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Long Duration Energy Storage LDES Markets 2023-2043: Grid, Microgrid Delayed Electricity 6 Hours to Seasonal

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  • 311 Pages
  • October 2022
  • Region: Global
  • Zhar Research
  • ID: 5670740

Long Duration Energy Storage Brings Surprises, Major New Markets

Grids and microgrids waste precious wind and solar power at times of excess. That will get worse as they adopt a higher percentage notably of solar because it drops fastest in cost and is anyway best for emerging nations because they are mostly in the tropics. The antidote is analysed in the uniquely comprehensive report, “Long Duration Energy Storage LDES Markets 2023-2043: Grid, Microgrid Delayed Electricity 6 Hours to Seasonal”. Free of excessive mathematics and nostalgia, the report gives deep commercial insights for investors, industry - from material suppliers to system operators - and other potential participants. See many new infograms, comparison charts, roadmaps and graphs, with terms explained both in the glossary and the text. Learn underinvested sectors and gaps in the market. 

Two things matter most: the delay time to cover such things as solar dead at night, wind dead for weeks, and the duration of subsequent discharge at full rating which is a similar or somewhat lower figure taken as GWh divided by GW. It is a moving target. Today energy storage for 6-10 hours is a major new market but as the percentage of wind and solar in a system increases, longer needs become substantial. For example, UK electricity prices jumped in 2020 partly because wind was dead for months. The need will change right up to seasonal storage for solar feeble in winter creating its own huge storage market within 15 years. Broadly speaking, the longer the delay the more electricity must be stored and therefore that costs must drop, eventually 90%. Your radically new approaches are eagerly sought, from materials to systems.

The report surfaces many surprises. For instance, some of the 11 main candidate technology families can perform both long and short-term storage in one system and some cannot. That should be factored into investment decisions. Almost continuous zero-emission sources are costed in isolation and starved of money but sometimes they can be lower cost - taken holistically - than a purely storage solution. Think advanced geothermal, ocean power, later solar from outer space and others in the report. 

Another surprise is that there may even be a market for storage beyond seasonal. We have strategic oil and gas reserves stored for years and discharging for a month or two. As electricity takes over, it is both logical and potentially practicable to consider strategic electricity reserves. 

Probable winning technologies are identified in the emerging $250 billion market, those with a large secondary opportunity and two losers. The report finds that some storage technologies are underfunded given their huge potential. One is pumped hydro storage reinvented for wider deployment - in mines, pressurised into rock, under water, even using heavy water up mere hills. Citing research and interviews, the report shows why it is wrong to assume technologies such as compressed air cannot viably perform seasonal storage in due course but it identifies hidden environmental and other risks with some other strongly promoted options. 

The 24 page Executive Summary and Conclusions is sufficient for those with limited time. It explains the basics and gives key conclusions, new infograms, comparison charts, 20 year roadmaps and forecasts.

Chapter 2. Introduction, in 48 pages, explains the strong move to electrification and why the hydrogen economy is secondary to this. See minigrids and grids are involved and how adding some less-intermittent zero-emission alternative generation, smart grids and load management will help but not enough. Learn the types of intermittency relevant to energy storage, from 6 hours to seasonal, matched to the Long Duration Energy Storage LDES landscape that is the subject of the report and its toolkit of technology families and suitability by duration time. Appreciate the dimensions of longer delay, longer duration, more GWh progresses and the storage to cope with both that and also with long term demand fluctuation. The neglected topic of underwater long term energy storage is introduced in many potential forms with SWOT appraisal.

Chapter 3. Long Duration Energy Storage in 23 closely packed pages looks more closely at the definitions and technology landscape. It is more technical, explaining the metrics such as levelized cost of storage and why claimed figures should be treated with great caution, giving many examples. 12 technology choices in six families are tabled in many parameters. Central to this chapter are seven detailed plots of the technology options against two parameters with commentary and trends. Examples include LCOS vs storage time, power and capacity vs duration, available sites vs space efficiency, compressed vs liquid air for the many options as expected 2023-2043. This chapter ends with a detailed new analysis - presented as table and pie chart - of the activities and dreams of the LDES Council members and what it tells us. The chapter ends with a SWOT appraisal of long duration energy storage LDES 2023-2043.

Chapter 4 through 11 are deep dives into the main technology options each with company profiles, a table of 17 parameters expected and SWOT appraisal. Each page is packed with detailed information in infograms, system diagrams and so on. They are:

  • Compressed air energy storage CAES 48 pages 
  • Liquefied gas energy storage: Liquid air LAES or CO2 22 pages
  • Redox flow battery energy storage RFB 27 pages
  • Hydrogen, ammonia, methane intermediary LDES 28 pages
  • Pumped hydro conventional and reinvented 29 pages
  • Solid gravity energy storage 18 pages
  • Thermal energy storage ETES (electricity-to-electricity) 12 pages
  • LDES with conventional battery structure 17 pages

One trillion dollars will be invested in LDES well before 2050 and trillions saved. National competitiveness, security, prosperity and well-being are at stake. Get in at the start by reading the only up-to-date, comprehensive, perceptive review and 20 year prediction of the whole subject.


Table of Contents

1. Executive summary and conclusions
1.1. Purpose and scope of this report
1.2. Methodology of this analysis
1.3. Definition and need
1.4. LDES toolkit
1.5. Basic technology choices for LDES
1.6. Rating for LDES technology families against 20 funding and siting criteria
1.6.1 Nine technology families vs 17 criteria
1.6.2 Equivalent efficiency vs storage hours for LDES technologies
1.6.3 Available sites vs space efficiency for LDES technologies
1.7. Contenders for largest number of LDES sold
1.8. Lessons from relative investment by company and technology
1.9. Key conclusions
1.10. LDES roadmap 2023-2032
1.11. Lessons from LDES projects completing 2023-2033
1.12. LDES roadmap 2033-2043
1.13. LDES market by 11 technology categories $ billion 2023-2043 table
1.14. LDES market by 11 technology categories $ billion 2023-2043 winners, major success, losers
1.15. LDES market by primary technology applications, new market needs 2023-2043 + assumptions
1.16. LDES market forecast in more detail by primary technology applications 2023-2043
1.17. Regional split of LDES market value 2023 and 2043
1.18. Cumulative installed LDES capacity TWh table and graph 2023-2043
1.19. Cumulative installed LDES average duration hours table and graph 2023-2043
1.20. Cumulative installed LDES rated power TW table and graph 2023-2043

2. Introduction
2.1. Overview
2.2. Trending to 100% zero-emissions renewable power and increased intermittency of supply
2.3. Curtailment may increase: avoidance strategies
2.4. Electric power basics to 2050
2.4.1. Reason for demand surge
2.4.2. ICT power requirement becoming very large
2.4.3. The trend of electrification
2.4.4. Energy production trends 2023-2043
2.4.5. Emerging countries have fastest demand growth, less emissions control
2.4.6. Ubiquitous electricity can reverse the move to cities, eliminate supply chains
2.5. Mitigating the long-term intermittency of wind and solar power without storage
2.6. The toolkit for zero-emission power distribution and LDES
2.7. Increased LDES interest in 2022/3 as zero-emissions electricity takes over
2.8. Lessons from 2022 UK Government awards
2.9. Advances wind power to reduce need for LDES
2.9.1. Taller turbines and aerial wind energy
2.9.2. Storage needs for worlds largest wind farms: UK 30GW
2.10. Photovoltaics evolution and potential to reduce intermittency
2.10.1. Commercial situation 2023
2.10.2. Why photovoltaics is gaining market share over wind
2.10.3. Advanced photovoltaics
2.10.4. Ultimate solar LDES
2.11. Conventional hydropower going nowhere
2.12. Consensus on LDES options
2.13. Underwater Energy Storage UWES with SWOT appraisal

3. Long duration energy storage LDES
3.1. LDES definition and purpose
3.1.1. Definition
3.1.2. Why we need LDES: Challenges towards 100% zero-emission electricity
3.1.3. Replace strategic oil and gas reserves with strategic electricity reserves
3.2. Required storage characteristics
3.2.1. Short term vs LDES
3.2.2. Short term storage requirements are complex but LDES requirements are not
3.2.3. Levelised cost of storage LCOS for LDES
3.3. Possible timing of LDES mass adoption in grids, microgrids, buildings 2023-2043
3.4. Basic technology choices for LDES
3.5. LCOS $/kWh trend vs storage and discharge time
3.6. LDES power GW trend vs storage and discharge time
3.7. Days storage vs rated power return MW for LDES technologies
3.8. Days storage vs amount MWh for LDES technologies
3.9. Potential by technology to supply LDES at peak power after various days
3.10. Available sites vs space efficiency for LDES technologies
3.11. LDES Council and publisher analysis of the technology of its members
3.12. LDES Council “technology provider” members’ capabilities and dreams compared
3.13. Publisher's pie analysis of priorities and progress by LDES Council technology members
3.14. SWOT appraisal of long duration energy storage LDES 2023-2043

4. Compressed air CAES
4.1. Overview
4.2. Undersupply attracts clones
4.3. Market positioning of CAES
4.4. Parameter appraisal of CAES of LDES
4.5. CAES technology options
4.5.1. Thermodynamic
4.5.2. Isochoric or isobaric storage
4.5.3. Adiabatic CAES choice of cooling
4.6. CAES manufacturers, projects and research
4.6.1. Overview
4.6.2. Siemens Energy Germany
4.6.3. MAN Energy Solutions Germany
4.6.4. Increasing the CAES storage time and discharge duration
4.6.5. Research in UK and European Union
4.7. CAES profiles and appraisal of system designers and suppliers
4.7.1. ALACAES Switzerland with publisher's appraisal
4.7.2. Apex CAES USA with publisher's appraisal
4.7.3. Augwind Energy Israel
4.7.4. Cheesecake Energy UK with publisher's appraisal
4.7.5. Corre Energy Netherlands with publisher's appraisal
4.7.6. Gaelectric failure Ireland - lessons
4.7.7. Huaneng Group China
4.7.8. Hydrostor Canada with publisher's appraisal
4.7.9. LiGE Pty Ltd South Africa
4.7.10. Storelectric UK with publisher's appraisal
4.7.11. TerraStor Energy Corporation USA with publisher's appraisal

5. Liquefied gas energy storage: Liquid air LAES or CO2
5.1. Overview
5.2. Principle of a liquid air energy storage system
5.3. Higher energy density but often higher LCOS than CAES
5.4. Hybrid LAES
5.5. Parameter appraisal of LAES for LDES
5.6. Increasing the LAES storage time and discharge duration
5.7. Highview Power UK with publisher's appraisal
5.8. Highview Power in Australia, Spain, Chile, USA
5.9. Phelas Germany
5.10. LAES research: Mitsubishi Hitachi, Linde, European Union, Others
5.11. SWOT appraisal for LAES for LDES
5.12. Energy Dome Italy - carbon dioxide storage
5.12.1. Overview and process
5.12.2. SWOT appraisal of Energy Dome liquid CO2 for LDES

6. Redox flow battery energy storage RFB
6.1. Overview
6.2. Reality check - RFB success and failure in LDES
6.3. Parameter appraisal of RFB for LDES
6.4. Types of RFB
6.5. The vanadium RFB chemistry and basics of RFB cost reduction
6.6. Invinity Energy Systems Canada
6.7. Lockheed Martin USA
6.8. Iron reflow battery: ESS Inc.
6.9. Swanbarton floating organic RFB UK
6.10. Organic RFB design
6.11. Carbon capture reflow battery: Agora Energy Technologies
6.12. RFB research thrust
6.13. SWOT appraisal of RFB energy storage for LDES

7. Hydrogen, ammonia, methane intermediary LDES
7.1. Overview
7.2. Hydrogen compared to methane and ammonia for LDES
7.3. Beware vested interests
7.4. The hydrogen economy vs electricity
7.5. Sweet spot for chemical intermediary LDES
7.6. Calculating success based on questionable assumptions
7.7. Mining giants prudently progress many options
7.8. For buildings, all options together would be too expensive
7.9. Technologies for hydrogen storage
7.9.1. Overview
7.9.2. Choices of underground storage for hydrogen
7.9.3. Hydrogen interconnectors for electrical energy transmission and storage
7.9.4. Review of 15 projects that use hydrogen as energy storage in a power system
7.10. Parameter appraisal of hydrogen storage for LDES
7.11. SWOT appraisal of hydrogen, methane, ammonia for LDES

8. Pumped hydro conventional and reinvented
8.1. Conventional pumped hydro PHES
8.1.1. Overview
8.1.2. Three options for conventional pumped hydro storage
8.1.3. Projects and intentions in nine countries
8.1.4. Economics
8.1.5. Parameter appraisal of conventional pumped hydro LDES
8.1.6. SWOT report for conventional pumped hydro as LDES
8.2. Reinvented pumped hydro
8.2.1. Overview
8.2.2. Quidnet Energy USA: pressurised hydro underground with publisher's appraisal
8.2.3. Underwater pumped hydro StEnSea. Ocean Grazer with publisher's appraisal
8.2.4. Cavern Energy USA - brine in salt caverns with publisher's appraisal
8.2.5. Mine storage Sweden - Hydro in mines with publisher's appraisal
8.2.6. RheEnergise UK hills and heavy liquid with publisher's appraisal
8.2.7. SWOT appraisal of pumped hydro reinvented for LDES

9. Solid gravity energy storage
9.1. Overview
9.2. ARES LLC USA with publisher's appraisal
9.3. Energy Vault Switzerland, USA with publisher's appraisal
9.4. Gravitricity UK with publisher's appraisal
9.5. SinkFloatSolutions France
9.6. Parameters appraisal of solid gravity energy storage SGES for LDES
9.7. SWOT appraisal of solid gravity storage SGES for LDES

10. Thermal storage ETES
10.1. Overview
10.2. Parameters appraisals of electric thermal energy storage ETES
10.3. LDES molten salt storage for concentrated solar: Chile, Australia, South Africa
10.4. Siemens Gamesa Germany and Stiesdal Denmark with publisher's appraisal
10.5. Antora USA with publisher's appraisal
10.6. SWOT appraisal of ETES for LDES

11. Advanced conventional construction battery ACCB for LDES
11.1. Overview
11.2. Parameters appraisal of conventional battery structure for LDES with new chemistries
11.3. Liquid metal - Ambri USA with publisher's appraisal
11.4. Enervenue USA nickel hydrogen battery with publisher's appraisal
11.5. Sodium-ion stationary batteries: China, India etc. with publisher's appraisal
11.6. Form Energy USA iron air with publisher's appraisal
11.7. SWOT appraisal of Na-ion and Fe-air for LDES



Companies Mentioned

  • AgoraEnergy Technologies
  • Altris
  • Ambri
  • Antora
  • ARES
  • Azelio
  • Baker Hughes
  • BP
  • B9 Energy Storage
  • Breeze
  • BrenmillerEnergy
  • CAES
  • Cavern Energy
  • Cellcube
  • Ceres
  • Cheesecake Energy
  • Chevron
  • Corre Energy
  • CPS Energy
  • Crondall Energy
  • E-zinc
  • Echogen
  • EnergyDome
  • EnergyVault
  • EnergyNest
  • Enervenue
  • Enlighten
  • EOS
  • ESSTechnology
  • Faradion
  • FormEnergy
  • Fortescue Metals Group
  • GE
  • Gravitricity
  • GreencoGroup
  • H2 Inc
  • HBI
  • Heatrix
  • Highview Power
  • HiNa
  • Hochtief
  • HuanengHighviewPower
  • Huisman
  • Hydrostor
  • IEA
  • ILIGroup
  • InnoEnergy
  • IOT Energy
  • InvinityEnergy Systems
  • JSC Uzbekhydroenergo
  • Kraft Block
  • Kyoto Group
  • Largo
  • Lazard
  • Linde
  • Lockheed martin
  • Locogen
  • Magnum
  • Malta
  • MAN Energy Solutions
  • Magaldi
  • Malta
  • MGA Thermal
  • MineStorage
  • MitsubishiHitachi
  • MSE International
  • Natron
  • Phelas
  • Primus Power
  • Quidnet Energy
  • Rcam Technologies
  • Redflow
  • Reliance Industries
  • RHEnergise
  • RyeDevelopment
  • SaltX Tech.
  • SchmidGroup
  • SensPumped Hydro Storage
  • SherwoodEnergy
  • SiemensEnergy
  • SinkFloatSolutions
  • Sintef
  • Stiesdah
  • Storelectric
  • StorEnTechnologies
  • StorTera
  • Storworks Power
  • Subsea7
  • Sumitomo Electrical Industries
  • Swanbarton
  • Terrastor
  • Tesla
  • Tiamat
  • Torc
  • UET
  • UniEnergy Techmologies
  • VFlowTech
  • Voith Hydro
  • VoltStorage
  • VRBEnergy


Research Inputs Include:

  • Appraisal of which targeted needs are genuine
  • Web, literature, databases, experience and patents
  • Close study of research pipeline
  • Appraisal of regional initiatives
  • Actitivies of standard bodies
  • Limitations of physics and chemistry
  • Interviews