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Current Developments in the Detection and Control of Multi Drug Resistance

  • Book
  • July 2022
  • Bentham Science Publishers Ltd
  • ID: 5645221
The rise in the incidence of infections is caused by multi drugresistant (MDR) bacteria, it is essential to elucidate the basic mechanism ofantibiotic resistance to discover effective methods for diagnosis and treatmentof infections. The use of pathogen-specific probes offers a faster alternative forpathogen detection and could improve the diagnosis of infection. High resolutionmelting analysis techniques are useful for the detection of multi drugresistant pathogens. Rational Structural Based Drug Design is a common methodto identify a lead compound and take it forward for further developments.

This book provides information about recent strategies involved in thediagnosis and treatment of infections caused by MDR bacteria. The volume coversthe use of molecular probes for the quantification of pathogenic bacteria, alongwith other techniques mentioned above.

The chapters also cover the use of identificationof novel drug targets from the Lipid A biosynthesis and also from quorum sensingmediated biofilm formation in MDR bacteria. Chapters also cover herbal alternatives for the treatment of MDRbacteria like the use of Cassiaaungustifolia in treatment of various diseases. The reference is suitablefor biomedical students, cellular and molecular biologists.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction
  • Sanket Kaushik And Nagendra Singh Consent For Publication
  • Conflict Of Interest
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
Chapter 2 Development Of Drug Resistance
  • Divyapriya Karthikeyan, Mukesh Kumar, Jyoti Yadav, Amit Alok, Kishore K. R. Tetala And Sanjit Kumar Introduction
  • Conclusion
  • Consent For Publication
  • Conflict Of Interest
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
Chapter 3 Current Challenges In Treating Mdr
  • Vaishali Gurjar, Ayushi Khurana, Gunjan Shaily, Sanket Kaushik And Nagendra Singh Introduction
  • Natural/Intrinsic Resistance
  • Acquired Resistance
  • Mechanisms Of Mdr Development
  • Alteration Of The Target Protein By Mutation
  • Modifications Of The Drug
  • Decreased Antibiotic Penetration And Efflux
  • Gene Acquisition From Other Species For Less Susceptible Target Proteins
  • Target Bypassing
  • Preventing Mdr
  • Mdr Preventive Measures
  • Political Commitment
  • Case Finding
  • Standardized And Supervised Drug Treatment Course
  • Surveillance System
  • Development Of Novel Drugs
  • Strategies To Combat Mdr
  • Antimicrobial Peptides (Amps)
  • Anti-Virulence Compounds
  • Phage Therapy Alone Or In Combinations With Antibiotics
  • New Molecules
  • Drug Repurposing And Repositioning
  • Hand Hygiene
  • Patient Placement And Priority For Isolation
  • Personal Protective Equipment (Ppe)
  • Cleaning Of The Environment And Patient Care Equipment
  • Patient Movement And Transfer
  • Education Of Patients, Staff And Visitors
  • Challenges
  • Challenges In Diagnosis
  • Disease Transmission
  • Treatment Of Latent Infection
  • Who’S Response To Mdr
  • Conclusion
  • Consent For Publication
  • Conflict Of Interest
  • Acknowledgements
  • List Of Abbreviations
  • References
Chapter 4 Methods Of Detection Of Mdr
  • Monish Bisen, Anupam Jyoti And Juhi Saxena Introduction
  • Techniques To Detect Mdr
  • Culture
  • Liquid Culture-Based Methods
  • Solid-Culture Methods
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Advantages
  • Disadvantages
  • Lateral Flow Immunoassay
  • Advantages
  • Disadvantages
  • Dna Microarray
  • Advantages
  • Disadvantages
  • Whole Genome Sequencing
  • Advantages
  • Disadvantages
  • Conclusions
  • Consent For Publication
  • Conflict Of Interest
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
Chapter 5 Molecular Probes As Diagnostic Tools
  • Anurag Jyoti And Rajesh Singh Tomar Introduction
  • Molecular Diagnostics For Detection Of Drug-Resistant Pathogens
  • Polymerase Chain Reactions (Pcr)
  • Real Time Polymerase Chain Reactions (Pcr)
  • Detection Chemistries
  • Nucleic Acid Dye: Sybr Green I
  • Sequence-Specific Probe
  • Conclusion
  • Consent For Publication
  • Conflict Of Interest
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
Chapter 6 Real-Time Pcr High-Resolution Melting Analysis
  • Ena Gupta, Sanket Kaushik, Vijay Kumar Srivastava, Juhi Saxena And Anupam Jyoti Introduction
  • Principle Of The Melting Profile
  • Intercalating Dyes
  • Non-Saturating Dyes
  • Saturating Dyes
  • Release-On-Demand Dyes
  • Working Of Pcr-Hrm
  • Analysis Of Data
  • Factors Affecting Hrm
  • Applications
  • Identification Of Microbial Species
  • Mutation Detection
  • Microbial Genotyping Within Species
  • Identification Of Genotypic Variants Leading To Antimicrobial Resistance
  • Identification Of Human Genetic Variants Of Importance To Susceptibility To Or Treatment Of Infectious Diseases
  • Alternative For Gel Electrophoresis
  • Conclusion
  • Consent For Publication
  • Conflict Of Interest
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
Chapter 7 Current Therapeutic Options And Challenges For Mdr
  • Aakanksha Kalra, Sakshi Piplani And Ravi Ranjan Kumar Niraj Introduction
  • Traditional Methods Used For Treatment Of Mdr
  • Major Antibiotics Used For Treatment Of Mdr Bacteria
  • Carbapenems
  • Polymyxins
  • Aminoglycosides
  • Oxazolidinone
  • Glycylcycline
  • Synergistic Approach By Combination Of Antibiotics
  • Bioenhancers
  • Current Treatment Methods Used For Treating Patients With Mdr Bacterial Infections
  • Use Of Anti-Microbial Peptides As Therapeutic Agent
  • Anti-Virulence Compounds
  • Drug Repurposing
  • Phage Therapy For Treatment Of Mdr Bacteria
  • Conclusion
  • Consent For Publication
  • Conflict Of Interest
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
Chapter 8 Phytomedicines For Bacterial Infections
  • Vijay Pal, Ravneet Chug, Kumar Sambhav Verma, Priyal Sharma And Vinod Singh Gour Introduction
  • Trees And Seed Oil
  • Seed Oil Chemical Composition
  • Antimicrobial Activities In Seed Oil
  • Conclusion And Future Prospects
  • Consent For Publication
  • Conflict Of Interest
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
Chapter 9 Molecular Mechanisms Of Antimicrobial Resistance And New Targets To Address Current Drug Resistance
  • Divyapriya Karthikeyan, Sudhir Kumar Pal, Mukesh Kumar, Kali Kishore Reddy Tetala, Punit Kaur And Sanjit Kumar Introduction
  • Antiquity Of Antibiotic Exploration And Concomitant Progress Of Antibiotic Resistance
  • The Scenario Of Drug Resistance: Global And Indian Perspective ..
  • Superbugs And Drug Resistance
  • Molecular Mechanisms Of The Resistance
  • Decreased Antibiotics Permeability
  • Depravity Of Antibacterials By Bacterial Enzymes
  • Enhanced Antimicrobials Efflux
  • Alternative Pathway Usage By Bacteria
  • Drug Target Modification
  • Other Factors Causing Antimicrobial Drug Resistance
  • Self-Medication (Drug Abuse)
  • Evolution And Transmission Of Resistance Genes
  • Travel, Migration, And Trade
  • Population Mediated Pollution
  • Climatic Change
  • Antibiotic Use In Agriculture And Animals
  • Surveillance Mechanism For Antimicrobial Resistance
  • Subdue Antimicrobial Resistance
  • New Targets To Address Current Drug Resistance
  • Raetz Pathway
  • Other New Antimicrobial Targets
  • Implementation Of Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs
  • Non-Prescription Antibiotics
  • Reducing Antibiotic Use In Agriculture And Animals
  • Vaccination
  • Clean And Hygiene
  • Antibiotic Channel Revitalization
  • National Policies To Conserve Antibiotic Effectiveness
  • Recommendations From Infectious Diseases Society Of America's (Idsa)
  • Conclusion
  • Consent For Publication
  • Conflict Of Interest

Author

  • Sanket Kaushik
  • Nagendra Singh