Renewable energy sources can be converted directly into biofuels. There has been a huge growth in the production and usage of biofuels as substitutes for fossil fuels. Due to the declining reserve of fossil resources as well as environmental concerns, and essential energy security, it is important to develop renewable and sustainable energy and chemicals.
The use of biofuels manufactured from plant-based biomass as feedstock would reduce fossil fuel consumption and consequently the negative impact on the environment. Renewable energy sources cover a broad raw material base, including cellulosic biomass (fibrous and inedible parts of plants), waste materials, algae, and biogas.
The Global Market for Biofuels covers biobased fuels, bio-diesel, renewable diesel, sustainable aviation fuels (SAFs), biogas, electrofuels (e-fuels), green ammonia based on utilization of:
- First-Generation Feedstocks (food-based) e.g. Waste oils including used cooking oil, animal fats, and other fatty acids.
- Second-Generation Feedstocks (non-food based) e.g. Lignocellulosic wastes and residues, Energy crops, Agricultural residues, Forestry residues, Biogenic fraction of municipal and industrial waste.
- Third-Generation Feedstocks e.g. algal biomass
- Fourth-Generation Feedstocks e.g. genetically modified (GM) algae and cyanobacteria.
Report contents include:
- Market trends and drivers
- Market challenges
- Biofuels costs, now and estimated to 2033.
- Biofuel consumption to 2033.
- Market analysis including key players, end use markets, production processes, costs, production capacities, market demand for biofuels, bio-jet fuels, biodiesel, biobased alcohol fuels, renewable diesel, biogas, electrofuels, green ammonia and other relevant technologies.
- Production and synthesis methods.
- Biofuel industry developments and investments 2020-2022.
- 119 company profiles including BTG Bioliquids, Byogy Renewables, Caphenia, Enerkem, Infinium. Eni S.p.A., Ensyn, FORGE Hydrocarbons Corporation, Fulcrum Bioenergy, Genecis Bioindustries, Gevo, Haldor Topsoe, Opera Bioscience, Steeper Energy, SunFire GmbH, Vertus Energy and many more.
Table of Contents
1 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
2.2 Market challenges
2.3 Liquid biofuels market 2020-2033, by type and production
4.1.1 Diesel substitutes and alternatives
4.1.2 Gasoline substitutes and alternatives
4.2 Comparison of biofuel costs 2022, by type
4.3.1 Solid Biofuels
4.3.2 Liquid Biofuels
4.3.3 Gaseous Biofuels
4.3.4 Conventional Biofuels
4.3.5 Advanced Biofuels
4.4.1 First-generation (1-G)
4.4.2 Second-generation (2-G)
220.127.116.11 Lignocellulosic wastes and residues
18.104.22.168 Biorefinery lignin
4.4.3 Third-generation (3-G)
22.214.171.124 Algal biofuels
4.4.4 Fourth-generation (4-G)
4.4.5 Advantages and disadvantages, by generation
5.1.1 Biodiesel by generation
5.1.2 Production of biodiesel and other biofuels
126.96.36.199 Pyrolysis of biomass
188.8.131.52 Vegetable oil transesterification
184.108.40.206 Vegetable oil hydrogenation (HVO)
220.127.116.11 Biodiesel from tall oil
18.104.22.168 Fischer-Tropsch BioDiesel
22.214.171.124 Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass
126.96.36.199 CO2 capture and Fischer-Tropsch (FT)
188.8.131.52 Dymethyl ether (DME)
5.1.3 Global production and consumption
5.2 Renewable diesel
5.2.2 Global consumption
5.3 Bio-jet (bio-aviation) fuels
5.3.2 Global market
5.3.3 Production pathways
5.3.5 Biojet fuel production capacities
5.3.7 Global consumption ]
5.5 Biogas and biomethane
6.1.1 Methanol-to gasoline technology
184.108.40.206 Production processes
6.2.1 Technology description
6.2.2 1G Bio-Ethanol
6.2.3 Ethanol to jet fuel technology
6.2.4 Methanol from pulp & paper production
6.2.5 Sulfite spent liquor fermentation
220.127.116.11 Biomass gasification and syngas fermentation
18.104.22.168 Biomass gasification and syngas thermochemical conversion
6.2.7 CO2 capture and alcohol synthesis
6.2.8 Biomass hydrolysis and fermentation
22.214.171.124 Separate hydrolysis and fermentation
126.96.36.199 Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF)
188.8.131.52 Pre-hydrolysis and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (PSSF)
184.108.40.206 Simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF)
220.127.116.11 Direct conversion (consolidated bioprocessing) (CBP)
6.2.9 Global ethanol consumption
7.2 Used tires pyrolysis
7.2.1 Conversion to biofuel
8.1.1 Benefits of e-fuels
8.2.1 Hydrogen electrolysis
8.2.2 CO2 capture
8.4.1 Commercial alkaline electrolyser cells (AECs)
8.4.2 PEM electrolysers (PEMEC)
8.4.3 High-temperature solid oxide electrolyser cells (SOECs)
8.5 Direct Air Capture (DAC)
8.5.2 Markets for DAC
8.5.5 Companies and production
8.5.6 CO2 capture from point sources
8.7 Market challenges
10.1.1 Decarbonisation of ammonia production
10.1.2 Green ammonia projects
10.2 Green ammonia synthesis methods
10.2.1 Haber-Bosch process
10.2.2 Biological nitrogen fixation
10.2.3 Electrochemical production
10.2.4 Chemical looping processes
10.3 Blue ammonia
10.3.1 Blue ammonia projects
10.4 Markets and applications
10.4.1 Chemical energy storage
10.4.1.1 Ammonia fuel cells
10.4.2 Marine fuel
10.6 Estimated market demand
10.7 Companies and projects
Table 2. Market challenges for biofuels
Table 3. Liquid biofuels market 2020-2033, by type and production
Table 4. Industry developments in biofuels 2020-2022
Table 5. Comparison of biofuel costs (USD/liter) 2022, by type
Table 6. Categories and examples of solid biofuel
Table 7. Comparison of biofuels and e-fuels to fossil and electricity
Table 8. Classification of biomass feedstock
Table 9. Biorefinery feedstocks
Table 10. Feedstock conversion pathways
Table 11. First-Generation Feedstocks
Table 12. Lignocellulosic ethanol plants and capacities
Table 13. Comparison of pulping and biorefinery lignins
Table 14. Commercial and pre-commercial biorefinery lignin production facilities and processes
Table 15. Operating and planned lignocellulosic biorefineries and industrial flue gas-to-ethanol
Table 16. Properties of microalgae and macroalgae
Table 17. Yield of algae and other biodiesel crops
Table 18. Advantages and disadvantages of biofuels, by generation
Table 19. Biodiesel by generation
Table 20. Biodiesel production techniques
Table 21. Summary of pyrolysis technique under different operating conditions
Table 22. Biomass materials and their bio-oil yield
Table 23. Biofuel production cost from the biomass pyrolysis process
Table 24. Properties of vegetable oils in comparison to diesel
Table 25. Main producers of HVO and capacities
Table 26. Example commercial Development of BtL processes
Table 27. Pilot or demo projects for biomass to liquid (BtL) processes
Table 28. Global biodiesel consumption, 2010-2033 (M litres/year)
Table 29. Global renewable diesel consumption, to 2033 (M litres/year)
Table 30. Advantages and disadvantages of biojet fuel
Table 31. Production pathways for bio-jet fuel
Table 32. Current and announced biojet fuel facilities and capacities
Table 33. Global bio-jet fuel consumption to 2033 (Million litres/year)
Table 34. Biogas feedstocks
Table 35. Comparison of biogas, biomethane and natural gas
Table 36. Processes in bioethanol production
Table 37. Microorganisms used in CBP for ethanol production from biomass lignocellulosic
Table 38. Ethanol consumption 2010-2033 (million litres)
Table 39. Applications of e-fuels, by type
Table 40. Overview of e-fuels
Table 41. Benefits of e-fuels
Table 42. Main characteristics of different electrolyzer technologies
Table 43. Advantages and disadvantages of DAC
Table 44. DAC companies and technologies
Table 45. Markets for DAC
Table 46. Cost estimates of DAC
Table 47. Challenges for DAC technology
Table 48. DAC technology developers and production
Table 49. Market challenges for e-fuels
Table 50. E-fuels companies
Table 51. Green ammonia projects (current and planned)
Table 52. Blue ammonia projects
Table 53. Ammonia fuel cell technologies
Table 54. Market overview of green ammonia in marine fuel
Table 55. Summary of marine alternative fuels
Table 56. Estimated costs for different types of ammonia
Table 57. Main players in green ammonia
Table 58. Granbio Nanocellulose Processes
Figure 2. Distribution of global liquid biofuel production in
Figure 3. Diesel and gasoline alternatives and blends
Figure 4. Schematic of a biorefinery for production of carriers and chemicals
Figure 5. Hydrolytic lignin powder
Figure 6. Regional production of biodiesel (billion litres)
Figure 7. Flow chart for biodiesel production
Figure 8. Global biodiesel consumption, 2010-2033 (M litres/year)
Figure 9. Global renewable diesel consumption, to 2033 (M litres/year)
Figure 10. Global bio-jet fuel consumption to 2033 (Million litres/year)
Figure 11. Total syngas market by product in MM Nm³/h of Syngas,
Figure 12. Overview of biogas utilization
Figure 13. Biogas and biomethane pathways
Figure 14. Renewable Methanol Production Processes from Different Feedstocks
Figure 15. Production of biomethane through anaerobic digestion and upgrading
Figure 16. Production of biomethane through biomass gasification and methanation
Figure 17. Production of biomethane through the Power to methane process
Figure 18. Ethanol consumption 2010-2033 (million litres)
Figure 19. Properties of petrol and biobutanol
Figure 20. Biobutanol production route
Figure 21. Waste plastic production pathways to (A) diesel and (B) gasoline
Figure 22. Schematic for Pyrolysis of Scrap Tires
Figure 23. Used tires conversion process
Figure 24. Process steps in the production of electrofuels
Figure 25. Mapping storage technologies according to performance characteristics
Figure 26. Production process for green hydrogen
Figure 27. E-liquids production routes
Figure 28. Fischer-Tropsch liquid e-fuel products
Figure 29. Resources required for liquid e-fuel production
Figure 30. Schematic of Climeworks DAC system
Figure 31. Levelized cost and fuel-switching CO2 prices of e-fuels
Figure 32. Cost breakdown for e-fuels
Figure 33. Pathways for algal biomass conversion to biofuels
Figure 34. Algal biomass conversion process for biofuel production
Figure 35. Classification and process technology according to carbon emission in ammonia production
Figure 36. Green ammonia production and use
Figure 37. Schematic of the Haber Bosch ammonia synthesis reaction
Figure 38. Schematic of hydrogen production via steam methane reformation
Figure 39. Estimated production cost of green ammonia
Figure 40. Projected annual ammonia production, million tons
Figure 41. ANDRITZ Lignin Recovery process
Figure 42. FBPO process
Figure 43. Direct Air Capture Process
Figure 44. CRI process
Figure 45. Domsjö process
Figure 46. FuelPositive system
Figure 47. Infinitree swing method
Figure 48. Enfinity cellulosic ethanol technology process
Figure 49: Plantrose process
Figure 50. The Velocys process
Figure 51. Goldilocks process and applications
A selection of companies mentioned in this report includes:
- Aemetis, Inc.
- Alpha Biofuels (Singapore) Pte Ltd
- Andritz AG
- Applied Research Associates, Inc. (ARA)
- ASB Biodiesel Limited
- Avantium B.V.
- BBCA Biochemical & GALACTIC Lactic Acid Co., Ltd.
- BDI-BioEnergy International GmbH
- Benefuel Inc.
- Bio2Oil ApS
- BIOD Energy
- Biofine Technology, LLC
- Biojet AS
- Bloom Biorenewables SA
- Blue BioFuels, Inc.
- Brightmark Energy
- BTG Bioliquids B.V.
- Byogy Renewables, Inc.
- Caphenia GmbH
- Carbon Collect Limited
- Carbon Engineering Ltd.
- Carbon Recycling International
- Carbyon BV
- Celtic Renewables Ltd.
- CF Industries Holdings, Inc.
- Chitose Bio Evolution Pte Ltd.
- Circla Nordic
- Crimson Renewable Energy LLC
- C-Zero Inc.
- Diamond Green Diesel LLC
- Domsjö Fabriker AB
- Royal DSM N.V
- Emerging Fuels Technology (EFT)
- Eneus Energy
- Eni S.p.A.
- Ensyn Corporation
- Euglena Co., Ltd.
- Forge Hydrocarbons Corporation
- FuelPositive Corp.
- Fulcrum BioEnergy, Inc.
- GenCell Energy
- Genecis Bioindustries, Inc.
- Gevo, Inc
- Granbio Technologies
- Green Earth Institute
- Green Fuel
- Haldor Topsoe A/S
- Handerek Technologies
- Hero BX
- Hyundai Oilbank
- Oy Hydrocell Ltd.
- Infinitree LLC
- Jilin COFCO Biomaterial Corporation
- Jupiter Ionics Pty Ltd
- Kanteleen Voima
- Kvasir Technologies
- Lectrolyst LLC
- Liquid Wind
- LXP Group GmbH
- Manta Biofuel, LLC
- Mash Energy ApS
- Mercurius Biorefining Inc
- Mote, Inc
- NeoZeo AB
- NewEnergyBlue LLC
- Nexus Fuels, LLC
- Nordic ElectroFuel
- Norsk e-Fuel AS
- Nova Pangaea Technologies (UK) Ltd.
- Novozymes A/S
- Opus 12, Inc.
- ORLEN Poludnie
- Phoenix BioPower
- Photanol B.V.
- Praj Industries Ltd.
- Prometheus Fuels, Inc.
- Proton Power, Inc.
- Pure Lignin Environmental Technology
- Qairos Energies
- Resynergi, Inc
- RISE Research Institutes of Sweden AB
- Sainc Energy Limited
- SBI BioEnergy Inc.
- Sea6 Energy
- Sekab E-Technology AB
- Silva Green Fuel
- Skytree BV
- St1 Oy
- Steeper Energy Aps
- SunCoal Industries GmbH
- Sundrop Fuels, Inc.
- Sunho Biodiesel Corporation
- Sunfire GmbH
- UPM Biofuels
- VERBIO Vereinigte BioEnergie AG
- Vertimass LLC
- Vertus Energy Ltd.
- Virent Inc.