoelectrics
8. Metamaterials for 6G applications
8.1 Overview
8.2 The meta atom and patterning options
8.3 Commercial, operational, theoretical, structural options compared
8.4 Metamaterial patterns and materials
8.5 Six formats of metamaterial needed for 6G with examples
8.6 Metasurface primer
8.7 Hypersurfaces
8.8 The long term picture of metamaterials overall
8.9 Metasurface energy harvesting likely for 6G
8.10 Applications of GHz, THz, infrared and optical metamaterials
8.11 SWOT assessments for metamaterials and metasurfaces generally