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The Global Market for Biobased Chemicals, Materials, Polymers, Plastics, Paints & Coatings and Fuels to 2033

  • Report

  • 1170 Pages
  • October 2022
  • Region: Global
  • Future Markets, Inc
  • ID: 5671353

Biobased materials refer to products that mainly consist of a substance (or substances) derived from living matter (biomass) and either occur naturally or are synthesized, or it may refer to products made by processes that use biomass. Materials from biomass sources include bulk chemicals, platform chemicals, solvents, polymers, and biocomposites. The many processes to convert biomass components to value-added products and fuels can be classified broadly as biochemical or thermochemical. In addition, biotechnological processes that rely mainly on plant breeding, fermentation, and conventional enzyme isolation also are used. New bio-based materials that may compete with conventional materials are emerging continually, and the opportunities to use them in existing and novel products are explored in this publication. 

There is growing consumer demand and regulatory push for bio-based chemicals, materials, polymers, plastics, paints, coatings and fuels with high performance, good recyclability and biodegradable properties to underpin transition towards more sustainable manufacturing and products.

Contents include:

  • In-depth market analysis of bio-based chemical feedstocks, biopolymers, bioplastics, natural fibers and lignin, biofuels and bio-based coatings and paints. 
  • Global production capacities, market volumes and trends, current and forecast to 2033. 
  • Analysis of bio-based chemical including 11-Aminoundecanoic acid (11-AA), 1,4-Butanediol (1,4-BDO), Dodecanedioic acid (DDDA), Epichlorohydrin (ECH), Ethylene, Furan derivatives, 5-Chloromethylfurfural (5-CMF), 2,5-Furandicarboxylic acid (2,5-FDCA), Furandicarboxylic methyl ester (FDME), Isosorbide,  Itaconic acid, 5 Hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF), Lactic acid (D-LA), Lactic acid - L-lactic acid (L-LA), Lactide, Levoglucosenone, Levulinic acid, Monoethylene glycol (MEG), Monopropylene glycol (MPG), Muconic acid, Naphtha, 1,5-Pentametylenediamine (DN5), 1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PDO), Sebacic acid and Succinic acid.
  • Analysis of synthetic bio-polymers and bio-plastics market including Polylactic acid (Bio-PLA), Polyethylene terephthalate (Bio-PET), Polytrimethylene terephthalate (Bio-PTT), Polyethylene furanoate (Bio-PEF), Polyamides (Bio-PA), Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (Bio-PBAT), Polybutylene succinate (PBS) and copolymers, Polyethylene (Bio-PE), Polypropylene (Bio-PP)
  • Analysis of naturally produced bio-based polymers including Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), Polysaccharides, Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC), Cellulose nanocrystals, Cellulose nanofibers,  Protein-based bioplastics, Algal and fungal. 
  • Analysis of market for biofuels. 
  • Analysis of types of natural fibers including plant fibers, animal fibers including alternative leather, wool, silk fiber and down and polysaccharides. 
  • Markets for natural fibers, including composites, aerospace, automotive, construction & building, sports & leisure, textiles, consumer products and packaging.
  • Production capacities of lignin producers. 
  • In depth analysis of biorefinery lignin production. 
  • Analysis of the market for bio-based, sustainable paints and coatings. 
  • Analysis of types of bio-coatings and paints market.  Including Alkyd coatings, Polyurethane coatings, Epoxy coatings, Acrylate resins, Polylactic acid (Bio-PLA), Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), Cellulose, Rosins, Biobased carbon black, Lignin, Edible coatings, Protein-based biomaterials for coatings, Alginate etc. 
  • Profiles of over 800 companies. 


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Table of Contents

1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1.1 Market trends
1.2 Global production to 2033
1.3 Main producers and global production capacities
1.3.1 Producers
1.3.2 By biobased and sustainable plastic type
1.4 Global demand for biobased and sustainable plastics 2020-21, by market
1.5 Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the bioplastics market and future demand
1.6 Challenges for the biobased and sustainable plastics market

2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3 THE GLOBAL PLASTICS MARKET
3.1 Global production
3.2 The importance of plastic
3.3 Issues with plastics use
3.4 Policy and regulations
3.5 The circular economy
3.6 Conventional polymer materials used in packaging
3.6.1 Polyolefins: Polypropylene and polyethylene
3.6.2 PET and other polyester polymers
3.6.3 Renewable and bio-based polymers for packaging
3.7 Comparison of synthetic fossil-based and bio-based polymers
3.8 End-of-life treatment of bioplastics

4 BIO-BASED CHEMICALS
4.1 Types
4.2 Production capacities
4.3 Bio-based adipic acid
4.4 11-Aminoundecanoic acid (11-AA)
4.5 1,4-Butanediol (1,4-BDO)
4.6 Dodecanedioic acid (DDDA)
4.7 Epichlorohydrin (ECH)
4.8 Ethylene
4.9 Furfural
4.10 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF)
4.11 5-Chloromethylfurfural (5-CMF)
4.12 2,5-Furandicarboxylic acid (2,5-FDCA)
4.13 Furandicarboxylic methyl ester (FDME)
4.14 Isosorbide
4.15 Itaconic acid
4.16 3-Hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP)
4.17 5 Hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF)
4.18 Lactic acid (D-LA)
4.19 Lactic acid - L-lactic acid (L-LA)
4.20 Lactide
4.21 Levoglucosenone
4.22 Levulinic acid
4.23 Monoethylene glycol (MEG)
4.24 Monopropylene glycol (MPG)
4.25 Muconic acid
4.26 Naphtha
4.27 Pentamethylene diisocyanate
4.28 1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PDO)
4.29 Sebacic acid
4.30 Succinic acid (SA)

5 BIOPOLYMERS AND BIOPLASTICS
5.1 Bio-based or renewable plastics
5.1.1 Drop-in bio-based plastics
5.1.2 Novel bio-based plastics
5.2 Biodegradable and compostable plastics
5.2.1 Biodegradability
5.2.2 Compostability
5.3 Advantages and disadvantages
5.4 Types of Bio-based and/or Biodegradable Plastics
5.5 Market leaders by biobased and/or biodegradable plastic types
5.6 Regional/country production capacities, by main types
5.6.1 Bio-based Polyethylene (Bio-PE) production capacities, by country
5.6.2 Bio-based Polyethylene terephthalate (Bio-PET) production capacities, by country
5.6.3 Bio-based polyamides (Bio-PA) production capacities, by country
5.6.4 Bio-based Polypropylene (Bio-PP) production capacities, by country
5.6.5 Bio-based Polytrimethylene terephthalate (Bio-PTT) production capacities, by country
5.6.6 Bio-based Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) production capacities, by country
5.6.7 Bio-based Polybutylene succinate (PBS) production capacities, by country
5.6.8 Bio-based Polylactic acid (PLA) production capacities, by country
5.6.9 Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production capacities, by country
5.6.10 Starch blends production capacities, by country
5.7 SYNTHETIC BIO-BASED POLYMERS
5.7.1 Polylactic acid (Bio-PLA)
5.7.1.1 Market analysis
5.7.1.2 Producers
5.7.2 Polyethylene terephthalate (Bio-PET)
5.7.2.1 Market analysis
5.7.2.2 Producers
5.7.3 Polytrimethylene terephthalate (Bio-PTT)
5.7.3.1 Market analysis
5.7.3.2 Producers
5.7.4 Polyethylene furanoate (Bio-PEF)
5.7.4.1 Market analysis
5.7.4.2 Comparative properties to PET
5.7.4.3 Producers
5.7.5 Polyamides (Bio-PA)
5.7.5.1 Market analysis
5.7.5.2 Producers
5.7.6 Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (Bio-PBAT)
5.7.6.1 Market analysis
5.7.6.2 Producers
5.7.7 Polybutylene succinate (PBS) and copolymers
5.7.7.1 Market analysis
5.7.7.2 Producers
5.7.8 Polyethylene (Bio-PE)
5.7.8.1 Market analysis
5.7.8.2 Producers
5.7.9 Polypropylene (Bio-PP)
5.7.9.1 Market analysis
5.7.9.2 Producers
5.8 NATURAL BIO-BASED POLYMERS
5.8.1 Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA)
5.8.1.1 Types
5.8.1.2 Synthesis and production processes
5.8.1.3 Market analysis
5.8.1.4 Commercially available PHAs
5.8.1.5 Markets for PHAs
5.8.1.6 Producers
5.8.2 Polysaccharides
5.8.2.1 Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC)
5.8.2.2 Cellulose nanocrystals
5.8.2.3 Cellulose nanofibers
5.8.2.4 Bacterial Nanocellulose (BNC)
5.8.3 Protein-based bioplastics
5.8.3.1 Types, applications and producers
5.8.4 Algal and fungal
5.8.4.1 Algal
5.8.4.2 Mycelium
5.8.5 Chitosan
5.8.6 Microplastics alternatives
5.9 PRODUCTION OF BIOBASED AND SUSTAINABLE PLASTICS, BY REGION
5.9.1 North America
5.9.2 Europe
5.9.3 Asia-Pacific
5.9.3.1 China
5.9.3.2 Japan
5.9.3.3 Thailand
5.9.3.4 Indonesia
5.9.4 Latin America
5.10 MARKET SEGMENTATION OF BIOPLASTICS
5.10.1 Packaging
5.10.2 Consumer products
5.10.3 Automotive
5.10.4 Building & construction
5.10.5 Textiles
5.10.6 Electronics
5.10.7 Agriculture and horticulture
5.11 BIO-BASED CHEMICALS, BIOPOLYMERS AND BIOPLASTICS COMPANY PROFILES (325 company profiles)

6 NATURAL FIBERS
6.1 Manufacturing method, matrix materials and applications of natural fibers
6.2 Advantages of natural fibers
6.3 Commercially available next-gen natural fiber products
6.4 Market drivers for next-gen natural fibers
6.5 Challenges
6.6 Plants (cellulose, lignocellulose)
6.6.1 Seed fibers
6.6.1.1 Cotton
6.6.1.2 Kapok
6.6.1.3 Luffa
6.6.2 Bast fibers
6.6.2.1 Jute
6.6.2.2 Hemp
6.6.2.3 Flax
6.6.2.4 Ramie
6.6.2.5 Kenaf
6.6.3 Leaf fibers
6.6.3.1 Sisal
6.6.3.2 Abaca
6.6.4 Fruit fibers
6.6.4.1 Coir
6.6.4.2 Banana
6.6.4.3 Pineapple
6.6.5 Stalk fibers from agricultural residues
6.6.5.1 Rice fiber
6.6.5.2 Corn
6.6.6 Cane, grasses and reed
6.6.6.1 Switch grass
6.6.6.2 Sugarcane (agricultural residues)
6.6.6.3 Bamboo
6.6.6.4 Fresh grass (green biorefinery)
6.6.7 Modified natural polymers
6.6.7.1 Mycelium
6.6.7.2 Chitosan
6.6.7.3 Alginate
6.7 Animal (fibrous protein)
6.7.1 Wool
6.7.1.1 Alternative wool materials
6.7.1.2 Producers
6.7.2 Silk fiber
6.7.2.1 Alternative silk materials
6.7.3 Leather
6.7.3.1 Alternative leather materials
6.7.4 Fur
6.7.4.1 Producers
6.7.5 Down
6.7.5.1 Alternative down materials
6.8 MARKETS FOR NATURAL FIBERS
6.8.1 Composites
6.8.2 Applications
6.8.3 Natural fiber injection moulding compounds
6.8.3.1 Properties
6.8.3.2 Applications
6.8.4 Non-woven natural fiber mat composites
6.8.4.1 Automotive
6.8.4.2 Applications
6.8.5 Aligned natural fiber-reinforced composites
6.8.6 Natural fiber biobased polymer compounds
6.8.7 Natural fiber biobased polymer non-woven mats
6.8.7.1 Flax
6.8.7.2 Kenaf
6.8.8 Natural fiber thermoset bioresin composites
6.8.9 Aerospace
6.8.9.1 Market overview
6.8.10 Automotive
6.8.10.1 Market overview
6.8.10.2 Applications of natural fibers
6.8.11 Building/construction
6.8.11.1 Market overview
6.8.11.2 Applications of natural fibers
6.8.12 Sports and leisure
6.8.12.1 Market overview
6.8.13 Textiles
6.8.13.1 Market overview
6.8.13.2 Consumer apparel
6.8.13.3 Geotextiles
6.8.14 Packaging
6.8.14.1 Market overview
6.9 NATURAL FIBERS GLOBAL PRODUCTION
6.9.1 Overall global fibers market
6.9.2 Plant-based fiber production
6.9.3 Animal-based natural fiber production
6.10 NATURAL FIBER COMPANY PROFILES (178 company profiles)

7 LIGNIN
7.1 INTRODUCTION
7.1.1 What is lignin?
7.1.1.1 Lignin structure
7.1.2 Types of lignin
7.1.2.1 Sulfur containing lignin
7.1.2.2 Sulfur-free lignin from biorefinery process
7.1.3 Properties
7.1.4 The lignocellulose biorefinery
7.1.5 Markets and applications
7.1.6 Challenges for using lignin
7.2 LIGNIN PRODUCTON PROCESSES
7.2.1 Lignosulphonates
7.2.2 Kraft Lignin
7.2.2.1 LignoBoost process
7.2.2.2 LignoForce method
7.2.2.3 Sequential Liquid Lignin Recovery and Purification
7.2.2.4 A-Recovery
7.2.3 Soda lignin
7.2.4 Biorefinery lignin
7.2.4.1 Commercial and pre-commercial biorefinery lignin production facilities and processes
7.2.5 Organosolv lignins
7.2.6 Hydrolytic lignin
7.3 MARKETS FOR LIGNIN
7.3.1 Market drivers and trends for lignin
7.3.2 Production capacities
7.3.2.1 Technical lignin availability (dry ton/y)
7.3.2.2 Biomass conversion (Biorefinery)
7.3.3 Estimated consumption of lignin
7.3.4 Prices
7.3.5 Heat and power energy
7.3.6 Pyrolysis and syngas
7.3.7 Aromatic compounds
7.3.7.1 Benzene, toluene and xylene
7.3.7.2 Phenol and phenolic resins
7.3.7.3 Vanillin
7.3.8 Plastics and polymers
7.3.9 Hydrogels
7.3.10 Carbon materials
7.3.10.1 Carbon black
7.3.10.2 Activated carbons
7.3.10.3 Carbon fiber
7.3.11 Concrete
7.3.12 Rubber
7.3.13 Biofuels
7.3.14 Bitumen and Asphalt
7.3.15 Oil and gas
7.3.16 Energy storage
7.3.16.1 Supercapacitors
7.3.16.2 Anodes for lithium-ion batteries
7.3.16.3 Gel electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries
7.3.16.4 Binders for lithium-ion batteries
7.3.16.5 Cathodes for lithium-ion batteries
7.3.16.6 Sodium-ion batteries
7.3.17 Binders, emulsifiers and dispersants
7.3.18 Chelating agents
7.3.19 Ceramics
7.3.20 Automotive interiors
7.3.21 Fire retardants
7.3.22 Antioxidants
7.3.23 Lubricants
7.3.24 Dust control
7.4 COMPANY PROFILES (75 company profiles)

8 BIOBASED AND RENEWABLE FUELS
8.1 BIOFUELS
8.1.1 The biofuels market
8.1.2 Types
8.1.2.1 Solid Biofuels
8.1.2.2 Liquid Biofuels
8.1.2.3 Gaseous Biofuels
8.1.2.4 Conventional Biofuels
8.1.2.5 Advanced Biofuels
8.1.3 Feedstocks
8.1.3.1 First-Generation Feedstocks
8.1.3.2 Second-Generation Feedstocks
8.1.3.3 Third-Generation Feedstocks
8.1.3.4 Fourth-Generation Feedstocks
8.1.3.5 Market demand
8.1.4 Bioethanol
8.1.5 Bio-jet (bio-aviation) fuels
8.1.5.1 Description
8.1.5.2 Global market
8.1.5.3 Production pathways
8.1.5.4 Costs
8.1.5.5 Biojet fuel production capacities
8.1.5.6 Challenges
8.1.6 Biomass-based diesel
8.1.6.1 Biodiesel
8.1.6.2 Renewable diesel
8.1.7 Syngas
8.1.8 Biogas and biomethane
8.1.8.1 Feedstocks
8.1.9 Biobutanol
8.1.9.1 Production
8.2 ELECTROFUELS (E-FUELS)
8.2.1 Introduction
8.2.1.1 Benefits of e-fuels
8.2.2 Feedstocks
8.2.2.1 Hydrogen electrolysis
8.2.2.2 CO2 capture
8.2.3 Production
8.2.4 Electrolysers
8.2.4.1 Commercial alkaline electrolyser cells (AECs)
8.2.4.2 PEM electrolysers (PEMEC)
8.2.4.3 High-temperature solid oxide electrolyser cells (SOECs)
8.2.5 Direct Air Capture (DAC)
8.2.5.1 Technologies
8.2.5.2 Markets for DAC
8.2.5.3 Costs
8.2.5.4 Challenges
8.2.5.5 Companies and production
8.2.5.6 CO2 capture from point sources
8.2.6 Costs
8.2.7 Market challenges
8.2.8 Companies
8.3 GREEN AMMONIA
8.3.1 Production
8.3.1.1 Decarbonisation of ammonia production
8.3.1.2 Green ammonia projects
8.3.2 Green ammonia synthesis methods
8.3.2.1 Haber-Bosch process
8.3.2.2 Biological nitrogen fixation
8.3.2.3 Electrochemical production
8.3.2.4 Chemical looping processes
8.3.3 Blue ammonia
8.3.3.1 Blue ammonia projects
8.3.4 Markets and applications
8.3.4.1 Chemical energy storage
8.3.4.2 Marine fuel
8.3.5 Costs
8.3.6 Estimated market demand
8.3.7 Companies and projects
8.4 COMPANY PROFILES (114 company profiles)

9 BIO-BASED PAINTS AND COATINGS
9.1 The global paints and coatings market
9.2 Bio-based paints and coatings
9.3 Challenges using bio-based paints and coatings
9.4 Types of bio-based coatings and materials
9.4.1 Alkyd coatings
9.4.1.1 Alkyd resin properties
9.4.1.2 Biobased alkyd coatings
9.4.1.3 Products
9.4.2 Polyurethane coatings
9.4.2.1 Properties
9.4.2.2 Biobased polyurethane coatings
9.4.2.3 Products
9.4.3 Epoxy coatings
9.4.3.1 Properties
9.4.3.2 Biobased epoxy coatings
9.4.3.3 Products
9.4.4 Acrylate resins
9.4.4.1 Properties
9.4.4.2 Biobased acrylates
9.4.4.3 Products
9.4.5 Polylactic acid (Bio-PLA)
9.4.5.1 Properties
9.4.5.2 Bio-PLA coatings and films
9.4.6 Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA)
9.4.6.1 Properties
9.4.6.2 PHA coatings
9.4.6.3 Commercially available PHAs
9.4.7 Cellulose
9.4.7.1 Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC)
9.4.7.2 Cellulose nanofibers
9.4.7.3 Cellulose nanocrystals
9.4.7.4 Bacterial Nanocellulose (BNC)
9.4.8 Rosins
9.4.9 Biobased carbon black
9.4.9.1 Lignin-based
9.4.9.2 Algae-based
9.4.10 Lignin
9.4.10.1 Application in coatings
9.4.11 Edible coatings
9.4.12 Protein-based biomaterials for coatings
9.4.12.1 Plant derived proteins
9.4.12.2 Animal origin proteins
9.4.13 Alginate
9.5 Market for bio-based paints and coatings
9.5.1 Global market revenues to 2033, total
9.5.2 Global market revenues to 2033, by market
9.6 Company profiles (130 company profiles)

10 REFERENCES
List of Tables
Table 1. Market drivers and trends in biobased and sustainable plastics.
Table 2. Global production capacities of biobased and sustainable plastics 2018-2033, in 1,000 tons.
Table 3. Global production capacities, by producers.
Table 4. Global production capacities of biobased and sustainable plastics 2019-2033, by type, in 1,000 tons.
Table 5. Issues related to the use of plastics.
Table 6. Types of bio-based plastics and fossil-fuel-based plastics
Table 7. Comparison of synthetic fossil-based and bio-based polymers.
Table 8. List of Bio-based chemicals.
Table 9. Biobased MEG producers capacities.
Table 10. Type of biodegradation.
Table 11. Advantages and disadvantages of biobased plastics compared to conventional plastics.
Table 12. Types of Bio-based and/or Biodegradable Plastics, applications.
Table 13. Market leader by Bio-based and/or Biodegradable Plastic types.
Table 14. Bioplastics regional production capacities to 2030, 1,000 tons, 2019-2033.
Table 15. Polylactic acid (PLA) market analysis.
Table 16. Lactic acid producers and production capacities.
Table 17. PLA producers and production capacities.
Table 18. Planned PLA capacity expansions in China.
Table 19. Bio-based Polyethylene terephthalate (Bio-PET) market analysis.
Table 20. Bio-based Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) producers.
Table 21. Polytrimethylene terephthalate (PTT) market analysis.
Table 22. Production capacities of Polytrimethylene terephthalate (PTT), by leading producers.
Table 23. Polyethylene furanoate (PEF) market analysis.
Table 24. PEF vs. PET.
Table 25. FDCA and PEF producers.
Table 26. Bio-based polyamides (Bio-PA) market analysis.
Table 27. Leading Bio-PA producers production capacities.
Table 28. Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) market analysis.
Table 29. Leading PBAT producers, production capacities and brands.
Table 30. Bio-PBS market analysis.
Table 31. Leading PBS producers and production capacities.
Table 32. Bio-based Polyethylene (Bio-PE) market analysis.
Table 33. Leading Bio-PE producers.
Table 34. Bio-PP market analysis.
Table 35. Leading Bio-PP producers and capacities.
Table 36.Types of PHAs and properties.
Table 37. Comparison of the physical properties of different PHAs with conventional petroleum-based polymers.
Table 38. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) extraction methods.
Table 39. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) market analysis.
Table 40. Commercially available PHAs.
Table 41. Markets and applications for PHAs.
Table 42. Applications, advantages and disadvantages of PHAs in packaging.
Table 43. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) producers.
Table 44. Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) market analysis.
Table 45. Leading MFC producers and capacities.
Table 46. Synthesis methods for cellulose nanocrystals (CNC).
Table 47. CNC sources, size and yield.
Table 48. CNC properties.
Table 49. Mechanical properties of CNC and other reinforcement materials.
Table 50. Applications of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC).
Table 51. Cellulose nanocrystals analysis.
Table 52: Cellulose nanocrystal production capacities and production process, by producer.
Table 53. Applications of cellulose nanofibers (CNF).
Table 54. Cellulose nanofibers market analysis.
Table 55. CNF production capacities (by type, wet or dry) and production process, by producer, metric tonnes.
Table 56. Applications of bacterial nanocellulose (BNC).
Table 57. Types of protein based-bioplastics, applications and companies.
Table 58. Types of algal and fungal based-bioplastics, applications and companies.
Table 59. Overview of alginate-description, properties, application and market size.
Table 60. Companies developing algal-based bioplastics.
Table 61. Overview of mycelium fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.
Table 62. Companies developing mycelium-based bioplastics.
Table 63. Overview of chitosan-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.
Table 64. Global production capacities of biobased and sustainable plastics in 2019-2033, by region, tons.
Table 65. Biobased and sustainable plastics producers in North America.
Table 66. Biobased and sustainable plastics producers in Europe.
Table 67. Biobased and sustainable plastics producers in Asia-Pacific.
Table 68. Biobased and sustainable plastics producers in Latin America.
Table 69. Granbio Nanocellulose Processes.
Table 70. Lactips plastic pellets.
Table 71. Oji Holdings CNF products.
Table 72. Types of next-gen natural fibers.
Table 73. Application, manufacturing method, and matrix materials of natural fibers.
Table 74. Typical properties of natural fibers.
Table 75. Commercially available next-gen natural fiber products.
Table 76. Market drivers for natural fibers.
Table 77. Overview of cotton fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.
Table 78. Overview of kapok fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.
Table 79. Overview of luffa fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.
Table 80. Overview of jute fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.
Table 81. Overview of hemp fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.
Table 82. Overview of flax fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.
Table 83. Overview of ramie fibers- description, properties, drawbacks and applications.
Table 84. Overview of kenaf fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.
Table 85. Overview of sisal leaf fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.
Table 86. Overview of abaca fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.
Table 87. Overview of coir fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.
Table 88. Overview of banana fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.
Table 89. Overview of pineapple fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.
Table 90. Overview of rice fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.
Table 91. Overview of corn fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.
Table 92. Overview of switch grass fibers-description, properties and applications.
Table 93. Overview of sugarcane fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and application and market size.
Table 94. Overview of bamboo fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.
Table 95. Overview of mycelium fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.
Table 96. Overview of chitosan fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.
Table 97. Overview of alginate-description, properties, application and market size.
Table 98. Overview of wool fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.
Table 99. Alternative wool materials producers.
Table 100. Overview of silk fibers-description, properties, application and market size.
Table 101. Alternative silk materials producers.
Table 102. Alternative leather materials producers.
Table 103. Next-gen fur producers.
Table 104. Alternative down materials producers.
Table 105. Applications of natural fiber composites.
Table 106. Typical properties of short natural fiber-thermoplastic composites.
Table 107. Properties of non-woven natural fiber mat composites.
Table 108. Properties of aligned natural fiber composites.
Table 109. Properties of natural fiber-bio-based polymer compounds.
Table 110. Properties of natural fiber-bio-based polymer non-woven mats.
Table 111. Natural fibers in the aerospace sector-market drivers, applications and challenges for NF use.
Table 112. Natural fiber-reinforced polymer composite in the automotive market.
Table 113. Natural fibers in the aerospace sector- market drivers, applications and challenges for NF use.
Table 114. Applications of natural fibers in the automotive industry.
Table 115. Natural fibers in the building/construction sector- market drivers, applications and challenges for NF use.
Table 116. Applications of natural fibers in the building/construction sector.
Table 117. Natural fibers in the sports and leisure sector-market drivers, applications and challenges for NF use.
Table 118. Natural fibers in the textiles sector- market drivers, applications and challenges for NF use.
Table 119. Natural fibers in the packaging sector-market drivers, applications and challenges for NF use.
Table 120. Granbio Nanocellulose Processes.
Table 121. Oji Holdings CNF products.
Table 122. Technical lignin types and applications.
Table 123. Classification of technical lignins.
Table 124. Lignin content of selected biomass.
Table 125. Properties of lignins and their applications.
Table 126. Example markets and applications for lignin.
Table 127. Processes for lignin production.
Table 128. Biorefinery feedstocks.
Table 129. Comparison of pulping and biorefinery lignins.
Table 130. Commercial and pre-commercial biorefinery lignin production facilities and processes
Table 131. Market drivers and trends for lignin.
Table 132. Production capacities of technical lignin producers.
Table 133. Production capacities of biorefinery lignin producers.
Table 134. Estimated consumption of lignin, 2019-2033 (000 MT).
Table 135. Prices of benzene, toluene, xylene and their derivatives.
Table 136. Application of lignin in plastics and polymers.
Table 137. Lignin-derived anodes in lithium batteries.
Table 138. Application of lignin in binders, emulsifiers and dispersants.
Table 139. Categories and examples of solid biofuel.
Table 140. Comparison of biofuels and e-fuels to fossil and electricity.
Table 141. Biorefinery feedstocks.
Table 142. Feedstock conversion pathways.
Table 143. First-Generation Feedstocks.
Table 144. Lignocellulosic ethanol plants and capacities.
Table 145. Comparison of pulping and biorefinery lignins.
Table 146. Commercial and pre-commercial biorefinery lignin production facilities and processes
Table 147. Operating and planned lignocellulosic biorefineries and industrial flue gas-to-ethanol.
Table 148. Properties of microalgae and macroalgae.
Table 149. Yield of algae and other biodiesel crops.
Table 150. Advantages and disadvantages of biofuels, by generation.
Table 151. Advantages and disadvantages of biojet fuel
Table 152. Production pathways for bio-jet fuel.
Table 153. Current and announced biojet fuel facilities and capacities.
Table 154, Biodiesel production techniques.
Table 155. Biodiesel by generation.
Table 156. Biogas feedstocks.
Table 157. Applications of e-fuels, by type.
Table 158. Overview of e-fuels.
Table 159. Benefits of e-fuels.
Table 160. Main characteristics of different electrolyzer technologies.
Table 161. Advantages and disadvantages of DAC.
Table 162. DAC companies and technologies.
Table 163. Markets for DAC.
Table 164. Cost estimates of DAC.
Table 165. Challenges for DAC technology.
Table 166. DAC technology developers and production.
Table 167. Market challenges for e-fuels.
Table 168. E-fuels companies.
Table 169. Green ammonia projects (current and planned).
Table 170. Blue ammonia projects.
Table 171. Ammonia fuel cell technologies.
Table 172. Market overview of green ammonia in marine fuel.
Table 173. Summary of marine alternative fuels.
Table 174. Estimated costs for different types of ammonia.
Table 175. Main players in green ammonia.
Table 176. Granbio Nanocellulose Processes.
Table 177. Types of alkyd resins and properties.
Table 178. Market summary for biobased alkyd coatings-raw materials, advantages, disadvantages, applications and producers.
Table 179. Biobased alkyd coating products.
Table 180. Types of polyols.
Table 181. Polyol producers.
Table 182. Biobased polyurethane coating products.
Table 183. Market summary for biobased epoxy resins.
Table 184. Biobased polyurethane coating products.
Table 185. Biobased acrylate resin products.
Table 186. Polylactic acid (PLA) market analysis.
Table 187. PLA producers and production capacities.
Table 188. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) market analysis.
Table 189.Types of PHAs and properties.
Table 190. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) producers.
Table 191. Commercially available PHAs.
Table 192. Properties of micro/nanocellulose, by type.
Table 193. Types of nanocellulose.
Table 194: MFC production capacities (by type, wet or dry) and production process, by producer, metric tonnes.
Table 195. Market overview for cellulose nanofibers in paints and coatings.
Table 196. Companies developing cellulose nanofibers products in paints and coatings.
Table 197. CNC properties.
Table 198: Cellulose nanocrystal capacities (by type, wet or dry) and production process, by producer, metric tonnes.
Table 199. Edible coatings market summary.
Table 200. Types of protein based-biomaterials, applications and companies.
Table 201. Overview of alginate-description, properties, application and market size.
Table 202. Global market revenues for biobased paints and coatings, 2018-2031 (billions USD).
Table 203. Market revenues for biobased paints and coatings, 2018-2031 (billions USD), conservative estimate.
Table 204. Market revenues for biobased paints and coatings, 2018-2031 (billions USD), high estimate.
Table 205. Oji Holdings CNF products.

List of Figures
Figure 1. Total global production capacities for biobased and sustainable plastics, all types, 000 tons.
Figure 2. Global production capacities of bioplastics 2018-2033, in 1,000 tons by biodegradable/non-biodegradable types.
Figure 3. Global production capacities of biobased and sustainable plastics in 2019-2033, by type, in 1,000 tons.
Figure 4. Global production capacities of bioplastics in 2019-2033, by type.
Figure 5. Global production capacities of biobased and sustainable plastics 2019-2033, by region, tonnes.
Figure 6. Global demand for biobased and sustainable plastics by end user market, 2021
Figure 7. Global production capacities for biobased and sustainable plastics by end user market 2019-2033, tons.
Figure 8. Current and future applications of biobased and sustainable plastics.
Figure 9. Global demand for biobased and sustainable plastics by end user market, 2021.
Figure 10. Challenges for the biobased and sustainable plastics market.
Figure 11. Global plastics production 1950-2018, millions of tons.
Figure 12. The circular plastic economy.
Figure 13. Routes for synthesizing polymers from fossil-based and bio-based resources.
Figure 14. Bio-based chemicals production capacities, 2018-2033.
Figure 15. Overview of Toray process. Overview of process
Figure 16. 1,4-Butanediol (BDO) production capacities, 2018-2033 (tonnes).
Figure 17. Dodecanedioic acid (DDDA) production capacities, 2018-2033 (tonnes).
Figure 18. Epichlorohydrin production capacities, 2018-2033 (tonnes).
Figure 19. Ethylene production capacities, 2018-2033 (tonnes).
Figure 20. Potential industrial uses of 3-hydroxypropanoic acid.
Figure 21. L-lactic acid (L-LA) production capacities, 2018-2033 (tonnes).96
Figure 22. Lactide production capacities, 2018-2033 (tonnes).
Figure 23. Bio-MEG producers capacities.
Figure 24. Bio-MPG production capacities, 2018-2033.
Figure 25. Naphtha production capacities, 2018-2033 (tonnes).
Figure 26. 1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PDO) production capacities, 2018-2033 (tonnes).
Figure 27. Sebacic acid production capacities, 2018-2033 (tonnes).
Figure 28. Coca-Cola PlantBottle®.
Figure 29. Interrelationship between conventional, bio-based and biodegradable plastics.
Figure 30. Bioplastics regional production capacities to 2030, 1,000 tons, 2019-2033.
Figure 31. Bio-based Polyethylene (Bio-PE), 1,000 tons, 2019-2033.
Figure 32. Bio-based Polyethylene terephthalate (Bio-PET) production capacities, 1,000 tons, 2019-2033
Figure 33. Bio-based polyamides (Bio-PA) production capacities, 1,000 tons, 2019-2033.
Figure 34. Bio-based Polypropylene (Bio-PP) production capacities, 1,000 tons, 2019-2033.
Figure 35. Bio-based Polytrimethylene terephthalate (Bio-PTT) production capacities, 1,000 tons, 2019-2033.
Figure 36. Bio-based Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) production capacities, 1,000 tons, 2019-2033.
Figure 37. Bio-based Polybutylene succinate (PBS) production capacities, 1,000 tons, 2019-2033.
Figure 38. Bio-based Polylactic acid (PLA) production capacities, 1,000 tons, 2019-2033.
Figure 39. PHA production capacities, 1,000 tons, 2019-2033.
Figure 40. Starch blends production capacities, 1,000 tons, 2019-2033.
Figure 41. Production capacities of Polyethylene furanoate (PEF) to 2025.
Figure 42. PHA family.
Figure 43. TEM image of cellulose nanocrystals.
Figure 44. CNC preparation.
Figure 45. Extracting CNC from trees.
Figure 46. CNC slurry.
Figure 47. CNF gel.
Figure 48. Bacterial nanocellulose shapes
Figure 49. BLOOM masterbatch from Algix.
Figure 50. Typical structure of mycelium-based foam.
Figure 51. Commercial mycelium composite construction materials.
Figure 52. Global production capacities of biobased and sustainable plastics 2020.
Figure 53. Global production capacities of biobased and sustainable plastics 2033.
Figure 54. Global production capacities for biobased and sustainable plastics by end user market 2019, 1,000 tons.
Figure 55. Global production capacities for biobased and sustainable plastics by end user market 2020, 1,000 tons.
Figure 56. Global production capacities for biobased and sustainable plastics by end user market 2030
Figure 57. PHA bioplastics products.
Figure 58. Global production capacities for biobased and sustainable plastics in packaging 2019-2033, in 1,000 tons.
Figure 59. Global production capacities for biobased and sustainable plastics in consumer products 2019-2033, in 1,000 tons.
Figure 60. Global production capacities for biobased and sustainable plastics in automotive 2019-2033, in 1,000 tons.
Figure 61. Global production capacities for biobased and sustainable plastics in building and construction 2019-2033, in 1,000 tons.
Figure 62. Global production capacities for biobased and sustainable plastics in textiles 2019-2033, in 1,000 tons.
Figure 63. Global production capacities for biobased and sustainable plastics in electronics 2019-2033, in 1,000 tons.
Figure 64. Biodegradable mulch films.
Figure 65. Global production capacities for biobased and sustainable plastics in agriculture 2019-2033, in 1,000 tons.
Figure 66. Algiknit yarn.
Figure 67. Bio-PA rear bumper stay.
Figure 68. BIOLO e-commerce mailer bag made from PHA.
Figure 69. Reusable and recyclable foodservice cups, lids, and straws from Joinease Hong Kong Ltd., made with plant-based NuPlastiQ BioPolymer from BioLogiQ, Inc.
Figure 70. formicobio™ technology.
Figure 71. nanoforest-S.
Figure 72. nanoforest-PDP.
Figure 73. nanoforest-MB.
Figure 74. CuanSave film.
Figure 75. ELLEX products.
Figure 76. CNF-reinforced PP compounds.
Figure 77. Kirekira! toilet wipes.
Figure 78. Mushroom leather.
Figure 79. Cellulose Nanofiber (CNF) composite with polyethylene (PE).
Figure 80. PHA production process.
Figure 81. Cutlery samples (spoon, knife, fork) made of nano cellulose and biodegradable plastic composite materials.
Figure 82. Non-aqueous CNF dispersion "Senaf" (Photo shows 5% of plasticizer).
Figure 83. CNF gel.
Figure 84. Block nanocellulose material.
Figure 85. CNF products developed by Hokuetsu.
Figure 86. Made of Air's HexChar panels.
Figure 87. TransLeather.
Figure 88. IPA synthesis method.
Figure 89. MOGU-Wave panels.
Figure 90. Reishi.
Figure 91. Nippon Paper Industries’ adult diapers.
Figure 92. Compostable water pod.
Figure 93. CNF clear sheets.
Figure 94. Oji Holdings CNF polycarbonate product.
Figure 95. Manufacturing process for STARCEL.
Figure 96. Lyocell process.
Figure 97. Spider silk production.
Figure 98. Sulapac cosmetics containers.
Figure 99. Sulzer equipment for PLA polymerization processing.
Figure 100. Teijin bioplastic film for door handles.
Figure 101. Corbion FDCA production process.
Figure 102. Visolis’ Hybrid Bio-Thermocatalytic Process.
Figure 103. Types of natural fibers.
Figure 104. Absolut natural based fiber bottle cap.
Figure 105. Adidas algae-ink tees.
Figure 106. Carlsberg natural fiber beer bottle.
Figure 107. Miratex watch bands.
Figure 108. Adidas Made with Nature Ultraboost 22.
Figure 109. PUMA RE:SUEDE sneaker
Figure 110. Cotton production volume 2018-2033 (Million MT).
Figure 111. Kapok production volume 2018-2033 (MT).
Figure 112. Luffa cylindrica fiber.
Figure 113. Jute production volume 2018-2033 (Million MT).
Figure 114. Hemp fiber production volume 2018-2033 ( MT).
Figure 115. Flax fiber production volume 2018-2033 (MT).
Figure 116. Ramie fiber production volume 2018-2033 (MT).
Figure 117. Kenaf fiber production volume 2018-2033 (MT).
Figure 118. Sisal fiber production volume 2018-2033 (MT).
Figure 119. Abaca fiber production volume 2018-2033 (MT).
Figure 120. Coir fiber production volume 2018-2033 (MILLION MT).
Figure 121. Banana fiber production volume 2018-2033 (MT).
Figure 122. Pineapple fiber.
Figure 123. A bag made with pineapple biomaterial from the H&M Conscious Collection 2019.
Figure 124. Bamboo fiber production volume 2018-2033 (MILLION MT).
Figure 125. Typical structure of mycelium-based foam.
Figure 126. Commercial mycelium composite construction materials.
Figure 127. Frayme Mylo™?.
Figure 128. BLOOM masterbatch from Algix.
Figure 129. Conceptual landscape of next-gen leather materials.
Figure 130. Hemp fibers combined with PP in car door panel.
Figure 131. Car door produced from Hemp fiber.
Figure 132. Mercedes-Benz components containing natural fibers.
Figure 133. AlgiKicks sneaker, made with the Algiknit biopolymer gel.
Figure 134. Coir mats for erosion control.
Figure 135. Global fiber production in 2021, by fiber type, million MT and %.
Figure 136. Global fiber production (million MT) to 2020-2033.
Figure 137. Plant-based fiber production 2018-2033, by fiber type, MT.
Figure 138. Animal based fiber production 2018-2033, by fiber type, million MT.
Figure 139. Pluumo.
Figure 140. Algiknit yarn.
Figure 141. Amadou leather shoes.
Figure 142. Anpoly cellulose nanofiber hydrogel.
Figure 143. MEDICELLU™.
Figure 144. Asahi Kasei CNF fabric sheet.
Figure 145. Properties of Asahi Kasei cellulose nanofiber nonwoven fabric.
Figure 146. CNF nonwoven fabric.
Figure 147. Roof frame made of natural fiber.
Figure 148.Tras Rei chair incorporating ampliTex fibers.
Figure 149. Natural fibres racing seat.
Figure 150. Porche Cayman GT4 Clubsport incorporating BComp flax fibers.
Figure 151. Beyond Leather Materials product.
Figure 152. Fiber-based screw cap.
Figure 153. Cellugy materials.
Figure 154. nanoforest-S.
Figure 155. nanoforest-PDP.
Figure 156. nanoforest-MB.
Figure 157. CuanSave film.
Figure 158. Celish.
Figure 159. Trunk lid incorporating CNF.
Figure 160. ELLEX products.
Figure 161. CNF-reinforced PP compounds.
Figure 162. Kirekira! toilet wipes.
Figure 163. Color CNF.
Figure 164. Rheocrysta spray.
Figure 165. DKS CNF products.
Figure 166. Mushroom leather.
Figure 167. CNF based on citrus peel.
Figure 168. Citrus cellulose nanofiber.
Figure 169. Filler Bank CNC products.
Figure 170. Fibers on kapok tree and after processing.
Figure 171. Water-repellent cellulose.
Figure 172. Cellulose Nanofiber (CNF) composite with polyethylene (PE).
Figure 173. CNF products from Furukawa Electric.
Figure 174. Cutlery samples (spoon, knife, fork) made of nano cellulose and biodegradable plastic composite materials.
Figure 175. Non-aqueous CNF dispersion "Senaf" (Photo shows 5% of plasticizer).
Figure 176. CNF gel.
Figure 177. Block nanocellulose material.
Figure 178. CNF products developed by Hokuetsu.
Figure 179. Marine leather products.
Figure 180. Inner Mettle Milk products.
Figure 181. Dual Graft System.
Figure 182. Engine cover utilizing Kao CNF composite resins.
Figure 183. Acrylic resin blended with modified CNF (fluid) and its molded product (transparent film), and image obtained with AFM (CNF 10wt% blended).
Figure 184. Kami Shoji CNF products.
Figure 185. 0.3% aqueous dispersion of sulfated esterified CNF and dried transparent film (front side).
Figure 186. Nike Algae Ink graphic tee.
Figure 187. BioFlex process.
Figure 188. TransLeather.
Figure 189. Chitin nanofiber product.
Figure 190. Marusumi Paper cellulose nanofiber products.
Figure 191. FibriMa cellulose nanofiber powder.628
Figure 192. Cellulomix production process.
Figure 193. Nanobase versus conventional products.
Figure 194. MOGU-Wave panels.
Figure 195. CNF slurries.
Figure 196. Range of CNF products.
Figure 197. Reishi.
Figure 198. Natural Fiber Welding, Inc. materials.
Figure 199. Nippon Paper Industries’ adult diapers.
Figure 200. Leather made from leaves.
Figure 201. Nike shoe with beLEAF™.
Figure 202. CNF clear sheets.
Figure 203. Oji Holdings CNF polycarbonate product.
Figure 204. Fabric consisting of 70 per cent wool and 30 per cent Qmilk.
Figure 205. XCNF.
Figure 206. LOVR hemp leather.
Figure 207. CNF insulation flat plates.
Figure 208. Manufacturing process for STARCEL.
Figure 209. 3D printed cellulose shoe.
Figure 210. Lyocell process.
Figure 211. North Face Spiber Moon Parka.
Figure 212. PANGAIA LAB NXT GEN Hoodie.
Figure 213. Spider silk production.
Figure 214. 2 wt.% CNF suspension.
Figure 215. BiNFi-s Dry Powder.
Figure 216. BiNFi-s Dry Powder and Propylene (PP) Complex Pellet.
Figure 217. Silk nanofiber (right) and cocoon of raw material.
Figure 218. Sulapac cosmetics containers.
Figure 219. Comparison of weight reduction effect using CNF.
Figure 220. CNF resin products.
Figure 221. Vegea production process.
Figure 222. HefCel-coated wood (left) and untreated wood (right) after 30 seconds flame test.
Figure 223. Bio-based barrier bags prepared from Tempo-CNF coated bio-HDPE film.
Figure 224. Worn Again products.
Figure 225. Zelfo Technology GmbH CNF production process.
Figure 226. High purity lignin.
Figure 227. Lignocellulose architecture.
Figure 228. Extraction processes to separate lignin from lignocellulosic biomass and corresponding technical lignins.
Figure 229. The lignocellulose biorefinery.
Figure 230. LignoBoost process.
Figure 231. LignoForce system for lignin recovery from black liquor.
Figure 232. Sequential liquid-lignin recovery and purification (SLPR) system.
Figure 233. A-Recovery chemical recovery concept.
Figure 234. Schematic of a biorefinery for production of carriers and chemicals.
Figure 235. Organosolv lignin.
Figure 236. Hydrolytic lignin powder.
Figure 237. Estimated consumption of lignin, 2019-2033 (000 MT).
Figure 238. Schematic of WISA plywood home.
Figure 239. Lignin based activated carbon.
Figure 240. Lignin/celluose precursor.
Figure 241. ANDRITZ Lignin Recovery process.
Figure 242. DAWN Technology Process.
Figure 243. BALI™ technology.
Figure 244. Pressurized Hot Water Extraction.
Figure 245. sunliquid® production process.
Figure 246. Domsjö process.
Figure 247. TMP-Bio Process.
Figure 248. Flow chart of the lignocellulose biorefinery pilot plant in Leuna.
Figure 249. AVAPTM process.
Figure 250. GreenPower ™ process.
Figure 251. BioFlex process.
Figure 252. LX Process.
Figure 253. METNIN™ Lignin refining technology.
Figure 254. Enfinity cellulosic ethanol technology process.
Figure 255: Plantrose process.
Figure 256. Hansa lignin.
Figure 257. Stora Enso lignin battery materials.
Figure 258. UPM biorefinery process.
Figure 259. The Proesa® Process.
Figure 260. Goldilocks process and applications.
Figure 261. Schematic of a biorefinery for production of carriers and chemicals.
Figure 262. Hydrolytic lignin powder.
Figure 263. Liquid biofuel production and consumption (in thousands of m3), 2000-2021.
Figure 264. Distribution of global liquid biofuel production in 2021.
Figure 265. Ethanol consumption 2010-2027 (million litres).
Figure 266. Global bio-jet fuel consumption 2010-2027 (M litres/year).
Figure 267. Global biodiesel consumption, 2010-2027 (M litres/year).
Figure 268. Global renewable diesel consumption, 2010-2027 (M litres/year).
Figure 269. Total syngas market by product in MM Nm³/h of Syngas, 2021.
Figure 270. Biogas and biomethane pathways.
Figure 271. Properties of petrol and biobutanol.
Figure 272. Biobutanol production route.
Figure 273. Process steps in the production of electrofuels.
Figure 274. Mapping storage technologies according to performance characteristics.
Figure 275. Production process for green hydrogen.
Figure 276. E-liquids production routes.864
Figure 277. Fischer-Tropsch liquid e-fuel products.
Figure 278. Resources required for liquid e-fuel production.
Figure 279. Schematic of Climeworks DAC system.
Figure 280. Levelized cost and fuel-switching CO2 prices of e-fuels.
Figure 281. Cost breakdown for e-fuels.
Figure 282. Classification and process technology according to carbon emission in ammonia production.
Figure 283. Green ammonia production and use.
Figure 284. Schematic of the Haber Bosch ammonia synthesis reaction.
Figure 285. Schematic of hydrogen production via steam methane reformation.
Figure 286. Estimated production cost of green ammonia.
Figure 287. Projected annual ammonia production, million tons.
Figure 288. ANDRITZ Lignin Recovery process.
Figure 289. FBPO process
Figure 290. Direct Air Capture Process.
Figure 291. CRI process.
Figure 292. Domsjö process.
Figure 293. FuelPositive system.
Figure 294. Infinitree swing method.
Figure 295. Enfinity cellulosic ethanol technology process.
Figure 296: Plantrose process.
Figure 297. The Velocys process.
Figure 298. Goldilocks process and applications.
Figure 299. Paints and coatings industry by market segmentation 2019-2020.
Figure 300. PHA family.
Figure 301: Schematic diagram of partial molecular structure of cellulose chain with numbering for carbon atoms and n= number of cellobiose repeating unit.
Figure 302: Scale of cellulose materials.
Figure 303. Nanocellulose preparation methods and resulting materials.
Figure 304: Relationship between different kinds of nanocelluloses.
Figure 305. Hefcel-coated wood (left) and untreated wood (right) after 30 seconds flame test.
Figure 306: CNC slurry.
Figure 307. High purity lignin.
Figure 308. BLOOM masterbatch from Algix.
Figure 309. Global market revenues for biobased paints and coatings, 2018-2033 (billions USD).
Figure 310. Market revenues for biobased paints and coatings, 2018-2033 (billions USD), conservative estimate.
Figure 311. Market revenues for biobased paints and coatings, 2018-2033 (billions USD), high
Figure 312. Dulux Better Living Air Clean Biobased.
Figure 313: NCCTM Process.
Figure 314: CNC produced at Tech Futures’ pilot plant; cloudy suspension (1 wt.%), gel-like (10 wt.%), flake-like crystals, and very fine powder. Product advantages include:
Figure 315. Cellugy materials.
Figure 316. EcoLine® 3690 (left) vs Solvent-Based Competitor Coating (right).
Figure 317. Rheocrysta spray.
Figure 318. DKS CNF products.
Figure 319. Domsjö process.
Figure 320. CNF gel.
Figure 321. Block nanocellulose material.
Figure 322. CNF products developed by Hokuetsu.
Figure 323. BioFlex process.
Figure 324. Marusumi Paper cellulose nanofiber products.
Figure 325: Fluorene cellulose ® powder.
Figure 326. XCNF.
Figure 327. Spider silk production.
Figure 328. CNF dispersion and powder from Starlite.
Figure 329. 2 wt.% CNF suspension.
Figure 330. BiNFi-s Dry Powder.
Figure 331. BiNFi-s Dry Powder and Propylene (PP) Complex Pellet.
Figure 332. Silk nanofiber (right) and cocoon of raw material.
Figure 333. HefCel-coated wood (left) and untreated wood (right) after 30 seconds flame test.
Figure 334. Bio-based barrier bags prepared from Tempo-CNF coated bio-HDPE film.
Figure 335. Bioalkyd products.

Companies Mentioned

A selection of companies mentioned in this report includes:

  • BIOLO 
  • Marea 
  • MYCL 
  • NefFa 
  • Oimo 
  • Uluu 
  • 3M 
  • Enkev 
  • Evrnu 
  • Lixea 
  • MYCL 
  • NefFa 
  • Oimo 
  • Toray 
  • CIMV 
  • Lixea 
  • Biofy 
  • Neste 
  • Lixea 
  • Mondi 
  • mori 
  • Omya 
  • PPG 
  • Sappi 
  • Azolla 
  • Bioweg 
  • B-PREG 
  • DuPont 
  • Inovyn 
  • Ioniqa 
  • LAM’ON 
  • Mobius 
  • NatPol 
  • Notpla 
  • Tômtex 
  • Vynova 
  • Xampla 
  • B-PREG 
  • Ecopel 
  • Flocus 
  • Icytos 
  • Oleago 
  • Qorium 
  • Tômtex 
  • Zvnder 
  • Mobius 
  • St1 Oy 
  • DuPont 
  • SkyNRG 
  • St1 Oy 
  • Orineo 
  • RenCom AB 
  • NeoZeo AB 
  • Ananas Anam Ltd. 
  • Biojet AS 
  • Tenbro Bamboo Company 
  • Global Bioenergies SA 
  • Tianan Biologic Material Co., Ltd. 
  • Paques Biomaterials 
  • Arctic Biomaterials Oy 
  • Cardia Bioplastics Ltd. 
  • MedPHA Bio-Tech Co., Ltd. 
  • BluCon Biotech GmbH 
  • Toyota Boshoku Corporation 
  • Mylium BV 
  • Vibers BV 
  • Wanhua Chemical Group Co., Ltd. 
  • Mitsui Chemicals, inc. 
  • Wacker Chemie AG 
  • Sulzer Chemtech AG 
  • Toyobo Co., Ltd. 
  • Nature Coatings, Inc. 
  • Carbon Collect Limited 
  • Chemol Company (Seydel) 
  • Arzeda Corp. 
  • Kaneka Corporation 
  • Daicel Corporation 
  • Cortec Corporation 
  • Kraton Corporation 
  • Carbon Crusher 
  • Archer Daniel Midland Company (ADM) 
  • Nordic ElectroFuel 
  • Qairos Energies 
  • Vertus Energy Ltd. 
  • Mehler Engineered Products GmbH 
  • Carbon Engineering Ltd. 
  • Domsjö Fabriker AB 
  • Orange Fiber S.r.l. 
  • Plafco Fibertech Oy 
  • AMSilk GmbH 
  • Q-milk GmbH 
  • Xillix GmbH 
  • allnex GmbH 
  • AMSilk GmbH 
  • BIOTEC GmbH & Co. KG 
  • Grabio Greentech Corporation 
  • Radici Group 
  • Sirmax Group 
  • Anqing He Xing Chemical Co., Ltd. 
  • Ningbo Huanyang Chemical Co., Ltd. 
  • Holmen Iggesund 
  • Lygos, Inc 
  • Hexion Inc 
  • Virent Inc. 
  • C-Zero Inc. 
  • Virent Inc. 
  • Cathay Industrial Biotech, Ltd. 
  • Lignin Industries 
  • Evonik Industries AG 
  • Living Ink 
  • Living Ink Technologies 
  • Marine Innovation Co., Ltd 
  • Beyond Leather Materials ApS 
  • Shanxi Leda Biochemical Co., Ltd. 
  • Teijin Ltd 
  • Woodly Ltd. 
  • Sugino Machine Limited 
  • Seevix Material Sciences Ltd. 
  • Honext Material SL 
  • Origin Materials 
  • Modern Meadow, Inc. 
  • Amadou Mushroom Leather 
  • Marine Nanofiber Co., Ltd. 
  • Circla Nordic 
  • Metgen Oy 
  • Valmet Oyj 
  • Domtar Paper Company LLC 
  • Nippon Paper Industries 
  • Nippon Paper Industries, Co. Ltd. 
  • Hengli Petrochemical 
  • Daicel Polymer Ltd. 
  • Proton Power, Inc. 
  • Carbon Recycling International 
  • PRISMA Renewable Composites 
  • Ecovia Renewables 
  • Celtic Renewables Ltd. 
  • Tandem Repeat 
  • Arkema S.A 
  • Klabin S.A. 
  • Arkema S.A. 
  • Imerys S.A. 
  • Solvay SA 
  • Suzano SA 
  • Solvay SA 
  • Kusano Sakko K.K. 
  • Masuko Sangyo Co., Ltd. 
  • Zolpan SAS 
  • Kingfa Sci. & Tech. Co. Ltd. 
  • Norske Skog AS 
  • AGRANA Staerke GmbH 
  • Modern Synthesis 
  • DuPont Tate & Lyle Bio Products Co., LLC 
  • DuPont Tate & Lyle, LLC 
  • Teysha Technologies Limited 
  • Spidey Tek 
  • Ningbo Tianan Biologic Material 
  • Haldor Topsoe A/S 
  • VERBIO Vereinigte BioEnergie AG 
  • Liquid Wind 
  • JinHui ZhaoLang High Technology Co., Ltd. 
  • Shanxi Zhengang Chemical Co., Ltd. 
  • 9Fiber, Inc. 
  • Kalion, Inc. 
  • Nabaco, Inc. 
  • Oakbio, Inc. 
  • Spiber, Inc. 
  • 9Fiber, Inc. 
  • ANPOLY, Inc. 
  • Spiber, Inc. 
  • Amyris, Inc. 
  • Nabaco, Inc. 
  • DKS Co. Ltd. 
  • TBM Co., Ltd. 
  • Mogu S.r.l. 
  • Labema® Laboratories 
  • Yield10 Bioscience, Inc. 
  • Opus 12, Inc. 
  • Eranova 
  • Le Qara 
  • Atmonia 
  • Licella 
  • Bluepha Beijing Lanjing Microbiology Technology Co., Ltd. 
  • Galatea Biotech Srl 
  • Unitika Co., Ltd. 
  • Euglena Co., Ltd. 
  • Unitika Ltd. 
  • Pangaia Ltd. 
  • Melodea Ltd. 
  • Borregaard Chemcell 
  • VitroLabs Inc 
  • Mori Machinery Co., Ltd. 
  • Slow Factory Labs 
  • Nova Kaeru 
  • Red Leaf Pulp Ltd. 
  • Faircraft 
  • Shanghai Tong-Jie-Liang Biomaterials Co., Ltd. 
  • Arekapak GmbH 
  • Chemical Process Services Ltd. (Bitrez) 
  • New Zealand Natural Fibers (NZNF) 
  • Biotecam 
  • Provenance Biofabrics, Inc. 
  • Nova Pangaea Technologies (UK) Ltd. 
  • Hunan Anhua Lactic Acid Co 
  • Foamplant BV 
  • Tongliao Xinghe Biotechnology Co., Ltd. 
  • Daio Paper Corporation 
  • Circular Systems 
  • Vertimass LLC 
  • Sebiplast s.r.l. 
  • Sweetwater Energy 
  • Cass Materials Pty Ltd 
  • Lignovations GmbH 
  • Yoshikawakuni Plastics Industries Co., Ltd. 
  • Multibax Public Co., Ltd. 
  • Bio Fab NZ 
  • Fillerbank Limited 
  • Saudi Basic Industries Corp. (SABIC) 
  • Cosun Beet Company 
  • Bucha Bio, Inc. 
  • Kraig Biocraft Laboratories 
  • Sunho Biodiesel Corporation 
  • Manta Biofuel, LLC 
  • Alpha Biofuels (Singapore) Pte Ltd 
  • Malai Biomaterials Design Pvt. Ltd. (Malai) 
  • Biome Bioplastics 
  • SUPLA Bioplastics 
  • Biome Bioplastics 
  • Ankor Bioplastics Co., Ltd. 
  • Bloom Biorenewables SA 
  • Spora Biotech 
  • SAPPI Biotech 
  • GeneusBiotech BV 
  • Bowil Biotech Sp. z o.o. 
  • Loick Biowertstoff GmbH 
  • The Lubrizol Corporation 
  • KRI Inc
  • PTT MCC Biochem Co., Ltd. 
  • CARAPAC Company 
  • Organic Disposables
  • CuanTec Ltd. 
  • Sebacic Oman SAOC 
  • Sulapac Oy 
  • Plantic Technologies Ltd. 
  • Sufresca 
  • Hebei Casda Biomaterials Co., Ltd. 
  • Elevance Renewable Sciences, Inc
  • Blue Ocean Closures 
  • Re:newcell 
  • KH Neochem 
  • LOTTE Chemical Corporation 
  • Sharp Chemical Ind. Co., Ltd. 
  • Ethox Chemicals LLC 
  • Worlée-Chemie GmbH 
  • VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd 
  • OrganoClick AB 
  • Rengo Co., Ltd. 
  • Baril Coatings B.V. 
  • Jilin COFCO Biomaterial Corporation 
  • COFCO Cooperation Ltd. 
  • Ripro Corporation 
  • DENSO Corporation 
  • Ripro Corporation 
  • Iogen Corporation 
  • Ensyn Corporation 
  • Plantics B.V. 
  • BIO-FED 
  • Applied Bioplastics 
  • Evolved By Nature 
  • Applied Graphene Materials 
  • Diamond Green Diesel LLC 
  • Applied Research Associates, Inc. (ARA) 
  • Bambooder Biobased Fibers B.V. 
  • Royal DSM N.V 
  • PHB Industrial S.A. 
  • BASF SE 
  • Chitose Bio Evolution Pte Ltd. 
  • Skytree BV 
  • Sunfire GmbH 
  • Kyanite Microorganism 
  • Biofine Technology, LLC 
  • Qnature UG 
  • Fiberlean Technologies 
  • Green Earth Institute 
  • ScobyTec GmbH 
  • LanzaTech 
  • Cellutech AB (Stora Enso) 
  • Humintech GmbH 
  • Revoltech GmbH 
  • Mura Technology Limited 
  • Avani Eco 
  • Advanced Biochemical (Thailand) Co., Ltd (ABT)
  • Kanteleen Voima 
  • Norsk e-Fuel AS 
  • Innoltek 
  • Handerek Technologies 
  • Benefuel Inc. 
  • Nuvi Releaf 
  • WeylChem International GmbH 
  • Dow Chemical Company 
  • Sun Chemical Corporation 
  • Spolchemie 
  • BYK-Chemie GmbH 
  • Shenzhen Ecomann Biotechnology Co., Ltd. 
  • Shenzhen Esun Industrial Co., Ltd. 
  • Eneus Energy 
  • Sainc Energy Limited 
  • Ayas Renewables Inc. 
  • Xingzhenghe Chemical Co., Ltd. 
  • Stora Enso Oyj 
  • Red Avenue New Materials Group Co., Ltd. 
  • Arlanxeo 
  • Rayonier Advanced Materials
  • Biofiber Tech Sweden AB 
  • PT Intera Lestari Polimer 
  • TerraVerdae BioWorks Inc
  • Inspidere B.V. 
  • GEON Performance Solutions
  • DAK Americas LLC 
  • RISE Research Institutes of Sweden AB 
  • Leaf Resources Ltd. 
  • Sekab E-Technology AB 
  • Fiquetex S.A.S. 
  • Vencorex® Chemicals 
  • BlockTexx Pty Ltd. 
  • Made of Air GmbH 
  • Locus Fermentation Solutions 
  • Eco Safety Products 
  • CH-Bioforce Oy 
  • Green Fuel 
  • Nexus Fuels, LLC
  • Simplifyber, Inc. 
  • Lenzing 
  • Lenzing AG 
  • Nantong Cellulose Fibers Co., Ltd 
  • Aekyung Chemical Co., Ltd. 
  • Samyang Corporation 
  • Nantong Jiuding Biological Engineering Co., Ltd. 
  • Worn Again Technologies 
  • Osaka Gas Group 
  • Fiberight 
  • Heilongjiang Chenneng Bioengineering Ltd. 
  • India Glycol 
  • India Glycols Ltd. 
  • Silva Green Fuel 
  • Arrow Greentech 
  • Circa Group 
  • Burgo Group S.p.A. 
  • Hubei Guangshui National Chemical Co., Ltd. 
  • TS Tech Co., Ltd. 
  • LEUNA-Harze GmbH 
  • Hexa Chemical Co. Ltd./Nature Gift 
  • GFBiochemicals 
  • Prometheus Fuels, Inc. 
  • Kami Shoji Company 
  • Mitr Phol 
  • Guangzhou Bio-plus Materials Technology Co., Ltd. 
  • Bolt Threads 
  • Newlight Technologies 
  • Newlight Technologies LLC 
  • Forge Hydrocarbons Corporation 
  • Hattori Shoten K.K. 
  • Caphenia GmbH 
  • Zhangjiagang Glory Chemical Industry Co., Ltd 
  • Essential Polymers 
  • GS Alliance Co. Ltd 
  • Smartfiber AG 
  • Bast Fiber Technologies, Inc. 
  • Fairbrics 
  • Fuji Pigment Co., Ltd. 
  • Pure Lignin Environmental Technology 
  • Pure Lignin Environmental Technology Ltd. 
  • Biokemik 
  • Alfa Kimya S.A. 
  • Freyzein
  • Gevo, Inc 
  • Mote, Inc. 
  • Kolon Industries, Inc. 
  • Toray Industries, Inc. 
  • Indochine Bio Plastiques (ICBP) Sdn Bhd 
  • Chongqing Bofei Biochemical Products Co., Ltd. 
  • Alberdingk Boley GmbH 
  • Attis Innovations, llc 
  • Musashino Chemical Laboratory, Ltd. 
  • Croda International plc 
  • RAW Paints 
  • BBCA Biochemical & GALACTIC Lactic Acid Co., Ltd. 
  • Blue Biofuels, Inc. 
  • Pond Biomaterials 
  • Synhelion 
  • Bosk Bioproducts Inc. 
  • Kane Biotech, Inc. 
  • Teal Bioworks, Inc. 
  • Soma Bioworks/White Lemur Co. 
  • BioLogiQ, Inc. 
  • Borealis AG 
  • Versalis SpA 
  • Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation 
  • Mitsubishi Polyester Film GmbH 
  • AlgiKnit 
  • Cardolite 
  • Take Cite Co., Ltd. 
  • Mercurius Biorefining Inc 
  • Ecovative Design LLC 
  • EMS-Grivory 
  • Itaconix 
  • Renmatix 
  • Itaconix 
  • Lignolix, Inc. 
  • Hebei Jiheng Chemical Co., Ltd. 
  • Henan Jindan Lactic Acid Technology Co., Ltd. 
  • TAIF-NK 
  • Aquapak Polymers Ltd 
  • Asahi Kasei Chemicals Corporation 
  • Risho Kogyo Co. Ltd. 
  • Cargill 
  • Enviral 
  • RenFuel 
  • Cargill 
  • RenFuel 
  • IUV Srl 
  • Bio2Oil ApS 
  • Graanul Biotech OU 
  • S-EnPol Co., Ltd. 
  • Cargill Corporation 
  • GenCell Energy 
  • Natural Fiber Welding, Inc. 
  • SunCoal Industries GmbH 
  • Radical Plastics 
  • Aquafil S.p.A. 
  • Cristal Union Group 
  • ADBioplastics 
  • PHABuilder 
  • Esbottle Oy 
  • Fruit Leather Rotterdam 
  • METabolic EXplorer S.A. (METEX) 
  • Biophilica 
  • Carbiolice 
  • Lixea Limited 
  • Chempolis Oy 
  • Green Lizard Technologies Ltd 
  • Ecoshell 
  • CreaFill Fibers Corporation 
  • JeNaCell GmbH 
  • LyondellBasell Industries Holdings B.V. 
  • Algix LLC 
  • Bcomp ltd. 
  • Lectrolyst LLC 
  • von Holzhausen 
  • Biotrem 
  • LG Chem 
  • Biotrem 
  • Enerkem 
  • Fulcrum BioEnergy, Inc. 
  • Saphium Biotechnology GMBH 
  • Kelheim Fibres GmbH 
  • Dongnam Realize 
  • Braskem SA 
  • Enerkem, Inc. 
  • Archroma 
  • Indorama Ventures Public Co. Ltd. 
  • Grupp MAIP 
  • Michelman
  • Brightmark Energy 
  • Futuramat Sarl 
  • Pivot Materials LLC 
  • Mango Materials, Inc. 
  • CJ Biomaterials, Inc. 
  • Novozymes A/S 
  • Inner Mettle 
  • Marusumi Paper Company Limited 
  • SK Chemicals Co., Ltd. 
  • Sunar Misir 
  • UPM-Kymmene Oyj 
  • ellucomp Ltd. 
  • Floreon 
  • Ohoskin 
  • Axcelon Biopolymers Corporation 
  • Carbyon BV 
  • Eastman Chemical Company 
  • Eastman Chemical Ltd. Corporation 
  • SICOMIN Epoxy Systems 
  • Tianjin GreenBio Materials Co., Ltd 
  • Corbion N.V. 
  • Crimson Renewable Energy LLC 
  • Oleon N.V. 
  • Dow, Inc. 
  • RWDC Industries 
  • Praj Industries Ltd. 
  • TotalEnergies Corbion 
  • BIOD Energy 
  • Mash Energy ApS 
  • Algaeing 
  • Shandong Baisheng Biotechnology Co., Ltd. 
  • Tianxing Biotechnology Co., Ltd. 
  • Emerging Fuels Technology (EFT) 
  • Shandong Fuwin New Material Co., Ltd. 
  • Zhejiang Hangzhou Xinfu Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. 
  • Dongying Hebang Chemical Corp. 
  • Zhejiang Hisun Biomaterials Co., Ltd. 
  • Shandong Landian Biological Technology Co., Ltd. 
  • Xinjiang Lanshan Tunhe 
  • Shandong Minji Chemical Co., Ltd. 
  • Shandong Siqiang Chemical Group Co., Ltd. 
  • Zhejiang Youcheng New Materials Co., Ltd 
  • Meghmani Finechem Ltd. 
  • DaikyoNishikawa Corporation 
  • thyssenkrupp Industrial Solutions AG 
  • NEXE Innovations Inc. 
  • Clariant AG 
  • Relement BV 
  • Novamont S.p.A. 
  • EggPlant Srl 
  • Jungbunzlauer Suisse AG 
  • Futerro 
  • Gen3Bio 
  • Vertoro 
  • Adriano di Marti/Desserto 
  • TECNARO GmbH 
  • Granbio Technologies 
  • SaltyCo Textiles 
  • Cruz Foam 
  • Akzo Nobel N.V. 
  • AVA Biochem AG 
  • UPM Biochemicals 
  • UPM Biocomposites 
  • ASB Biodiesel Limited 
  • DIC Products, inc. 
  • SBI BioEnergy Inc. 
  • BDI-BioEnergy International GmbH 
  • Fraunhofer Center for Chemical-Biotechnological Processes CBP 
  • Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC 
  • Fraunhofer Institute for Structural Durability and System Reliability LBF
  • UPM Biofuels 
  • Werewool 
  • Photanol B.V. 
  • Altropol Kunststoff GmbH 
  • Emery Oleochemicals LLC 
  • BTG Bioliquids B.V. 
  • Ahlstrom-Munksjö Oyj 
  • Cellucomp Ltd. 
  • Polybion
  • Cellicon B.V. 
  • Shenghong Group 
  • Celluforce, Inc. 
  • Climeworks 
  • LCY Biosciences 
  • Nanollose Ltd
  • Nanollose Ltd 
  • VEnvirotech Biotechnology SL 
  • LXP Group GmbH 
  • FP Innovations 
  • MakeGrowLab 
  • Neste Oyj 
  • Sundrop Fuels, Inc. 
  • Eni S.p.A. 
  • Ehime Paper Manufacturing Co. Ltd. 
  • Oji Paper COmpany
  • Oji Paper Company 
  • TechnipFMC 
  • Brightplus Oy 
  • Seiko PMC Corporation 
  • Synthopol Chemie 
  • ORLEN Poludnie 
  • Daily Polymer 
  • Prime Polymer Co., Ltd. 
  • MPANY PROFILES 
  • Novomer 
  • Steeper Energy Aps
  • Jupiter Ionics Pty Ltd 
  • Seawear Ltd. 
  • Danimer Scientific 
  • Danimer Scientific LLC 
  • Treemera GmbH 
  • West Fraser Timber Co Ltd. 
  • Coastgrass ApS 
  • Bioextrax AB 
  • Lean Orb 
  • Biofibre GmbH 
  • Loliware LLC 
  • Spero Renewables 
  • Byogy Renewables, Inc. 
  • DuFor Resins B.V. 
  • Resynergi, Inc. 
  • NewEnergyBlue LLC 
  • MycoWorks 
  • Polyferm 
  • Northern Technologies International 
  • Covestro AG 
  • Oy Hydrocell Ltd
  • Perstorp AB 
  • DIC Corporation 
  • Kao Corporation 
  • Gen Corporation 
  • The Borregaard Group 
  • Checkerspot, Inc. 
  • Carbios 
  • Velocys 
  • Viridos 
  • Lanxess AG 
  • Genecis Bioindustries, Inc. 
  • Visolis Inc. 
  • Polaris Renewables LLC 
  • Biomass Resin Holdings Co., Ltd
  • Lactips S.A. 
  • Aemetis, Inc. 
  • NUREL S.A. 
  • Ecoat S.A.S 
  • Universal Bio Pack Co., Ltd. 
  • Wuhan Sanjiang Space Good Biotech Co., Ltd. 
  • Apeel Sciences 
  • Celanese Corporation 
  • Tanin sevnica kemicna industrija 
  • FuelPositive Corp. 
  • Vegea srl 
  • Bioplastech Ltd 
  • Far Eastern New Century Corporation 
  • Hokuetsu Toyo Fibre Co., Ltd
  • Hokuetsu Toyo Fibre Co., Ltd. 
  • An Phát Bioplastics 
  • Corumat, Inc. 
  • Starlite Co., Ltd. 
  • Nafigate Corporation a.s. 
  • Resolute Forest Products, Inc. 
  • Roquette S.A. 
  • G+E GETEC Holding GmbH 
  • Anellotech, Inc. 
  • ViaeX Technologies 
  • Zelfo Technology 
  • Infinited Fiber Company Oy 
  • UBQ Materials 
  • Bio2Materials Sp. z o.o. 
  • Bioleather 
  • EcoSynthetix, Inc. 
  • Genomatica 
  • BIO-LUTIONS International AG 
  • Elementis plc 
  • Infinitree LLC 
  • JRS Rettenmaier & Sohne GmbH 
  • Ingevity 
  • Futurity Bio-Ventures Ltd. 
  • Jiangsu Anpon Electrochemical Co., Ltd 
  • Jiangsu Jinhe Hi-Tech Co., Ltd. 
  • Chuetsu Pulp & Paper Co., Ltd. 
  • Jiangsu Senda Biological Engineering Co., Ltd. 
  • Jiangsu Torise Biomaterials Co., Ltd 
  • Jiangsu Yangnong Chemical Group Co., Ltd. 
  • Jiangsu Zhongzheng Biochemical Co., Ltd. 
  • WasteFuel 
  • Hengshui Jinghua Chemical Co., Ltd. 
  • Infinium 
  • Avantium B.V. 
  • Avantium NV 
  • Betulium Oy 
  • FKuR Kunststoff GmbH 
  • LignoPure GmbH 
  • Rodenburg Biopolymers B.V. 
  • Spectrus Sustainable Solutions Pvt Ltd 
  • RiceHouse srl 
  • CF Industries Holdings, Inc. 
  • BioSolutions 
  • Spinnova Oy 
  • Lingrove, Inc. 
  • Nxtlevvel 
  • TripleW 
  • Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd. 
  • Yokogawa Electric Corporation 
  • Daishowa Paper Products Co. Ltd. 
  • Carbonwave 
  • Aeropowder Limited 
  • NatureWorks 
  • NatureWorks LLC 
  • Hero BX 
  • MOFWORX 
  • Vegatex Biotech 
  • Gelatex Technologies OÜ 
  • Henan Xinghan Biological Technology Co., Ltd. 
  • Hebei Xinhua Lactic Acid Co. 
  • Catalyxx
  • Cellugy 
  • Full Cycle Bioplastics LLC 
  • Andritz AG
  • Grado Zero Innovation 

Methodology

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