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6G Communications: Optical Materials and Components Markets: Visible, Near IR, Far IR from 0.3THz 2023-2043

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  • 355 Pages
  • August 2022
  • Region: Global
  • Zhar Research
  • ID: 5644063

6G Communications: Report on Optical Materials Opportunities 

A unique new 355 page report identifies your huge optical material and component opportunities from 6G Communications as it becomes primarily an optical system - “6G Communications: Optical Materials and Components Markets: Visible, Near IR, Far IR from 0.3THz 2023-2043". It is a drill down from the overview report on 6G called, “6G Communications: Materials and Components Markets 2023-2043”.

The new report answers such questions as:

  • Why can the massive hardware expense of 6G only be justified by the ubiquity at stellar performance that comes from optics?
  • Why will there be so many added value opportunities for your expertise in silicas, graphene, aluminas including sapphire, 3-5 compounds, silicon nitride, chalcogenides? 
  • What new forms with premium pricing? What else? 
  • What materials are trending down with the advent of 6G?
  • Why does the first 6G phase from 2030 need massive amounts of fiber optics and some optical wireless communication? When?
  • Why will the second 6G phase be necessary to achieve the promised ubiquitous stellar performance? 
  • Why will that have to be primarily with optics from 0.3THz far infrared to UV? When? 
  • Huge new markets for THz cable, reconfigurable intelligent surfaces, long-distance optical wireless transmission hardware, photovoltaic 6G drones, deep fiber optics, optically powered and optically communicating client devices? Why? When? What else?
  • Detailed 20 year forecasts, roadmaps, new infograms and SOFT appraisals?

This report starts with a detailed glossary and listing of 96 of the companies mentioned. The Executive Summary and Conclusions is an easy read for those in a hurry. Its 58 pages contain the necessary explanations, new infograms, opportunity identification, leading players, SOFT appraisals, roadmaps and 17 forecasts all 2023-2043. No equations. No nostalgia. Mainly images and predictions. 

The 23 page Introduction then explains our rationale, coverage and key issues. See the severe limitations of the various candidate technologies that must be overcome - not uncritical enthusiasm. Understand why optical wireless communication must become commonplace in 6G systems and that includes overcoming the Terahertz gap of inadequate materials and device performance at far infrared (above 0.3THz). Here are the vital photovoltaics and the optical material manufacturing technologies and involved with more on both later in the report.

Chapter 3 “6G Optical Wireless Communication OWC” runs to 45 pages despite the analysis being condensed into many tables and images, including 32 participants analysed by country. We cover everything from satellite-to- device, LiFi, lessons from limited use of OWC in 5G to why it will be a key enabling technology for 6G. See component and frequency choices emerging from the research pipeline, choice of solar aerospace vehicles from satellites to upper atmosphere drones, lower-level solar drone swarming. A major focus is optical carrier attenuation modes and what to do about them, including a detailed look at effects of weather and frequency choices. We predict at least tenfold improvements in OWC range and quality of service, including underwater and aerospace-to-earth. Considerable commercial opportunity is identified. See the materials and formats of next emitters and detectors including DFB, FP, VCSEL, OLED, LED, photodetectors.

Chapter 4 runs to 53 pages because there are at least nine potential uses for metamaterials in 6G in contrast to their minimal use in 5G so this becomes a large emerging optical market. They are more compact antennas, THz cable, blocking THz to optical signals for privacy or interference suppression, beam shaping of laser emitters, energy harvesting, 6G reconfigurable intelligent surfaces at optical frequencies (covered in chapters 5 and 6), improving 6G response, reach, device power reduction, increasing power output of photovoltaics powering 6G infrastructure and client devices by a passive overlayer following the sun and a passive cooling over-layer, other cooling. See 16 manufacturers profiled with their 6G positioning in all of this.

Chapter 5 is “6G reconfigurable intelligent surfaces at 0.3-10THz far infrared” with pages covering materials, economics, materials and device and chapter 6 covers, “6G reconfigurable intelligent surfaces at near infrared and visible light” with just 14 pages because these will appear at a later stage and are more speculative.

Chapter 7 at 40 pages concerns “Dielectrics, passive optical materials and semiconductors for 6G 0.3THz to visible”. Some were covered in preceding chapters but here we see the big picture, detailed comparisons and likely choices, with reasons and a profusion of latest references for further reading. Why the reduced choice of dielectrics above 0.3THz? What is being done about it? Rationale in choosing between thermosets, thermoplastics and inorganic compounds? Liquid crystal polymers? Materials and devices for temperature management of lasers and optical chips? Best phase change and semiconductor material choices for 6G? Winners and losers as we go from 5G to 6G? It is all here in comparison charts and infograms not rambling text.

Chapter 8 concerns important new devices, transformative in 6G performance if successful. Titled, “THz cable waveguides for 6G transmission and client device waveguides”, it describes new opportunities complementary to fiber optics in 6G by offering simpler systems. Its 15 pages give needs and likely materials, formats and performance. See silica, sapphire, fluoropolymer, polypropylene and other opportunities and manufacturing options for the first long reels of such cable. 

6G will use a huge amount of fiber optics including “deep fiber” going to individual rooms in buildings and fiber underwater. Mostly that will be pre-existing shared fiber made conventionally but there are some aspects that will be peculiar to 6G so we cover fiber optics for 6G systems in the 13 pages of chapter 9 that end with a SWOT appraisal. 

Having found that graphene is one of the most popular materials in the optical 6G research pipeline, we end the report with a deeper look without repetition of earlier material. Chapter 10. “Graphene and other 2D materials in 6G”, in 17 pages, surfaces six potential uses in 6G with formats, alternatives, ancillary materials and analysis. The examples cover near and far infrared and visible light frequencies.


Table of Contents

1 Executive Summary and 17 forecasts 2023-2043
1.1 Our 6G report series
1.2 Purpose of this report
1.3 Giant companies with giant opportunities
1.4 The subject of this report
1.5 Methodology of this analysis
1.6 Key conclusions: 6G optical systems 0.3THz to ultraviolet
1.7 Key conclusions: 6G materials and components for 0.3THz to ultraviolet
1.8 Wireless communications and expected two phases of 6G launch
1.9 Objectives for 6G of NTT, Huawei, Samsung, Nokia, the Chinese and others
1.10 Typical parameters for 5G and 6G wireless showing some challenges increasing
1.11 How 6G transmission hardware will achieve much better performance than 5G
1.12 Spectrum for 6G phase one and two
1.13  16 primary selling features of 6G against what four frequency bands can provide
1.14 Infogram: 6G massive hardware deployment, compromises, importance of optics
1.15 Aerospace vehicles compared for 6G -  positives and negatives compared for 7 types
1.16 6G transmission options underwater and underground - gap in the market
1.17 Infogram: Probable 6G optical hardware suppliers including 0.3-1THz: examples
1.18 Infogram: 6G transmission systems that will use infrared, visible and ultraviolet frequencies
1.19 How material needs change with 6G communications
1.20 Transmission distance dilemma
1.21 Infogram: Terahertz gap of limited dielectric and active device choices
1.22 Conquering the terahertz gap of inadequate dielectrics, emitters and detectors
1.23 Three kinds of 6G THz communication systems
1.24 THz integrated circuit choices
1.25 Conquering the problematic free space optical FSO attenuation in air
1.26  32 examples of suppliers of appropriate FSO hardware and systems by country
1.27 Reconfigurable intelligent surface RIS SWOT appraisal for 6G versions
1.28 SWOT appraisal of terahertz waveguides in 6G system design
1.29 SWOT appraisal of fiber optics FiWi in 6G system design
1.30 SWOT assessment for metamaterials and metasurfaces
1.31 SWOT appraisal of 6G THz low loss material opportunities
1.32  Four 6G roadmaps 2023-2043
1.32.1 Far infrared 0.3-1THz 6G by media range meters and Gbps roadmap
1.32.2 6G reconfigurable intelligent surface RIS roadmap 2023-2043
1.32.3  6G general roadmap 2022-2031
1.32.4  6G general roadmap 2032-2043
1.33  6G materials, devices and background - 17 forecasts 2023-2043
1.33.1 Assumptions
1.33.2  6G hardware as part of a notional telecommunications market
1.33.3   6G reconfigurable intelligent surfaces cumulative panels number deployed bn year end 2023-2043
1.33.4  6G reconfigurable intelligent surfaces market yearly area added bn. sq. m. 2023-2043
1.33.5  6G reconfigurable intelligent surfaces global $ billion by 5 types 2023-2043 table
1.33.6   6G reconfigurable intelligent surfaces global $ billion by 5 types 2023-2043 graph
1.33.7 Market for 5G and 6G base stations millions yearly 2023-2043
1.33.8 Fiber optic cable market global with possible 6G impact $billion 2023-2043
1.33.9  Indium phosphide semiconductor market global with possible 6G impact $billion 2023-2043
1.33.10  Global metamaterial and metasurface market billion square meters 2023-2043
1.33.11 Terahertz hardware market excluding 6G $ billion globally 2023-2043
1.33.12 Mobile communications service market global $ billion by category 2023-2042
1.34 Location of primary 6G material and component activity worldwide 2023-2043

2. Introduction
2.1  6G objectives and our coverage
2.2 Why optical wireless communication is essential for promised 6G performance
2.3 Infogram: 6G aspirations across the landscape
2.4 6G rural challenge
2.5  6G underwater and underground - gap in the market
2.6 Terminology thicket
2.7 Why 6G needs massive infrastructure and many transmission media
2.8 Essential 6G tools: RIS, OWC, cable intermediary (fiber optic and THz)
2.8.1 Optical wireless communication OWC
2.8.2 Reconfigurable intelligent surface RIS construction and potential capability
2.9 Green power dilemma with active RIS and other 6G infrastructure
2.10 Materials for photovoltaics at 6G infrastructure and client devices with doubled power
2.11  Manufacturing technologies for 6G components and product integration

3. 6G Optical wireless communication OWC
3.1 Optical wireless communication OWC
3.1.1 Actual and emerging applications
3.1.2 Lessons from 5G FSO
3.2 Definitions and scope of OWC and its subsets
3.3 Infogram: Potential 6G transmission systems using OWC
3.4 Infrared IR, visible light VL and ultraviolet UV for 6G in air: issues and parameters
3.5 FSO system basics
3.6 Subsuming or defaulting to LiFi
3.7 Aerospace OWC envisaged for 6G
3.7.1 Overview
3.7.2 Aerospace vehicles for 6G - backers, altitudes, transmission options compared for 7 types
3.7.3 Aerospace vehicles for 6G - positives and negatives for 7 types
3.7.4 Choice of 6G aerial platforms
3.7.5 Drones benefit 6G which in turn benefits drones and urban air mobility
3.7.6 Vertical FSO from HAPS drones
3.7.7 Thales-Alenia Stratobus airship
3.7.8 AVIC China Caihong (Rainbow) CH-T4
3.7.9 Airbus Zephyr
3.7.10 Feasibility of solar drones at only a few kms altitude:  Mei Ying
3.7.11 Small drones and networked flying platforms for 6G including swarming
3.8 FSO attenuation in air: physics, issues and solutions
3.8.1 Overview
3.8.2 Atmospheric loss
3.8.3 Geometric loss
3.8.4 Background radiation
3.8.5  6G FSO frequency choices and alternatives underwater
3.8.6 Choosing frequencies for 6G FSO under water
3.9 OWC emitter and detector components and their materials
3.9.1 Overview
3.9.2 Emitter devices emerging for optical 6G: DFB, FP, VCSEL, OLED, LED
3.9.3 Receiver devices for optical 6G - photodetectors
3.10  32 examples of suppliers of FSO hardware and systems with country analysis
3.11 Further reading

4. Metamaterials and metasurfaces for THz, IR, visible 6G
4.1 Nine potential uses for metamaterials in 6G
4.2 Applications of GHz, THz, infrared and optical metamaterials
4.3 The meta atom and patterning options
4.4 Optical metamaterial patterns and options
4.5 Commercial, operational, theoretical, structural options compared
4.6 Six formats of metamaterial needed for 6G with examples
4.7 Metasurfaces
4.8 Hypersurfaces
4.9 Active material patterning
4.10 Optical ENX metamaterials
4.11 Metasurface optical energy harvesting potentially for 6G
4.12 Metamaterials manipulating infrared potentially for 6G cooling
4.13 Metamaterial companies that could serve 6G at upper THz, IR, optical frequencies
4.13.1  Echodyne
4.13.2 Evolv Technology
4.13.3 Fractal Antenna Systems
4.13.4 iQLP
4.13.5 Kymeta
4.13.6 Meta
4.13.7 Metacept Systems
4.13.8 Metawave
4.13.9 Nano Meta Technologies
4.13.10 Pivotal Commware
4.13.11 Plasmonics
4.13.12 Radi-Cool
4.13.13 Sensormetrics
4.13.14 teraview
4.14 The long term picture of metamaterials overall
4.15 SOFT assessment of metamaterials and metasurfaces

5. 6G reconfigurable intelligent surfaces at 0.3-10THz far infrared
5.1 Reconfigurable intelligent surfaces basics
5.2 How metasurface RIS hardware operates
5.3 Semi-passive and active RIS materials and components
5.3.1 Overview
5.3.2 RIS trend to structural electronics: smart materials and thin film technology
5.4 Cost hierarchy challenge for 6G reconfigurable intelligent surfaces 0.1-1THz
5.5 RIS improvements planned to 2045
5.6 Realisation that hardware lags theory in 2022
5.7 Major RIS standards initiative ETSI
5.8 RIS for 6G base stations
5.9 RIS- Integrated User-Centric Network: Architecture and Optimization
5.10 RG RIS control issues
5.11  Appraisal of  9 tuning device families for RIS from recent research pipeline
5.12  Advances from 2022 onwards
5.13 Progressing to 1THz RIS for 6G including graphene, vanadium dioxide, GST, GaAs
5.13.1 Overview
5.13.2 lll-V and SiGe for RIS
5.13.3 Vanadium dioxide for RIS
5.13.4 Chalcogenides for RIS
5.13.5 Far infrared RIS materials above 1THz

6. 6G reconfigurable intelligent surfaces at near infrared and visible light
6.1 Overview
6.2 Near IR and visible light RIS
6.3 Near infrared RIS with amplification capabilities
6.4 RIS enabled LiFi
6.5 Optical devices enhancing or replacing RIS
6.6 Optical RIS generally from 2022
6.7 SWOT appraisal that must guide future RIS design

7. Dielectrics, passive optical materials and semiconductors for 6G 0.3THz to visible
7.1 Dielectrics
7.1.1 Overview
7.1.2 Dielectric optimisation for 6G
7.1.3 Thermoset vs thermoplastic vs inorganic compounds
7.1.4 Choice of 14 families of low permittivity, low loss dielectrics for 6G against five criteria
7.1.5  The quest for better 6G low loss materials - permittivity optimisation
7.1.6 Permittivity 0.1-1THz for 19 low loss compounds simplified
7.1.7 Dissipation factor optimisation across THz frequency for 19 material families
7.1.8 Low loss materials for reprogrammable intelligent surfaces RIS
7.1.9  Special case: high resistivity silicon for 6G at 1THz
7.1.10 Different dielectrics from 5G to 6G: better parameters, lower costs, larger areas
7.2 Semiconductor material choices for 6G
7.2.1 Overview and lessons from 5G advances
7.2.2 Status of 11 semiconductor and active layer candidates
7.2.3 lll-V compounds as general 6G materials
7.2.4  Photoactive materials for 6G around 1THz
7.2.5 Silicon carbide electro-optic modulator
7.2.6 Phase change and electric-sensitive dielectrics for up to 1THz 6G
7.2.7 Vanadium dioxide for many 6G uses
7.2.8  Chalcogenide phase change materials
7.2.9 Liquid crystal polymers LCP nematic liquid crystals NLC for 6G THz and optics
7.3 Thermoelectric temperature control materials for 6G chips and lasers
7.4 Other advances in 2022
7.5 Research trends

8. THz cable waveguides for 6G transmission and client device waveguides
8.1 Terahertz waveguide cables: need and state of play
8.2 Design and materials of 6G waveguide cables
8.3 Fluoropolymers
8.3.1 PTFE
8.3.2 Perfluorinated poly(butenyl vinyl ether) PBVE
8.4 Polypropylene
8.5 Polyethylene polypropylene metamaterial THz waveguides
8.6 Manufacturing polymer THz cable in long reels
8.7 THz waveguide gratings etched on metal-wires
8.8 THz waveguides from InAs, GaP, sapphire etc. for boosting emitters, sensing etc.
8.9 SWOT appraisal of THz cables and waveguides in 6G system design

9. Fiber optics for 6G systems
9.1 Overview
9.2 Fiber optic cable design and materials
9.2.1 Format, silica, sapphire and more
9.2.2 Polybutylene terephthalate, polyethylene, polyimide, FRP
9.2.3 Functional types
9.3 Fiber optics in action
9.4 Limiting use of the fiber and electronics to save cost
9.5 Serious attacks occurring
9.6 Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers EDFA
9.7 Photonics defined radio and photonic integration for THz 6G
9.8 SWOT appraisal of fiber optics in 6G system design

10. Graphene and other 2D materials in 6G
10.1 Overview and six relevant uses for 6G
10.2 Graphene THz sensing compared with alternatives
10.3 Graphene plasmonics for 6G THz metasurfaces, modulators, splitters, routers
10.4 Graphene gated THz transistors for 6G optical rectification, optical absorbers
10.5 Other 2D materials to 10THz for wireless communications: MoS, BN, perovskite



Companies Mentioned

  • Il-Vl CORP
  • Acacia Communications
  • Amazon
  • Apple
  • AT&C
  • AT&T
  • Azo Materials
  • Bladon Jets
  • Centro Ricercha FIAT
  • China Telecommunications
  • Corning
  • Dow
  • DuPont
  • Eaton
  • Ericsson
  • Facebook
  • Fiat
  • Finisar
  • Gentherm
  • GLPoly
  • google
  • Greenerwave
  • GTCap
  • Henkel
  • Homesun
  • Huawei
  • Inmarsat
  • Interdigital
  • Keysight Technologies
  • Laird
  • LG
  • Lumentum
  • Mediatek
  • Meta
  • Microsoft
  • Momentive
  • NeoGraf
  • Nitrium
  • Nitrium
  • Nokia
  • NTT
  • NTTDoCoMo
  • nubia
  • Nur Energie
  • Nvidia
  • Oppo
  • Oxford PV
  • Panasonic
  • Parker Lord
  • Pure LiFi
  • Qualcomm
  • Radi-Cool
  • Samsung
  • Sheen
  • Shenzhen Toomen
  • Shin-Etsu
  • Signify
  • SKTelecom
  • SNCF
  • SolAero
  • Sono Motors
  • SpectrolabStarlink
  • Sunovate
  • Telecom Italia
  • Telus
  • Tesla
  • ThinQ
  • TMobile
  • Toyota
  • Verizon
  • VLNComm
  • WB Photovoltaics
  • WL Gore
  • Xiaomi
  • YOFC
  • ZTE