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The Global Market for Advanced Energy Storage & Harvesting Technologies 2024-2034

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  • 1066 Pages
  • January 2024
  • Region: Global
  • Future Markets, Inc
  • ID: 5691594

Batteries, Supercapacitors, Hydrogen Energy Storage, Long Duration Energy Storage (LDES), Thermal Energy Storage, Mechanical Energy Storage, Fuel Cells, Photovoltaics, and Other Energy Harvesting & Batteryless Devices. 

The global transition toward renewable electricity faces challenges around intermittency and grid stability. Solutions for advancing affordable storage with faster response times, longer duration capacity, greater energy density and location flexibility are essential. 

This extensive report provides global market forecasts for advanced battery technologies, supercapacitors, alternative chemical energy storage, thermal and mechanical concepts from 2018 to 2034. It assesses lithium-ion, solid-state, metal-air, sodium-ion, printed and flexible batteries among other chemistries across transportation, grid infrastructure, consumer electronics and stationary storage.

Regional demand analysis covers North America, Europe, Asia Pacific and Rest of World markets. The report profiles over 650 companies involved in areas like battery materials, management systems, fuel cell development and thermal storage. Multiple alternative storage concepts like power-to-gas, pumped hydro, compressed air and cryogenic storage are examined as well.

Technologies covered include:

  • Batteries (Li-ion, Lithium-Metal, Lithium-Sulfur, Lithium Titanate & Niobate, Sodium-ion, Aluminium-ion, All-solid state batteries (ASSBs), Flexible, Transparent, Degradable, Printed, Redox Flow, and Zinc, Iron-air, High Temperature)
  • Supercapacitors
  • Hydrogen Energy Storage
  • Long Duration Energy Storage (LDES)
  • Thermal Energy Storage
  • Mechanical Energy Storage
  • Fuel Cells
  • Photovoltaics
  • Other Energy Harvesting & Batteryless Devices. 

Latest developments in battery recycling processes, manufacturing equipment innovation, sharing economy business models, second-life utilization and environmental impact reduction are reviewed. Long duration storage requirements associated with stabilizing renewable energy penetration are evaluated.

Report contents include:

  • Global market analysis and forecasts for lithium-ion, sodium-ion, metal-air, solid-state, printed, flexible, transparent and other advanced battery technologies
  • Assessment of supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, synthetic fuels, thermal and mechanical storage, fuel Cells, photovoltaics, and energy Harvesting & batteryless devices. 
  • Regional demand analysis - North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Rest of World
  • Renewable energy storage requirements and cost evolution projections
  • Emerging storage techniques – redox flow batteries, cryogenic, gravity concepts etc
  • Technology review of battery materials, manufacturing processes, recycling
  • Strategic metal availability concerns affecting battery value chains
  • Grid infrastructure technology analysis from decentralized to scaled centralized
  • Behind-the-meter residential and commercial storage demands
  • Transport electrification requirements for cars, buses, trucks, marine vessels
  • Stationary storage needs across data centers, communications infrastructure
  • Space utilization trade-offs: density vs power vs discharge duration vs cost
  • Integration issues - smart grids, EV charging, hydrogen infrastructure
  • Player ecosystem across established battery firms, startups, industrial groups
  • Standards evolution for second life utilization, environmental reporting tools
  • Start-up activity heat map across advanced storage technology categories
  • 600+ company profiles across Li-ion value chain, capacitors, fuel cells etc. Companies profiled include AMSL Aero, Atlas Materials, Ambri Inc, Battolyser Systems, Brilliant Matters, Cactos, CMBlu Energy AG, Energy Vault, Enerpoly, Enervenue, Ensol, ESS Tech, e-Zinc, Factorial, Fourth Power, Flow Aluminum, Inc., Gelion, GKN Hydrogen, Gotion High Tech, Graphene Manufacturing Group, H2MOF, High Performace Battery Holding AG, Inobat, Inx, Jolt Electrodes, Kraftblock, LIND Limited, Lyten, MFA Thermal, Northvolt, Our Next Energy (ONE), Oxford Photovoltaics, Rondo Energy, Salient Energy, SaltX, Sicona Battery Technologies, Sila, Skeleton Technologies, Soleolico, Solid Power, Stabl Energy, TasmanIon, Tiamat, Verkor and VFlowTech.

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Table of Contents

2            INTRODUCTION
2.1         Classification of energy storage technologies
2.2         Global Market for Advanced Energy Storage and Energy Harvesting Technologies
2.3         Technologies
2.4         Global revenues
2.4.1      By technologies
2.4.2      By markets
2.4.3      By region

3            BATTERIES
3.1         The global market for advanced batteries
3.1.1      Electric vehicles   Market overview   Battery Electric Vehicles   Electric buses, vans and trucks  Electric medium and heavy duty trucks  Electric light commercial vehicles (LCVs)  Electric buses  Micro EVs   Electric off-road   Construction vehicles   Electric trains   Electric boats   Market demand and forecasts
3.1.2      Grid storage   Market overview   Technologies   Market demand and forecasts
3.1.3      Consumer electronics   Market overview   Technologies   Market demand and forecasts
3.1.4      Stationary batteries   Market overview   Technologies   Market demand and forecasts
3.2          Market drivers
3.3          Battery market megatrends
3.4          Advanced materials for batteries
3.5          Motivation for battery development beyond lithium
3.6          Battery chemistries
3.7          Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs)
3.7.1      Technology description   Types of Lithium Batteries
3.7.2      SWOT analysis
3.7.3      Anodes   Materials  Graphite  Lithium Titanate  Lithium Metal   Silicon anodes  Benefits  Development in li-ion batteries  Manufacturing silicon  Costs   Applications  EVs     Future outlook        Alloy materials        Carbon nanotubes in Li-ion        Graphene coatings for Li-ion
3.7.4      Li-ion electrolytes
3.7.5      Cathodes   Materials    High-nickel cathode materials    Manufacturing    High manganese content    Li-Mn-rich cathodes    Lithium Cobalt Oxide(LiCoO2) - LCO    Lithium Iron Phosphate(LiFePO4) - LFP    Lithium Manganese Oxide (LiMn2O4) - LMO    Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (LiNiMnCoO2) - NMC    Lithium Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Oxide (LiNiCoAlO2) - NCA  LMR-NMC  Lithium manganese phosphate (LiMnP)  Lithium manganese iron phosphate (LiMnFePO4 or LMFP)  Lithium nickel manganese oxide (LNMO)   Comparison of key lithium-ion cathode materials   Emerging cathode material synthesis methods   Cathode coatings
3.7.6      Binders and conductive additives   Materials
3.7.7      Separators   Materials
3.7.8      Platinum group metals
3.7.9      Li-ion battery market players
3.7.10    Li-ion recycling      Comparison of recycling techniques      Hydrometallurgy   Method overview   Solvent extraction     SWOT analysis        Pyrometallurgy     Method overview     SWOT analysis        Direct recycling     Method overview  Electrolyte separation   Separating cathode and anode materials    Binder removal    Relithiation    Cathode recovery and rejuvenation    Hydrometallurgical-direct hybrid recycling       SWOT analysis          Other methods       Mechanochemical Pretreatment       Electrochemical Method       Ionic Liquids          Recycling of Specific Components       Anode (Graphite)       Cathode       Electrolyte          Recycling of Beyond Li-ion Batteries       Conventional vs Emerging Processes
3.7.11    Global revenues
3.8          Lithium metal batteries
3.8.1      Technology description
3.8.2      Lithium-metal anodes
3.8.3      Challenges
3.8.4      Energy density
3.8.5      Anode-less Cells
3.8.6      Lithium-metal and solid-state batteries
3.8.7      Applications
3.8.8      SWOT analysis
3.8.9      Product developers
3.9          Lithium sulfur batteries (Li-S)
3.9.1      Technology description   Advantages   Challenges   Commercialization
3.9.2      SWOT analysis
3.9.3      Global revenues
3.9.4      Product developers
3.10        Lithium titanate and niobate batteries
3.10.1    Technology description
3.10.2    Niobium titanium oxide (NTO)                Niobium tungsten oxide                Vanadium oxide anodes
3.10.3    Global revenues
3.10.4    Product developers
3.11        Sodium-ion (Na-ion) batteries
3.11.1    Technology description                Cathode materials             Layered transition metal oxides         Types         Cycling performance         Advantages and disadvantages         Market prospects for LO SIB             Polyanionic materials         Advantages and disadvantages         Types         Market prospects for Poly SIB             Prussian blue analogues (PBA)         Types         Advantages and disadvantages         Market prospects for PBA-SIB                Anode materials             Hard carbons             Carbon black             Graphite             Carbon nanotubes             Graphene             Alloying materials             Sodium Titanates             Sodium Metal                Electrolytes
3.11.2    Comparative analysis with other battery types
3.11.3    Cost comparison with Li-ion
3.11.4    Materials in sodium-ion battery cells
3.11.5    SWOT analysis
3.11.6    Global revenues
3.11.7    Product developers                Battery Manufacturers                Large Corporations                Automotive Companies                Chemicals and Materials Firms
3.12        Sodium-sulfur (Na-S) batteries
3.12.1    Technology description
3.12.2    Applications
3.12.3    SWOT analysis
3.13        Aluminium-ion batteries
3.13.1    Technology description
3.13.2    SWOT analysis
3.13.3    Commercialization
3.13.4    Global revenues
3.13.5    Product developers
3.14        All-solid state batteries (ASSBs)
3.14.1    Technology description                Solid-state electrolytes
3.14.2    Features and advantages
3.14.3    Technical specifications
3.14.4    Types
3.14.5    Microbatteries                Introduction                Materials                Applications                3D designs             3D printed batteries
3.14.6    Bulk type solid-state batteries
3.14.7    SWOT analysis
3.14.8    Limitations
3.14.9    Global revenues
3.14.10  Product developers
3.15        Flexible batteries
3.15.1    Technology description
3.15.2    Technical specifications                Approaches to flexibility
3.15.3    Flexible electronics                Flexible materials
3.15.4    Flexible and wearable Metal-sulfur batteries
3.15.5    Flexible and wearable Metal-air batteries
3.15.6    Flexible Lithium-ion Batteries                Electrode designs                Fiber-shaped Lithium-Ion batteries                Stretchable lithium-ion batteries                Origami and kirigami lithium-ion batteries
3.15.7    Flexible Li/S batteries                Components                Carbon nanomaterials
3.15.8    Flexible lithium-manganese dioxide (Li-MnO2) batteries
3.15.9    Flexible zinc-based batteries                Components             Anodes             Cathodes                Challenges                Flexible zinc-manganese dioxide (Zn-Mn) batteries                Flexible silver-zinc (Ag-Zn) batteries                Flexible Zn-Air batteries                Flexible zinc-vanadium batteries
3.15.10  Fiber-shaped batteries              Carbon nanotubes              Types              Applications              Challenges
3.15.11  Energy harvesting combined with wearable energy storage devices
3.15.12  SWOT analysis
3.15.13  Global revenues
3.15.14  Product developers
3.16        Transparent batteries
3.16.1    Technology description
3.16.2    Components
3.16.3    SWOT analysis
3.16.4    Market outlook
3.17        Degradable batteries
3.17.1    Technology description
3.17.2    Components
3.17.3    SWOT analysis
3.17.4    Market outlook
3.17.5    Product developers
3.18        Printed batteries
3.18.1    Technical specifications
3.18.2    Components
3.18.3    Design
3.18.4    Key features
3.18.5    Printable current collectors
3.18.6    Printable electrodes
3.18.7    Materials
3.18.8    Applications
3.18.9    Printing techniques
3.18.10  Lithium-ion (LIB) printed batteries
3.18.11  Zinc-based printed batteries
3.18.12  3D Printed batteries              3D Printing techniques for battery manufacturing              Materials for 3D printed batteries          Electrode materials          Electrolyte Materials
3.18.13  SWOT analysis
3.18.14  Global revenues
3.18.15  Product developers
3.19        Redox Flow Batteries
3.19.1    Technology description
3.19.2    Vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFB)
3.19.3    Zinc-bromine flow batteries (ZnBr)
3.19.4    Polysulfide bromine flow batteries (PSB)
3.19.5    Iron-chromium flow batteries (ICB)
3.19.6    All-Iron flow batteries
3.19.7    Zinc-iron (Zn-Fe) flow batteries
3.19.8    Hydrogen-bromine (H-Br) flow batteries
3.19.9    Hydrogen-Manganese (H-Mn) flow batteries
3.19.10  Organic flow batteries
3.19.11  Hybrid Flow Batteries              Zinc-Cerium Hybrid              Zinc-Polyiodide Hybrid Flow Battery              Zinc-Nickel Hybrid Flow Battery              Zinc-Bromine Hybrid Flow Battery              Vanadium-Polyhalide Flow Battery
3.19.12  Global revenues
3.19.13  Product developers
3.20        Rechargeable Zinc (Zn) batteries
3.20.1    Technology description                Zinc-Air batteries                Zinc-ion batteries                Zinc-bromine
3.20.2    Market outlook
3.20.3    Product developers
3.21        Iron-air (Fe-air) batteries
3.21.1    Technology description
3.21.2    Market outlook
3.21.3    Product developers
3.22        High-temperature / molten-salt
3.22.1    Technology description
3.22.2    Market outlook
3.22.3    Product developers
3.23        Companies

4              SUPERCAPACITORS
4.1          Technology description
4.1.1      Electrostatic double-layer capacitors (EDLC)
4.1.2      Pseudocapacitors   Pseudocapacitive materials   Performance
4.1.3      Hybrid capacitors
4.1.4      Advantages and disadvantages
4.2          Electrolytes
4.3          Conductive hydrogels
4.4          Flexible and stretchable supercapacitors
4.4.1      Flexible wearable supercapacitors
4.4.2      Paper supercapacitors
4.4.3      Flexible printed circuits
4.4.4      Micro-supercapacitors
4.4.5      Materials   Graphene   Carbon nanotubes   Nanodiamonds   Carbon nanofibers   Carbon aerogels   Graphene aerogels   Cellulose nanocrystal aerogels   Carbon nano-onions   MXenes                Metal Organic Frameworks (MOF)                Diamond                Other 2D materials
4.5          Printed supercapacitors   Electrode materials   Electrolytes
4.6          Markets for supercapacitors
4.6.1      Electric vehicles
4.6.2      Aerospace
4.6.3      Power grid
4.6.4      Industrial
4.6.5      Medical wearables
4.6.6      Military
4.6.7      Power and signal electronics
4.7          Companies

5.1          Market overview
5.2          Power-to-gas (PtG)
5.3          Power-to-liquid (PtL)
5.4          Hydrogen
5.4.1      Long Duration Energy Storage (LDES)
5.4.2      Hydrogen storage methods
5.4.3      Compressed hydrogen storage
5.4.4      Stationary storage systems
5.4.5      Metal hydrides for hydrogen storage
5.4.6      Underground hydrogen storage (UHS)   Salt caverns   Porous rock formations
5.5          Feedstocks
5.5.1      Hydrogen electrolysis
5.5.2      CO2 capture
5.6          Production
5.7          Electrolysers
5.7.1      Commercial alkaline electrolyser cells (AECs)
5.7.2      PEM electrolysers (PEMEC)
5.7.3      High-temperature solid oxide electrolyser cells (SOECs)
5.8          Direct Air Capture (DAC)
5.8.1      Technologies
5.8.2      Markets for DAC
5.8.3      Costs
5.8.4      Challenges
5.8.5      Companies and production
5.8.6      CO2 capture from point sources
5.9          Costs
5.10        Market challenges
5.11        Companies

6.1          Overview
6.2          Types of thermal storage systems
6.3          Sensible heat storage
6.4          Latent heat storage
6.5          Reversible thermochemical reactions
6.6          Phase change materials
6.6.1      Markets
6.6.2      Properties of Phase Change Materials (PCMs)
6.6.3      Types   Organic/biobased phase change materials               Advantages and disadvantages               Paraffin wax               Non-Paraffins/Bio-based   Inorganic phase change materials           Salt hydrates        Advantages and disadvantages           Metal and metal alloy PCMs (High-temperature)               Eutectic mixtures               Encapsulation of PCMs               Macroencapsulation               Micro/nanoencapsulation   Nanomaterial phase change materials
6.7          Electro-thermal energy storage
6.8          Companies

7.1          Introduction
7.2          Compressed air energy storage
7.2.1      Overview
7.2.2      SWOT Analysis
7.3          Liquid-air energy storage
7.3.1      Overview
7.3.1      SWOT Analysis
7.4          Liquid CO2 Energy Storage
7.4.1      Overview
7.4.2      SWOT Analysis
7.5          SENS
7.5.1      Overview
7.5.2      SWOT Analysis
7.6          Gravitational energy storage
7.6.1      Overview
7.6.2      SWOT Analysis
7.7          Companies

8              FUEL CELLS
8.1          Introduction
8.2          Fuel cell technologies
8.2.1      Proton exchange membrane (PEM) (PEMFC)   High temperature PEMFC (HT-PEMFC)   Components, materials and producers
8.2.2      Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC)   Components and materials               Anode               Electrolyte               Cathode               Interconnects               Other   Solid Oxide Electrolyzer Cells (SOECs)   Low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (LT-SOFCs)
8.2.3      Alkaline Fuel Cell (AFC)
8.2.4      Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC)
8.3          Markets and applications
8.3.1      Electric vehicles market   Hydrogen Refueling   Hydrogen Storage
8.3.2      Commercial and industrial (C&I)
8.3.3      Marine
8.3.4      Residential
8.4          Companies

9              PHOTOVOLTAICS
9.1          Global Solar PV market
9.2          Thin film and Flexible Solar Cells
9.2.1      Dye sensitized solar cells   DSSC materials
9.2.2      Organic Photovoltaics   Organic PV materials
9.2.3      Perovskite solar cells   Introduction   Material components   Energy harvesting   Thin film perovskite solar cells               Technology description               Markets and applications               Product developers   Tandem perovskite PV               Technology description               Markets and applications               Product developers
9.2.4      Inorganic silicon PV alternatives   Cadmium Telluride (CdTe)   Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS)   Gallium Arsenide   Amorphous Silicon   Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide (CZTS)
9.2.5      Tandem photovoltaics
9.2.6      Metamaterials
9.2.7      Deposition Methods
9.3          Market players
9.4          Concentrated solar power
9.4.1      Technology description
9.4.2      Commercialization
9.5          Agrivoltaics
9.5.1      Technology description
9.5.2      Commercialization
9.6          Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV)
9.6.1      Photovoltaic glazing
9.6.2      Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs)
9.6.3      Organic solar cells (OSCs)
9.6.4      Perovskite solar cells (PSCs)
9.6.5      Quantum dot solar cells (QDSCs)
9.6.6      Copper zinc tin sulphide solar cells (CZTS)
9.7          Floating photovoltaics (FPV)
9.8          Global market for PV solar cells to 2033, by technology (revenues)
9.9          Company profiles

10.1        Passive Devices
10.2        Active Backscatter Devices
10.3        Wireless Power Transfer
10.4      Radio frequency (RF) energy harvesting
10.5        Piezoelectric materials
10.6        Thermoelectric materials
10.7        Electromagnetics
10.8        Electrochemical
10.9     Triboelectric Harvesting
10.10     Acoustic Harvesting
10.11     Battery-free electronics
10.12     Metamaterials
10.13     Powering E-textiles
10.13.1  Supercapacitors
10.13.2  Batteries
10.13.3  Textiles              Energy harvesting nanogenerators          TENGs          PENGs
10.14     Wireless sensor networks (WSN)
10.15     Supply chain/Logistics item tagging
10.16     Smart city deployments
10.17     Electronic shelf labels, retail tech (RFID)
10.18     Marine energy harvesting
10.19     Company profiles

11           REFERENCES
List of Tables
Table 1. Global revenues for advanced energy storage & harvesting technologies, by type, 2018-2034 (Billions USD).
Table 2. Global revenues for advanced energy storage & harvesting technologies, by type, 2018-2034 (Billions USD).
Table 3. Global revenues for advanced energy storage & harvesting technologies, by end markets, 2018-2034 (Billions USD).
Table 4. Global revenues for advanced energy storage & harvesting technologies, by region, 2018-2034 (Billions USD).
Table 5. Battery chemistries used in electric buses.
Table 6. Micro EV types
Table 7. Battery Sizes for Different Vehicle Types.
Table 8. Competing technologies for batteries in electric boats.
Table 9. Competing technologies for batteries in grid storage.
Table 10. Competing technologies for batteries in consumer electronics
Table 11. Competing technologies for sodium-ion batteries in grid storage.
Table 12. Market drivers for use of advanced materials and technologies in batteries.
Table 13. Battery market megatrends.
Table 14. Advanced materials for batteries.
Table 15. Commercial Li-ion battery cell composition.
Table 16.  Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery supply chain.
Table 17. Types of lithium battery.
Table 18. Li-ion battery anode materials.
Table 19. Manufacturing methods for nano-silicon anodes.
Table 20. Markets and applications for silicon anodes.
Table 21. Li-ion battery cathode materials.
Table 22. Key technology trends shaping lithium-ion battery cathode development.
Table 23. Properties of Lithium Cobalt Oxide) as a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries.
Table 24. Properties of lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4 or LFP) as a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries.
Table 25. Properties of Lithium Manganese Oxide cathode material.
Table 26. Properties of Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (NMC).
Table 27. Properties of Lithium Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Oxide
Table 28. Comparison table of key lithium-ion cathode materials
Table 29. Li-ion battery Binder and conductive additive materials.
Table 30. Li-ion battery Separator materials.
Table 31. Li-ion battery market players.
Table 32. Typical lithium-ion battery recycling process flow.
Table 33. Main feedstock streams that can be recycled for lithium-ion batteries.
Table 34. Comparison of LIB recycling methods.
Table 35. Comparison of conventional and emerging processes for recycling beyond lithium-ion batteries.
Table 36. Global revenues for Li-ion batteries, 2018-2034, by market (Billions USD).
Table 37. Applications for Li-metal batteries.
Table 38. Li-metal battery developers
Table 39. Comparison of the theoretical energy densities of lithium-sulfur batteries versus other common battery types.
Table 40. Global revenues for Lithium-sulfur, 2018-2034, by market (Billions USD).
Table 41. Lithium-sulphur battery product developers.
Table 42. Product developers in Lithium titanate and niobate batteries.
Table 43. Comparison of cathode materials.
Table 44.  Layered transition metal oxide cathode materials for sodium-ion batteries.
Table 45. General cycling performance characteristics of common layered transition metal oxide cathode materials.
Table 46. Polyanionic materials for sodium-ion battery cathodes.
Table 47. Comparative analysis of different polyanionic materials.
Table 48.  Common types of Prussian Blue Analogue materials used as cathodes or anodes in sodium-ion batteries.
Table 49. Comparison of Na-ion battery anode materials.
Table 50. Hard Carbon producers for sodium-ion battery anodes.
Table 51. Comparison of carbon materials in sodium-ion battery anodes.
Table 52. Comparison between Natural and Synthetic Graphite.
Table 53. Properties of graphene, properties of competing materials, applications thereof.
Table 54. Comparison of carbon based anodes.
Table 55.  Alloying materials used in sodium-ion batteries.
Table 56. Na-ion electrolyte formulations.
Table 57. Pros and cons compared to other battery types.
Table 58. Cost comparison with Li-ion batteries.
Table 59. Key materials in sodium-ion battery cells.
Table 60. Product developers in aluminium-ion batteries.
Table 61. Types of solid-state electrolytes.
Table 62. Market segmentation and status for solid-state batteries.
Table 63.  Typical process chains for manufacturing key components and assembly of solid-state batteries.
Table 64. Comparison between liquid and solid-state batteries.
Table 65. Limitations of solid-state thin film batteries.
Table 66. Global revenues for All-Solid State Batteries, 2018-2034, by market (Billions USD).
Table 67. Solid-state thin-film battery market players.
Table 68. Flexible battery applications and technical requirements.
Table 69. Flexible Li-ion battery prototypes.
Table 70. Electrode designs in flexible lithium-ion batteries.
Table 71. Summary of fiber-shaped lithium-ion batteries.
Table 72. Types of fiber-shaped batteries.
Table 73. Global revenues for flexible batteries, 2018-2034, by market (Billions USD).
Table 74. Product developers in flexible batteries.
Table 75. Components of transparent batteries.
Table 76. Components of degradable batteries.
Table 77. Product developers in degradable batteries.
Table 78. Main components and properties of different printed battery types.
Table 79. Applications of printed batteries and their physical and electrochemical requirements.
Table 80. 2D and 3D printing techniques.
Table 81. Printing techniques applied to printed batteries.
Table 82. Main components and corresponding electrochemical values of lithium-ion printed batteries.
Table 83. Printing technique, main components and corresponding electrochemical values of printed batteries based on Zn-MnO2 and other battery types.
Table 84. Main 3D Printing techniques for battery manufacturing.
Table 85. Electrode Materials for 3D Printed Batteries.
Table 86. Global revenues for printed batteries, 2018-2034, by market (Billions USD).
Table 87. Product developers in printed batteries.
Table 88. Advantages and disadvantages of redox flow batteries.
Table 89. Vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFB)-key features, advantages, limitations, performance, components and applications.
Table 90. Zinc-bromine (ZnBr) flow batteries-key features, advantages, limitations, performance, components and applications.
Table 91. Polysulfide bromine flow batteries (PSB)-key features, advantages, limitations, performance, components and applications.
Table 92. Iron-chromium (ICB) flow batteries-key features, advantages, limitations, performance, components and applications.
Table 93. All-Iron flow batteries-key features, advantages, limitations, performance, components and applications.
Table 94. Zinc-iron (Zn-Fe) flow batteries-key features, advantages, limitations, performance, components and applications.
Table 95. Hydrogen-bromine (H-Br) flow batteries-key features, advantages, limitations, performance, components and applications.
Table 96. Hydrogen-Manganese (H-Mn) flow batteries-key features, advantages, limitations, performance, components and applications.
Table 97. Organic flow batteries-key features, advantages, limitations, performance, components and applications.
Table 98. Zinc-Cerium Hybrid flow batteries-key features, advantages, limitations, performance, components and applications.
Table 99. Zinc-Polyiodide Hybrid Flow batteries-key features, advantages, limitations, performance, components and applications.
Table 100. Zinc-Nickel Hybrid Flow batteries-key features, advantages, limitations, performance, components and applications.
Table 101. Zinc-Bromine Hybrid Flow batteries-key features, advantages, limitations, performance, components and applications.
Table 102. Vanadium-Polyhalide Hybrid Flow batteries-key features, advantages, limitations, performance, components and applications.
Table 103. Redox flow batteries product developers.
Table 104. ZN-based battery product developers.
Table 105. Iron-air (Fe-air) battery product developers.
Table 106. High-temperature batteries product developers.
Table 107. CATL sodium-ion battery characteristics.
Table 108. CHAM sodium-ion battery characteristics.
Table 109. Chasm SWCNT products.
Table 110. Faradion sodium-ion battery characteristics.
Table 111. HiNa Battery sodium-ion battery characteristics.
Table 112. Battery performance test specifications of J. Flex batteries.
Table 113. LiNa Energy battery characteristics.
Table 114. Natrium Energy battery characteristics.
Table 115. Comparison of types of supercapacitors.
Table 116.  Pros and cons of supercapacitors.
Table 117. Properties and applications of conductive hydrogels.
Table 118. Hydrogels in supercapacitors.
Table 119. Applications of advanced materials in supercapacitors, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof.
Table 120. Graphene in supercapacitors-Market age, applications, Key benefits and motivation for use, Graphene concentration.
Table 121. Comparative properties of graphene supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries.
Table 122. Market and applications for carbon nanotubes in supercapacitors.
Table 123. Market overview for nanodiamonds in supercapacitors.
Table 124. Nanodiamonds in supercapacitors. Market age, applications, Key benefits and motivation for use, concentration
Table 125. Other 2D materials for supercapacitors.
Table 126. Methods for printing supercapacitors.
Table 127. Electrode Materials for printed supercapacitors.
Table 128. Electrolytes for printed supercapacitors.
Table 129. Main properties and components of printed supercapacitors.
Table 130. Markets for supercapacitors.
Table 131. Applications of e-fuels, by type.
Table 132. Overview of e-fuels.
Table 133. Applications for hydrogen in LDES
Table 134. Main characteristics of different electrolyzer technologies.
Table 135. Advantages and disadvantages of DAC.
Table 136. DAC companies and technologies.
Table 137. Markets for DAC.
Table 138. Cost estimates of DAC.
Table 139. Challenges for DAC technology.
Table 140. DAC technology developers and production.
Table 141. Market challenges for e-fuels.
Table 142. Properties of PCMs.
(b)          Table 143.  PCM Types and properties.
Table 144. Advantages and disadvantages of organic PCMs.
Table 145. Advantages and disadvantages of organic PCM Fatty Acids.
Table 146. Advantages and disadvantages of salt hydrates
Table 147. Advantages and disadvantages of low melting point metals.
Table 148. Advantages and disadvantages of eutectics.
Table 149. CrodaTherm Range.
Table 150. Compressed air energy storage technologies.
Table 151. Comparison of fuel cell technologies.
Table 152. SOFC and PEMFC comparison.
Table 2. Other components and materials in SOFCs.
Table 153. Markets and applications for fuel cells.
Table 154. Product developers in thin film perovskite photovoltaics.
Table 155. Product developers in tandem perovskite photovoltaics.
Table 156. Technologies generating electricity in smart buildings.
Table 157. Comparison of prototype batteries (flexible, textile, and other) in terms of area-specific performance.

List of Figures
Figure 1. Classification of energy storage technologies
Figure 2. Global revenues for advanced energy storage & harvesting technologies, by type, 2018-2034 (Billions USD).
Figure 3. Global revenues for advanced energy storage & harvesting technologies, by end markets, 2018-2034 (Billions USD).
Figure 4. Global revenues for advanced energy storage & harvesting technologies, by region, 2018-2034 (Billions USD).
Figure 5. Annual sales of battery electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.
Figure 6. Electric car Li-ion demand forecast (GWh), 2018-2034.
Figure 7. EV Li-ion battery market (US$B), 2018-2034.
Figure 8. Electric bus, truck and van battery forecast (GWh), 2018-2034.
Figure 9. Micro EV Li-ion demand forecast (GWh).
Figure 10. Lithium-ion battery grid storage demand forecast (GWh), 2018-2034.
Figure 11. Sodium-ion grid storage units.
Figure 12. Salt-E Dog mobile battery.
Figure 13. I.Power Nest - Residential Energy Storage System Solution.
Figure 14. Costs of batteries to 2030.
Figure 15. Lithium Cell Design.
Figure 16. Functioning of a lithium-ion battery.
Figure 17. Li-ion battery cell pack.
Figure 18. Li-ion electric vehicle (EV) battery.
Figure 19. SWOT analysis: Li-ion batteries.
Figure 20. Silicon anode value chain.
Figure 21. Li-cobalt structure.
Figure 22.  Li-manganese structure.
Figure 23. Typical direct, pyrometallurgical, and hydrometallurgical recycling methods for recovery of Li-ion battery active materials.
Figure 24. Flow chart of recycling processes of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs).
Figure 25. Hydrometallurgical recycling flow sheet.
Figure 26. SWOT analysis for Hydrometallurgy Li-ion Battery Recycling.
Figure 27. Umicore recycling flow diagram.
Figure 28. SWOT analysis for Pyrometallurgy Li-ion Battery Recycling.
Figure 29. Schematic of direct recyling process.
Figure 30. SWOT analysis for Direct Li-ion Battery Recycling.
Figure 31. Global revenues for Li-ion batteries, 2018-2034, by market (Billions USD).
Figure 32. Schematic diagram of a Li-metal battery.
Figure 33. SWOT analysis: Lithium-metal batteries.
Figure 34. Schematic diagram of Lithium-sulfur battery.
Figure 35. SWOT analysis: Lithium-sulfur batteries.
Figure 36. Global revenues for Lithium-sulfur, 2018-2034, by market (Billions USD).
Figure 37. Global revenues for Lithium titanate and niobate batteries, 2018-2034, by market (Billions USD).
Figure 38. Schematic of Prussian blue analogues (PBA).
Figure 39. Comparison of SEM micrographs of sphere-shaped natural graphite (NG; after several processing steps) and synthetic graphite (SG).
Figure 40. Overview of graphite production, processing and applications.
Figure 41. Schematic diagram of a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT).
Figure 42. Schematic diagram of a Na-ion battery.
Figure 43. SWOT analysis: Sodium-ion batteries.
Figure 44. Global revenues for sodium-ion batteries, 2018-2034, by market (Billions USD).
Figure 45.  Schematic of a Na-S battery.
Figure 46. SWOT analysis: Sodium-sulfur batteries.
Figure 47. Saturnose battery chemistry.
Figure 48. SWOT analysis: Aluminium-ion batteries.
Figure 49. Global revenues for aluminium-ion batteries, 2018-2034, by market (Billions USD).
Figure 50. Schematic illustration of all-solid-state lithium battery.
Figure 51. ULTRALIFE thin film battery.
Figure 52. Examples of applications of thin film batteries.
Figure 53. Capacities and voltage windows of various cathode and anode materials.
Figure 54. Traditional lithium-ion battery (left), solid state battery (right).
Figure 55. Bulk type compared to thin film type SSB.
Figure 56. SWOT analysis: All-solid state batteries.
Figure 57. Global revenues for All-Solid State Batteries, 2018-2034, by market (Billions USD).
Figure 58. Ragone plots of diverse batteries and the commonly used electronics powered by flexible batteries.
Figure 59. Flexible, rechargeable battery.
Figure 60. Various architectures for flexible and stretchable electrochemical energy storage.
Figure 61. Types of flexible batteries.
Figure 62. Flexible label and printed paper battery.
Figure 63. Materials and design structures in flexible lithium ion batteries.
Figure 64. Flexible/stretchable LIBs with different structures.
Figure 65. Schematic of the structure of stretchable LIBs.
Figure 66. Electrochemical performance of materials in flexible LIBs.
Figure 67. a-c) Schematic illustration of coaxial (a), twisted (b), and stretchable (c) LIBs.
Figure 68. a) Schematic illustration of the fabrication of the superstretchy LIB based on an MWCNT/LMO composite fiber and an MWCNT/LTO composite fiber. b,c) Photograph (b) and the schematic illustration (c) of a stretchable fiber-shaped battery under stretching conditions. d) Schematic illustration of the spring-like stretchable LIB. e) SEM images of a fiberat different strains. f) Evolution of specific capacitance with strain. d-f)
Figure 69. Origami disposable battery.
Figure 70. Zn-MnO2 batteries produced by Brightvolt.
Figure 71. Charge storage mechanism of alkaline Zn-based batteries and zinc-ion batteries.
Figure 72. Zn-MnO2 batteries produced by Blue Spark.
Figure 73. Ag-Zn batteries produced by Imprint Energy.
Figure 74.  Wearable self-powered devices.
Figure 75. SWOT analysis: Flexible  batteries.
Figure 76. Global revenues for flexible batteries, 2018-2034, by market (Billions USD).
Figure 77. Transparent batteries.
Figure 78. SWOT analysis: Transparent batteries.
Figure 79. Degradable batteries.
Figure 80. SWOT analysis: Degradable batteries.
Figure 81. Various applications of printed paper batteries.
Figure 82.Schematic representation of the main components of a battery.
Figure 83. Schematic of a printed battery in a sandwich cell architecture, where the anode and cathode of the battery are stacked together.
Figure 84. Manufacturing Processes for Conventional Batteries (I), 3D Microbatteries (II), and 3D-Printed Batteries (III).
Figure 85. SWOT analysis: Printed batteries.
Figure 86. Global revenues for printed batteries, 2018-2034, by market (Billions USD).
Figure 87. Scheme of a redox flow battery.
Figure 88. Global revenues for redox flow batteries, 2018-2034, by market (Billions USD).
Figure 89. 24M battery.
Figure 90. AC biode prototype.
Figure 91. Schematic diagram of liquid metal battery operation.
Figure 92. Ampcera’s all-ceramic dense solid-state electrolyte separator sheets (25 um thickness, 50mm x 100mm size, flexible and defect free, room temperature ionic conductivity ~1 mA/cm).
Figure 93. Amprius battery products.
Figure 94. All-polymer battery schematic.
Figure 95. All Polymer Battery Module.
Figure 96. Resin current collector.
Figure 97. Ateios thin-film, printed battery.
Figure 98. The structure of aluminum-sulfur battery from Avanti Battery.
Figure 99. Containerized NAS® batteries.
Figure 100. 3D printed lithium-ion battery.
Figure 101. Blue Solution module.
Figure 102. TempTraq wearable patch.
Figure 103. Schematic of a fluidized bed reactor which is able to scale up the generation of SWNTs using the CoMoCAT process.
Figure 104. Cymbet EnerChip™
Figure 105. E-magy nano sponge structure.
Figure 106. Enerpoly zinc-ion battery.
Figure 107. SoftBattery®.
Figure 108. ASSB All-Solid-State Battery by EGI 300 Wh/kg.
Figure 109. Roll-to-roll equipment working with ultrathin steel substrate.
Figure 110. 40 Ah battery cell.
Figure 111. FDK Corp battery.
Figure 112. 2D paper batteries.
Figure 113. 3D Custom Format paper batteries.
Figure 114. Fuji carbon nanotube products.
Figure 115. Gelion Endure battery.
Figure 116. Portable desalination plant.
Figure 117. Grepow flexible battery.
Figure 118. HPB solid-state battery.
Figure 119. HiNa Battery pack for EV.
Figure 120. JAC demo EV powered by a HiNa Na-ion battery.
Figure 121. Nanofiber Nonwoven Fabrics from Hirose.
Figure 122. Hitachi Zosen solid-state battery.
Figure 123. Ilika solid-state batteries.
Figure 124. ZincPoly™ technology.
Figure 125. TAeTTOOz printable battery materials.
Figure 126. Ionic Materials battery cell.
Figure 127. Schematic of Ion Storage Systems solid-state battery structure.
Figure 128. ITEN micro batteries.
Figure 129. Kite Rise’s A-sample sodium-ion battery module.
Figure 130. LiBEST flexible battery.
Figure 131. Li-FUN sodium-ion battery cells.
Figure 132. LiNa Energy battery.
Figure 133. 3D solid-state thin-film battery technology.
Figure 134. Lyten batteries.
Figure 135. Cellulomix production process.
Figure 136. Nanobase versus conventional products.
Figure 137. Nanotech Energy battery.
Figure 138. Hybrid battery powered electrical motorbike concept.
Figure 139. Schematic illustration of three-chamber system for SWCNH production.
Figure 140. TEM images of carbon nanobrush.
Figure 141. EnerCerachip.
Figure 142. Cambrian battery.
Figure 143. Printed battery.
Figure 144. Prieto Foam-Based 3D Battery.
Figure 145. Printed Energy flexible battery.
Figure 146. ProLogium solid-state battery.
Figure 147. QingTao solid-state batteries.
Figure 148. Schematic of the quinone flow battery.
Figure 149. Sakuú Corporation 3Ah Lithium Metal Solid-state Battery.
Figure 150. Salgenx S3000 seawater flow battery.
Figure 151. Samsung SDI's sixth-generation prismatic batteries.
Figure 152. SES Apollo batteries.
Figure 153. Sionic Energy battery cell.
Figure 154. Solid Power battery pouch cell.
Figure 155. Stora Enso lignin battery materials.
Figure 156.TeraWatt Technology solid-state battery
Figure 157. Zeta Energy 20 Ah cell.
Figure 158. Zoolnasm batteries.
Figure 159. Supercapacitor schematic.
Figure 160. Schematic illustration of EDLC.
Figure 161. Schematic of supercapacitors in wearables.
Figure 162. (A) Schematic overview of a flexible supercapacitor as compared to conventional supercapacitor.
Figure 163. Stretchable graphene supercapacitor.
Figure 164. Applications of graphene in supercapacitors.
Figure 165. Graphene aerogel.
Figure 166. Structure diagram of Ti3C2Tx.
Figure 167. Main printing methods for supercapacitors.
Figure 168. Graphene battery schematic.
Figure 169. NBD battery.
Figure 170. PtL production pathways.
Figure 171. Process steps in the production of electrofuels.
Figure 172. Mapping storage technologies according to performance characteristics.
Figure 173. Production process for green hydrogen.
Figure 174. E-liquids production routes.
Figure 175. Fischer-Tropsch liquid e-fuel products.
Figure 176. Resources required for liquid e-fuel production.
Figure 177. Schematic of Climeworks DAC system.
Figure 178. Levelized cost and fuel-switching CO2 prices of e-fuels.
Figure 179. Cost breakdown for e-fuels.
Figure 180. Thermal energy storage materials.
Figure 181. Phase Change Material transient behaviour.
Figure 182. PCM mode of operation.
Figure 183. Classification of PCMs.
Figure 184. Phase-change materials in their original states.
Figure 185. Solid State Reflective Display (SRD®) schematic.
Figure 186. Transtherm® PCMs.
Figure 187. HI-FLOW Phase Change Materials.
Figure 188. Credo™ ProMed transport bags.
Figure 189. SWOT analysis: Compressed air energy storage.
Figure 190. SWOT analysis: Liquefied CO2 energy storage.
Figure 191. SWOT analysis: SENS.
Figure 192. SWOT analysis: Gravitational energy storage.
Figure 193. PEM fuel cell schematic.
Figure 194. PEMFC assembly and materials.
Figure 195. Toyota Mirai 2nd generation.
Figure 196. Hyundai NEXO.
Figure 197. BMW'S Cryo-compressed storage tank.
Figure 198. Solar PV module production by technology, 2011-2021.
Figure 199. Efficiency of different solar PV cell types.
Figure 200. Dye sensitized solar cell schemartic.
Figure 201. Metamaterial solar coating.
Figure 202. Thin film and flexible solar cell Deposition Methods.
Figure 203. Thin film and flexible solar cells players.
Figure 204. The Sun Rock building, Taiwan.
Figure 205. Photovoltaic solar cells.
Figure 206. Classification of BIPV products.
Figure 207. Global market for PV solar cells to 2033, by technology (revenues).
Figure 208. Hikari building incorporating SunEwat Square solar glazing.
Figure 209. Elegante solar glass panel.
Figure 210. Certainteed Apollo-2 solar shingles roof.
Figure 211. Triple insulated glass unit for the Stadtwerke Konstanz energy cube in Germany.
Figure 212. Moscow building incorporating Hevel's BIPV product.
Figure 213. Mitrex solar façade layers.
Figure 214. Solar Brick by Mitrex
Figure 215. QDSSC Module.
Figure 216. DragonScales technology.
Figure 217. Photovoltaic integration in façade at the Gioia 22 skyscraper, in Milan.
Figure 218. S6 flexible solar module.
Figure 219. Ubiquitous Energy windows installed at the Boulder Commons in Colorado.
Figure 220. Schematic illustration of the fabrication concept for textile-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) made by sewing textile electrodes onto cloth or paper.
Figure 221. Energy harvesting technologies.
Figure 222. Energy harvesting solutions in smart buildings.
Figure 223. TE module schematic.
Figure 224. Utilization of TE materials in exterior walls for energy generation, heating and cooling.
Figure 225. Textile-based car seat heaters.
Figure 226 . 3D print piezoelectric material.

Companies Mentioned (Partial List)

A selection of companies mentioned in this report includes, but is not limited to:

  • AMSL Aero
  • Atlas Materials
  • Ambri Inc
  • Battolyser Systems
  • Brilliant Matters
  • Cactos
  • CMBlu Energy AG
  • Energy Vault
  • Enerpoly
  • Enervenue
  • Ensol
  • ESS Tech
  • e-Zinc
  • Factorial
  • Fourth Power
  • Flow Aluminum, Inc.
  • Gelion
  • GKN Hydrogen
  • Gotion High Tech
  • Graphene Manufacturing Group
  • H2MOF
  • High Performace Battery Holding AG
  • Inobat, Inx
  • Jolt Electrodes
  • Kraftblock
  • LIND Limited
  • Lyten
  • MFA Thermal
  • Northvolt
  • Our Next Energy (ONE)
  • Oxford Photovoltaics
  • Rondo Energy
  • Salient Energy
  • SaltX
  • Sicona Battery Technologies
  • Sila
  • Skeleton Technologies
  • Soleolico
  • Solid Power
  • Stabl Energy
  • TasmanIon
  • Tiamat
  • Verkor
  • VFlowTech