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Solar Thermal Systems: Thermal Analysis and its Application

  • Book
  • August 2022
  • Bentham Science Publishers Ltd
  • ID: 5654215
This book encapsulates current information about the science behind solar energy and the solar thermal systems available to meet domestic needs. Several scholars have contributed to the chapters in the text in an effort to distill research-oriented topics for learners.

The book starts with an explainer on the fundamentals of thermodynamics, heat transfer and solar energy in the first 2 chapters. The basics of some solar thermal devices along with their thermal modeling are covered in the next few chapters, along with solar distillation systems. This is followed by information about the design, development and applications of solar cookers along with their thermal modeling. Thermal modeling of semi-transparent PVT systems and their applications are discussed in Chapter 9.

Chapter 10 covers the development in solar photovoltaic technology. Chapter 11 and Chapter 12 discusses thermal modeling of greenhouse solar dryers and presents a case study on a hybrid active greenhouse solar dryer.

Chapter 13 covers the thermal analysis of photovoltaic thermal (PVT) air heaters employing thermoelectric modules (TEM). The applications of various solar systems in building sectors and the development in this field are covered in Chapter 14. Chapter 15 deals with energy and environ- economics analysis of bio-gas integrated semi-transparent photo-voltaic thermal (Bi-iSPVT) systems for Indian climates.

The book has a broad scope and is intended as a resource for students, researchers and teachers in universities, industries, and national and commercial laboratories to help learn the fundamentals and in-depth knowledge of thermal modeling and recent developments in solar heating systems.

Table of Contents

1. Contents Preface

2. General Terms Related to Thermodynamics
2.1. System
2.2. Surrounding
2.3. Boundary
2.4. Types of System
2.5. Heat
2.6. Temperature
2.7. Entropy
2.8. Enthalpy
2.9. Latent Heat
2.10. Sensible Heat
2.11. Specific Heat
2.12. Specific Humidity
2.13. Relative Humidity
2.14. Boiling
2.15. Condensation
2.16. Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
2.17. First Law of Thermodynamics
2.18. Second Law of Thermodynamics
2.19. Kelvin-Planck Statement
2.20. Clausius Statement
2.21. Third Law of Thermodynamics
2.22. Modes of Heat Transfer

3. Conduction

4. Convection

5. Radiation

6. General Terms Related to Heat Transfer

7. Thermal Conductivity

8. Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient

9. Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient
10. Emissivity
11. Irradiation
12. Absorptivity, Reflectivity and Transmissivity
13. Laws of Heat Transfer
14. Fourier Law of Conduction
15. Newton's Law of Cooling for Convection
16. Stefan Boltzmann Law of Radiation
17. Summary
  • Consent for Publication
  • Conflict of Interest
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
Chapter 2 Basics of Solar Energy and Various Sun-Earth Angles

1. Matching Solar Collectors to Prevailing Solar Energy Conditions

2. Solar Radiation at the Extremity of the Earth's Atmosphere

3. Ground-Level Solar Radiation

4. Daylight

5. Apparent Motion of the Sun Across the Sky

6. Measurement of Incident Solar Radiation
  • Conclusion
  • Consent for Publication
  • Conflict of Interest
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
Chapter 3 Internal Characteristics of Double-Base Array

1. General Introduction to the Solar Pond

1.1. Partitioned Salt-Stabilized Pond
1.2. Viscosity Stabilized Pond
1.3. Stabilization Using a Salt Concentration Gradient
1.4. Thermal Stability Conditions

2. Calculations for Solar Radiation

3. Energy Balance in Solar Pond Ucz

4. Applications of Thermal Energy Balance for Non-Convective Zone (Ncz)

5. Applications of Thermal Energy Balance for Lower Convective Zone (Lcz)

6. Applications of Non-Convective Solar Pond
6.1. Space Heating
6.2. Greenhouse Solar Pond Heating System
6.3. Electricity Generation

7. Various Space Cooling Concepts
7.1. Cooling by Evaporation
7.2. Ventilation/Infiltration
7.2.1. Solar Chimney
7.2.2. Wind Tower
7.2.3. Earth Air Tunnel
7.2.4. Air Vent
7.2.5. Shading
7.2.6. Rock Bed Regenerative Cooler
7.2.7. Radiative Cooling

8. Solar Refrigeration
8.1. Solar-Absorption Process
8.2. Solar-Desiccant Cooling
8.2.1. Solid-Desiccant Cooling
8.2.2. Liquid-Desiccant Cooling
8.3. Solar Mechanical Cooling
8.4. Comparison of Solar Cooling Technologies
8.3. Solar Mechanical Cooling
8.3. Solar Mechanical Cooling

9. Solar Concentrator
9.1. Important Parameters
9.2. Solar Concentrators Classifications
9.3. Types of Solar Concentrator
9.3.1. One/Single-Axis Tracking Type Solar Concentrators
9.4. Fixed Mirror Type Solar Concentrator
9.5. Cylindrical Parabolic Solar Concentrator
9.6. Linear Fresnel Lens Solar Concentrator
9.6.1. Two-Axes Tracking Concentrators
9.7. Paraboloidal Dish Solar Concentrator
9.8. Central Tower Receiver
9.9. Circular Fresnel Lens
9.10. Hemispherical Bowl Mirror
9.10.1. Non-Tracking Solar Concentrators
9.11. Flat Receiver Along with Booster Mirror
9.12. Compound Parabolic Solar Concentrator
9.13. Theoretical Solar Image
9.14. Thermal Performance
9.15. Natural Mode
9.16. Forced Mode
9.17. Solar Concentration Ratio
9.18. Substances for Solar Concentrators
9.19. Reflecting and Refracting Surfaces
9.20. Receiver Covers and Surface Coatings
9.21. Working Fluids
9.22. Insulation
  • Conclusion
  • Nomenclature
  • Consent for Publication
  • Conflict of Interest
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
Chapter 4 Thermal Modeling of Solar Stills

1. Introduction

2. Sebwp of Single Slope Type in Passive Mode

3. Sebwp of Double Slope Type in Passive Mode

4. Sebwp of Basin Type by Incorporating Different Types of Collectors
4.1. Sebwp of Single Slope Type Integrated with Partially Covered Pvt-Fpcs
4.2. Sebwp of Single Slope Type Integrated with N Alike Partially Covered Pvt Compound Parabolic Concentrators (Pvt-Cpc)
4.3. Sebwp of Single Slope Type Integrated with N Alike Evacuated Tubular Collectors (Etcs)
4.4. Sebwp of Double Slope Type Integrated with N Alike Pvt-Fpcs
4.5. Sebwp of Double Slope Type Integrated with N Alike Partly Covered Pvt-Cpcs
4.6. Sebwp of Double Slope Type Integrated with N Alike Etcs

5. Sebwp Loaded with Nanofluid
5.1. Sebwp of Single and Double Slope Types in Passive Mode Loaded with Nanofluid 131 5.2. Sebwp of Double Slope Types in Active Mode Loaded with Nanofluid

6. Exergy Analysis of Sebwp

7. Results and Discussion
  • Conclusion
  • Consent for Publication
  • Conflict of Interest
  • References
Chapter 5 Application and Development in Solar Stills

1. Introduction

2. Developments in Solar Stills in the Last Few Years
2.1. Solar Still with Reflector
2.2. Solar Still with Collector
2.3. Solar Still with External Condenser
2.4. Solar Still with Ultrasonic Vibrator/Fogger
2.5. Solar Still with Wick Materials
2.6. Solar Still with Different Tilt Angle
2.7. Solar Still with Parabolic Trough Collector (Ptc)
2.8. Solar Still with Charcoal Cylinder
2.9. Solar Still with Stepped Basin
2.10. Solar Still with Nanoparticles
2.11. Solar Still with Pcm

3. Applications of Solar Still
3.1. Domestic Applications
3.2. Industrial Applications
  • Conclusion
  • Consent for Publication
  • Conflict of Interest
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
Chapter 6 Potential of Solar Distillation Plant in India

1. Introduction

2. Role of Renewable Energy in Water Desalination

3. Energy Transfer Process and Cycle in Basic Solar Distiller
3.1. Energy Balance Equations
3.2. Specific Humidity and Humidity Ratio
3.3. Heat Transfer
3.4. Mass Transfer, Relative Humidity and Vapor Pressure
3.5. Radiation Energy
3.6. Mean Specific Humidity and Airstream Temperature Across Distiller

4. Analysis of Basic Humidification-Dehumidification Plant
4.1. Solar Irradiance Over the Coast of India
4.2. Outlet Airstream Temperature
4.3. Humidity Ratio of the Air Stream
4.4. Rate of Mass Flow for Evaporated Water


  • Manoj Kumar Gaur
  • Brian Norton
  • Gopal Tiwari