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Neurodegenerative Diseases: Multifactorial Degenerative Processes, Biomarkers and Therapeutic Approaches

  • Book
  • August 2022
  • Bentham Science Publishers Ltd
  • ID: 5654216
This reference is the definitive guide to common neurodegenerative diseases that affect humans. The book covers mechanisms of some of the most well-known neurodegenerative diseases, their biomarkers, neuropharmacology, and emerging treatment strategies.

The book introduces the subject of neurodegeneration by outlining the biochemistry, pathophysiology and multifactorial neurological mechanisms (the role of genetics, environmental factors and mitochondrial damage, for example). Next, it explains some of the most studied diseases, namely, Parkinson’s Disease, Alzheimer’s Disease, Huntington’s Disease, and Multiple Sclerosis. Subsequent chapters delve into current knowledge about diagnostic and immunological biomarkers, followed by a summary of novel therapeutic strategies.

Special attention has been given to the role of medicinal plants in attempting to treat neurodegenerative diseases, as well as the public health burden posed by these conditions.

Key Features

  • give readers an overview of multifactorial disease mechanisms in neurodegeneration
  • covers some major neurodegenerative diseases in detail
  • covers diagnostic and immunological biomarkers
  • explores current therapeutic strategies and drug targets in common neurodegenerative diseases
  • offers a simple presentation with references for advanced readers

The book is a suitable reference for all readers, including students, research scholars, and physicians who are interested in the mechanisms and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

Table of Contents

  • Neurodegenerative Diseases Involving Multifactorial Degeneration
  • Protein Misfolding and Aggregation in Neurodegenerative Diseases
  • Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Neurodegenerative Diseases
  • Reactive Oxygen Species (Ros) Production and Neurodegeneration
  • Genetics, Environmental Factors and Induction of Neurodegenerative Diseases
  • Genetic Factors Associated with Neurodegenerative Disorders
  • Alzheimer's Disease
  • Parkinson's Disease
  • Huntington's Disease
  • Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (Als)
  • Environmental Factors: Etiological and Disease-Modifying Effects on Diseases
  • Concluding Remarks
  • Consent for Publication
  • Conflict of Interest
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
Chapter 2 Colligation of Mitochondria Dysfunction and Neurodegeneration: Parkinson's Disease
  • K Amrutha, Neelam Yadav and Sarika Singh Introduction
  • Role of Mitochondria in Pd Pathology
  • Mitochondrial Mutations in Pd Pathology
  • Other Mutations Related to Mitochondrial Functions in Pd Pathology
  • Parkin
  • Pink 1 and Dj-1
  • Α-Synuclein
  • Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase 2 (Lrrk2)
  • Role of Mitochondria in Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Mediated Neurodegenerative Signalling in Pd Pathology
  • Role of Mitochondria in Apoptotic Neurodegenerative Signalling in Pd Pathology
  • Conclusion and Future Aspects
  • Consent for Publication
  • Conflict of Interest
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
Chapter 3 Protein Aggregation in Neurodegenerative Diseases
  • Rishabh Chaudhary, Mujeeba Rehman, Vipul Agarwal, Arjun Singh Kaushik and Vikas Mishra Introduction
  • Protein Aggregation in Neurodegenerative Diseases
  • Alzheimer's Disease (Ad)
  • Amyloid Β-Protein
  • Tau (Τ) Protein
  • Familial Amyloid Polyneuropathy (Fap)
  • Transthyretin (Ttr)
  • Parkinson's Disease (Pd)
  • Structure and Function of Α-Syn
  • Lewy Bodies
  • Mechanisms of Α-Syn Misfolding and Aggregation
  • Huntington's Disease (Hd)
  • Normal Htt and Mutant Htt
  • Pathogenesis of Mhtt in Hd
  • Protein Misfolding and Aggregation
  • Transcriptional and Axonal Transport Dysregulation
  • Mitochondrial Dysfunction
  • Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (Als)
  • Superoxide Dimustase (Sod-1)
  • Fused in Sarcoma/Translocated in Liposarcoma (Fus/Tls)
  • Chromosome 9 Open Reading Frame 72 (C9Orf72)
  • Ubiquilin-2 (Ubqln-2)
  • Transactive Response Dna Binding Protein-43 (Tdp-43)
  • Concluding Remarks
  • Consent for Publication
  • Conflict of Interest
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
Chapter 4 Role of Reactive Oxygen Species in Neurodegenerative Diseases
  • Sukanya Tripathy, Sanjay Singh, Monisha Banerjee and Anand Prakash Introduction
  • What are Reactive Oxygen Species?
  • Role of Ros in Neurodegenration
  • Alzheimer's Disease (Ad)
  • Parkinson's Disease
  • Motor Neuron Disease
  • Antioxidants as Therapy for Oxidative Stress
  • Conclusion
  • Consent for Publication
  • Conflict of Interest
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
Chapter 5 Parkinson Disease: Molecular Biology, Pathophysiology and Biomarkers
  • Sarfraj Ahmad Siddiqui, Habiba and Md Arshad Introduction
  • Parkinson's Disease (Pd)
  • Genetic and Molecular Basis of Pd
  • Genetic and Epigenetic Factors of Pd
  • Environmental Factors of Pd
  • Molecular Mechanism of Pd
  • Lewy Bodies and Α-Synuclein Protein
  • Mitochondria Dysfunction in Pd
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Dopamine Disfunction in Pd
  • Glutathione Transferase (Gsts) and Heat Shock Protein in Pd
  • Lrrk2 Gene in Pd
  • Brain Areas Affected in Pd
  • Biomarkers of Pd
  • Biochemical Biomarkers of Brain
  • Dopamine System in Pd
  • Α-Synuclein
  • Orexin
8-Hydroxy-20-Deoxyguanosine
  • Apolipoprotein A1 (Apoa1)
  • Proteasomal Activity
  • Metabolic Biomarker
  • Neuroimaging Biomarkers
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (Mri)
  • Positron Emission Tomography (Pet) Imaging
  • Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (Spect)
  • Conclusion
  • Consent for Publication
  • Conflict of Interest
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
Chapter 6 Alzheimer's Disease: Molecular Biology, Pathophysiology and Biomarkers
  • Yoganchal Mishra, Sarika Singh and Neelam Yadav Introduction
  • Risk Factors for Ad
  • Molecular Genetics of Ad Pathogenesis
  • Pathophysiology of Ad
  • Cholinergic Disruption
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Hyperphosphorylated Tau Protein and Amyloid Β Cascade
  • Metal Dysregulation
  • Biomarkers for Ad
  • Fluid Biomarkers for Ad
  • Galanthamine
  • Antibodies
  • Cannabinoids
  • Multi-Target-Directed Ligand (Mtdl)
  • Polyphenolic Compounds
  • Metals
  • Metal Complexes
  • Stem Cells
  • Conclusion
  • Consent for Publication
  • Conflict of Interest
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
Chapter 7 Huntington's Disease: Molecular Basis, Pathophysiology and Biomarker
  • Sarfraj Ahmad Siddiqui and Anand Prakash Introduction
  • Huntingtin Disease
  • Genetic and Molecular Basis of Huntingtin Disease
  • Molecular Mechanism of Huntingtin Protein in Hd
  • Brain Areas Affected in Hd
  • Basal Ganglia
  • Mhtt Protein Causes Impaired Transcription Functions
  • Post-Translational Modifications of Htt
  • Pathophysiology of Huntingtin Disease
  • Biomarkers of Huntingtin Disease
  • Clinical Biomarkers
  • Neuroimaging Biomarkers
  • Therapeutic Approaches of Hd
  • Post Translational Modification and Degradation of Muthtt Protein
  • Modulation of Signalling Pathways
  • Transcriptional Regulation of Muthtt
  • Clinical Availability of Hd Therapeutics
  • Conclusion
  • Consent for Publication
  • Conflict of Interest
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
Chapter 8 Multiple Sclerosis: Molecular Biology, Pathophysiology and Biomarkers
  • Sanjay Singh, Sukanya Tripathy and Anand Prakash Introduction
  • Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (Rrms)
  • Primary-Progressive Multiple Sclerosis (Ppms)
  • Secondary-Progressive Multiple Sclerosis (Spms)
  • Clinically Isolated Syndrome (Cis)
  • Molecular Aspect of Disease
  • Pathophysiology
  • Induction of Inflammation in the Brain
  • the Mechanisms of Primary Demyelination
  • Axonal Injury in Multiple Sclerosis
  • Biomarkers of Disease
  • the Laboratory Biomarkers
  • Imaging Biomarkers
  • Genetic-Immunogenetic Biomarkers
  • Conclusion
  • Consent for Publication
  • Conflict of Interest

Author

  • Tabish Qidwai