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Battery-Free Electrical Energy Storage and Storage Elimination MilliWh-GWh: Markets, Technologies 2024-2044

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  • 429 Pages
  • October 2023
  • Region: Global
  • Zhar Research
  • ID: 5695479

Emerging $230 Billion Market for Battery-Free Electricity Storage

A huge new market for materials and hardware awaits you in the new report, “Battery-free electrical energy storage and storage elimination milliWh-GWh: markets, technologies 2024-2044” at 429 pages. There is a glossary at the start and terms are explained throughout the report. 

Contained in the report:

  • SWOT appraisals 6
  • Chapters 8
  • Forecast lines 2024-2044 31
  • Infograms, tables, graphs 143
  • Companies 225

Market needs often moving beyond what batteries can achieve

The next 20 years will see the widespread deployment of laser pistols, large laser cannon, many new aerospace and medical pulse technologies, fast-response emergency power, months-to-seasonal solar grid storage, hydrogen high-speed trains, maybe some thermonuclear power. Battery-free energy storage will be essential to all of them, mainly because batteries can never provide the required pulse power, minimal self-leakage, GWh economy or longest life due to their fundamental chemistry. For example, the largely physics-based approach of battery-free storage variously provides one hundred times the power density, zero self-leakage, one tenth of the GWh Levelised Cost of Storage LCOS and/or 100-year life. Indeed, it is typically non-flammable, with no toxicity or scarcity issues. 

Massive growth in battery-free storage as needs change

Batteryless storage technologies are on a trajectory way beyond today’s $25 billion business of pumped hydro for grids and the $4 billion business of supercapacitors and capacitor banks. This is a world that includes lifting weights, compressing gases, chemical intermediaries and making supercapacitor derivatives, with most of those already landing first large orders for delayed electricity. Add pumped hydro reinvented and niches like electrical flywheels and thermally delayed electricity.

Large market emerging for storage elimination technology

Storage elimination is also covered including planned 6G Communications powering powerless IoT nodes only when interrogated, solar farms making chemicals when operative and the lizard-like microbot moving when light is available. Some Wireless Sensor Network nodes communicate when their multi-mode energy harvesting has enough input - which can be often, thanks to the new ultra- low power electronics needing only a whisper of electricity.

Lithium-ion batteries do not escape the S curve 

The facts-based analysis finds that lithium-ion battery sales are not immune to the S curve. They will saturate at around $330 billion as we approach 2044 because of new batteries, decline of their major applications and inability to serve those huge new batteryless markets. Later on the S curve, your around $230 billion batteryless storage opportunity and your market for storage elimination technology will both be growing increasingly rapidly in twenty years from now. Learn how to create a multi-billion-dollar hardware business out of that, including gaps in the market, potential acquisitions, partners and best pickings from the research pipeline.

What is offered in the new report

The Executive Summary and Conclusions at 37 pages is sufficient for those with limited time. Here are the basics, methodology, 22 key conclusions, roadmaps 2024-2044 and the 31 forecast lines 2024-2044. Many new infograms make it easy reading. See SWOT appraisals: one of battery-free technologies and one of storage elimination.

Chapter 2 Introduction has 10 pages covering megatrends of electrification, battery adoption and battery elimination, pressures on batteries 2024-2044, Information and Communication Technology ICT power issues including 6G, WPT, WIET, SWIPT, Internet of Things and its power problems and solutions. Understand the trend to 100% zero-emission renewable power and increased intermittency of supply from more wind/ solar. Understand renewable energy by country and its effect on Long Duration Energy Storage LDES choices. Here is the batteryless storage toolkit from options with little growth potential - inductor, conventional capacitor, flywheel - and those with major growth potential: supercapacitors and their variants and the heavy engineering options. 

Chapter 3 “Wireless electronics and electrics battery elimination” takes 40 pages, including a SWOT appraisal, to explain these aspects in more detail. Highlights include the trends to self-powered sensors, passive repeater antennas, metamaterial passive 6G reflectors, backscatter - EAS and passive RFID then more sophisticated forms, wireless information and energy transfer WIET for 6G and IOT, even wireless Internet of Everything IoE from forthcoming 6G. Here are energy harvesting with demand management to reduce or eliminate storage and detail on battery-free electronics: sensors, phones, cameras, small drones, self-powered sensors and also sensors and biometric access by harvesting man-made radiation. Understand the contribution of those ultra-low power circuits, the new intermittency-tolerant electronics and battery-free power electrics, even vehicle charging direct from solar. 

The 19 pages of Chapter 4. “Strategies for fewer and smaller batteries” explores intermittency issues and solutions including Battery Elimination Circuits BEC and both multi-mode and multi-source energy harvesting. The 24 pages of Chapter 5 “Energy harvesting μW to GW for battery reduction and elimination in 6G, IOT, wearables and other systems” are also an easy read, again with the priority being business opportunities not nostalgia or academic obscurity. You are now sufficiently warmed up to absorb the heroic deep-dive chapters.

Chapter 6 “Capacitors, supercapacitors, pseudocapacitors, lithium-ion capacitors” takes 133 pages to explain why these will sell at 7.5 times the 2024 level in 2044. Clue: much of that projection comes from new market needs that call for their particular attributes. They are appearing in aircraft, aerospace, electric vehicles, microgrids, grids, for peak shaving, renewable energy, uninterrupted power supplies, medical, wearables, military such as the new pulsed linear accelerator weapons, radar and trucks. Add power and signal electronics, data centers and welding all with subsections here. 

See the spectrum of choice and latest research pipeline separately for pure supercapacitors, many hybrid approaches and pseudocapacitors. That prepares you for the coverage of actual and potential major applications of supercapacitors and their derivatives and the very detailed comparison of 103 supercapacitor companies assessed in 10 columns with a profusion of illustrations. 

Chapter 7 “Large capacity battery-free storage for 6G/IOT base stations, data centers, buildings, microgrid and grid Long Duration Energy Storage LDES” is also a very deep dive. Its 140 pages are necessary because this heavy end, mainly MWh to GWh, is going to grow eightfold to around $200 billion in 2044. Mostly, that is because so many microgrids and grids will progress to highly intermittent solar and wind power because of dramatic cost advantages even allowing for the added need for storage. 50-100% adoption in a given system demands months to seasonal storage that batteries can never provide competitively. Because it has the largest potential market, LDES takes most of this chapter with six SWOT appraisals, roadmaps and parameter comparisons as tables and infograms comparing everything from hydrogen intermediary to thermal for delayed electricity, including how they will improve. Most detail is on those assessed to be particularly promising for growing the market, including compressed air, liquid air or carbon dioxide, lifting solid weights, pumped hydro reinvented. See parameters, costings, competitors, technologies and targets. 

Hydrogen is an important part of this story, from Chinese supercapacitor-hydrogen high-speed trains demonstrated in 2023 to hydrogen storage in salt caverns proposed for the UK and elsewhere for months-to-seasonally delayed electricity. Although hydrogen storage is covered in Chapter 7, the brief Chapter 8 gives the bigger picture of “The proposed hydrogen economy and its use for delayed electricity” in seven pages, mostly detailed infograms, to close the report. 


Table of Contents

1. Executive summary and conclusions
1.1 Purpose and scope of this report
1.2 Methodology of this analysis
1.3 Nine primary market conclusions including battery vs batteryless storage forecast 2024-2044
1.4 Thirteen primary conclusions: batteryless technologies 2024-2044
1.5 Battery-free storage and storage elimination roadmaps 2024-2044
1.5.1 Battery-free storage vs storage elimination
1.5.2 Long Duration Energy Storage LDES roadmap 2024-2044
1.6 Batteryless market forecasts and, for comparison, lithium-ion batteries 2024-2044
1.6.1 Batteryless storage for electricity-to-electricity: terminology and trends
1.6.2 Batteryless storage short vs long duration 2023-2044
1.6.3 Batteryless energy storage vs lithium-ion battery market $ billion 2023-2044: table, graphs, explanation
1.6.4 Lithium-ion battery market by three storage levels 2023-2044: table
1.6.5 Lithium-ion battery market by three storage levels $ billion 2023-2044: graphs
1.6.6 Batteryless energy storage by three storage levels $ billion 2023-2044: table
1.6.7 Batteryless energy storage by three storage levels $ billion 2023-2044: graphs and explanation
1.6.8 Batteryless storage market by 13 technology categories $ billion 2023-2044 table
1.6.9 Batteryless storage market by 13 technology categories $ billion 2023-2044 area graph and 2044 pie chart
1.6.10 Infrastructure enabling client devices without storage: global yearly 6G RIS sales by five types and total $ billion 2024-2044 table
1.6.11 Global yearly 6G RIS sales by five types $ billion 2023-2043: area graph with explanation
1.6.12 Batteryless backscatter RFID and EAS tags market $ billion 2023-2044: table and graphs
1.7 SWOT appraisal of batteryless storage technologies
1.8 SWOT appraisal of circuits and infrastructure that eliminate storage

2. Introduction
2.1 Megatrends of electrification, battery adoption and battery elimination
2.1.1 Overview
2.1.2 Electronics and small electrical devices
2.2 Pressures on batteries 2024-2044
2.3 Information and communication technology ICT power issues including 6G
2.5 Internet of Things and its power problems and solutions
2.6 Trending to 100% zero-emission renewable power and increased intermittency of supply
2.6.1 Overview
2.6.2 Renewable energy by country and effect on Long Duration Energy Storage LDES choices
2.7 Batteryless storage toolkit
2.7.1 Options with little growth potential: inductor, conventional capacitor, flywheel
2.7.2 Options with major growth potential: supercapacitors and their variants, heavy engineering

3. Wireless electronics and electrics battery elimination
3.1 Overview
3.2 The trend to self-powered sensors
3.3 Passive repeater antennas, metamaterial passive 6G reflectors
3.4 Backscatter - EAS and passive RFID then more sophisticated forms
3.5 Wireless information and energy transfer WIET for 6G and IoT
3.5.2 Wireless powered IoE for 6G
3.6 Energy harvesting with demand management
3.7 Battery-free electronics: sensors, IOT nodes, phones, cameras, small drones
3.7.1 Overview and self-powered sensors
3.7.2 Sensors and biometric access by harvesting man-made radiation
3.7.3 IOT node strategies for battery-free
3.7.4 Mobile phone and electronic stylus
3.7.5 Battery-free camera using excess light
3.7.6 EnOcean building controls “no wires, no batteries, no limits” pitched as IoT
3.7.7 Battery-free drones as sensors and IOT
3.7.8 The Everactive ultra-low power circuits contribution to IoT
3.7.9 Intermittency-tolerant electronics BFree
3.8 Battery-free power electrics
3.8.1 Overview: hand cranked electrics, capacitor dynamos etc.
3.8.2 Vehicle charging direct from solar
3.9 SWOT appraisal of circuits and infrastructure that eliminate storage

4. Strategies for fewer and smaller batteries
4.1 Overview
4.2 Battery elimination circuits BEC in electronics reducing number of batteries needed
4.3 Battery reduction by V2G, V2H, V2V and vehicle charging directly from solar panels
4.4 Demand management
4.4.1 Overview
4.4.2 Lessons from wireless sensor networks
4.4.3 Lessons from active RFID
4.5 Less intermittent zero emission electricity generation technologies
4.5.1 Types if intermittency of supply
4.5.2 Less intermittent single sources
4.5.3 Multi-mode and multiple-source harvesting to reduce intermittency
4.5.4 Multi-mode harvesting research pipeline
4.5.5 Combining different harvesting technologies in one device: research pipeline

5. Energy harvesting µW-GW for battery reduction and elimination in 6G, IOT, wearables and other systems
5.1 Overview
5.2 Energy harvesting system design
5.2.1 Elements of a harvesting system
5.2.2 Ultra-low power 6G, IoT and other client devices to reduce harvesting need
5.3 Energy harvesting system detail with improvement strategies 2023-2043
5.4 Energy harvesting devices and structures needing energy harvesting µW-GW 2023-2043
5.5 14 families of energy harvesting technology emerging µW-GW 2023-2043
5.6 A closer look at nine forms of energy harvesting 2023-2043
5.7 Mechanical harvesting including acoustic in detail
5.8 Sources of mechanical energy and harvesting options 2023-2043
5.9 Electrodynamic harvesting advances
5.9.1 Kinetron electrodynamic (“electrokinetic”) harvesters typically harvesting infrasound
5.9.2 Transpiration electrokinetic harvesting for battery-free power supply
5.10 Sources of electromagnetic energy and harvesting options 2023-2043
5.11 Strategies for increasing photovoltaic output per unit volume and area 2023-2043
5.12 Photovoltaics feasible and affordable in more places: extreme vehicles, smartwatches
5.13 Importance of flexible laminar energy harvesting 2023-2043
5.13.1 Overview
5.13.2 Flexible energy harvesting: biofuel cell skin sensor system
5.14 Other examples : piezoelectric, thermoelectric, magnetoelectric, photovoltaic

6. Capacitors, supercapacitors, pseudocapacitors, lithium-ion capacitors
6.1 The place of capacitors and their variants
6.2 Spectrum of choice - capacitor to supercapacitor to battery
6.3 Research pipeline: pure supercapacitors
6.4 Research pipeline: hybrid approaches
6.5 Research pipeline: pseudocapacitors
6.6 Actual and potential major applications of supercapacitors and their derivatives 2024-2044
6.6.1 Overview
6.6.2 Aircraft and aerospace
6.6.3 Electric vehicles: AGV, material handling, car, truck, bus, tram, train
6.6.4 Grid, microgrid, peak shaving, renewable energy and uninterrupted power supplies
6.6.5 Medical and wearables
6.6.6 Military: Laser cannon, railgun, pulsed linear accelerator weapon, radar, trucks, other
6.6.7 Power and signal electronics, data centers
6.6.8 Welding
6.7 103 supercapacitor companies assessed in 10 columns

7 Large capacity battery-free storage for 6G/IoT data centers, base stations, buildings, microgrid and grid Long Duration Energy Storage LDEs
7.1 Overview
7.2 How cost becomes one reason for solar dominating grid and microgrid generation
7.3 How dominance of solar starts at the smaller systems
7.4 Energy storage for grids, microgrids and buildings 2024-2044
7.5 Big picture of LDES technology potential
7.6 LDES toolkit
7.7 Equivalent efficiency vs storage hours for LDES technologies
7.8 Technologies for largest number of LDES sold for grids, microgrids, buildings
7.9 Available sites vs space efficiency for LDES technologies
7.10 LDES roadmap 2024-2033
7.11 Lessons from LDES projects completing 2023-2033
7.12 LDES roadmap 2033-2044
7.13 LCOS $/kWh trend vs storage and discharge time
7.14 LDES power GW trend vs storage and discharge time
7.15 Days storage vs rated power return MW for LDES technologies
7.16 Days storage vs amount MWh for LDES technologies
7.17 Potential by technology to supply LDES at peak power after various delays
7.18 Compressed air energy storage CAES
7.18.1 Overview
7.18.2 Parameter appraisal of CAES for LDES
7.18.3 Technology options
7.18.4 CAES manufacturers, projects and research
7.18.5 CAES companies: Hydrostor and others
7.18.6 SWOT appraisal of CAES for LDES
7.19 Liquefied gas energy storage: Liquid air LAES or CO2
7.19.1 Overview
7.19.2 Principle of a liquified air energy storage system
7.19.3 Parameter appraisal of LAES for LDES
7.19.4 Increasing the LAES storage time and discharge duration
7.19.5 LAES supplier assessments with publisher appraisal: Highview Power, Phelas
7.19.6 LAES research: Mitsubishi Hitachi, Linde, European Union, Others
7.19.7 SWOT appraisal for LAES for LDES
7.18.8 Energy Dome Italy - carbon dioxide storage
7.18.9 SWOT appraisal of Energy Dome liquid CO2 for LDES
7.20 Solid gravity energy storage
7.20.1 Overview
7.20.2 Energy Vault Switzerland, USA with publisher appraisal
7.20.3 Gravitricity UK with publisher appraisal
7.20.4 SinkFloatSolutions France with publisher appraisal
7.20.5 Parameter appraisal of SGES for LDES
7.20.6 SWOT appraisal of SGES for LDES
7.21 Advanced pumped hydro energy storage APHES
7.21.1 Overview
7.21.2 Quidnet Energy USA: pressurised hydro underground with publisher appraisal
7.21.3 Underwater pumped hydro StEnSea, Ocean Grazer with publisher appraisals
7.21.4 Cavern Energy USA - brine in salt caverns with publisher appraisal
7.21.5 Mine Storage Sweden - Hydro in mines with publisher appraisal
7.21.6 RheEnergise UK hills and heavy liquid with publisher appraisal
7.21.7 SWOT appraisal of pumped hydro reinvented for LDES
7.22 SWOT appraisal of batteryless storage technologies

8. The proposed hydrogen economy and its use for delayed electricity
8.1 Overview
8.2 Estimates of hydrogen sources and uses
8.3 Finessing the origin of hydrogen
8.4 Status of the hydrogen economy in 2024
8.5 Hydrogen storage options and adoption
8.6 Primary options for distributing and using zero emission power

Companies Mentioned

  • 8Power
  • Aartech Solonics
  • ADA
  • Aerovironment
  • AEP
  • Agora Energy Technologies
  • Apowercap
  • Altris
  • Ambri
  • Antora
  • Aowei
  • ARES
  • Aucxis
  • AVX
  • Axiion P
  • Azelio
  • Baker Hughes
  • Beyonder
  • Blue Solutions
  • BP
  • B9 Energy Storage
  • Breeze
  • Brenmiller Energy
  • C”C Newcap
  • CAES
  • Cap-XX
  • Cavern Energy
  • Cellcube
  • Ceres
  • Cheesecake Energy
  • Chevron
  • Chioyang Liyuang NE
  • Cooper Bussmann
  • Cornell Dubilier
  • Corre Energy
  • CPS Energy
  • CRE Tech
  • Crondall Energy
  • CRRC
  • Daifuku
  • Dongguan AIC
  • Dongguan Gonghe
  • Dongguan Xuanx
  • Dongguan Opto
  • East Penn
  • Eaton
  • Elna
  • Epic Power
  • E-zinc
  • Echogen
  • Energy8
  • Energy Dome
  • Energy Vault
  • Energy Nest
  • Enervenue
  • Enlighten
  • EOS
  • Evans Cap.
  • ESS Technology
  • Faradion
  • FastCap
  • Form Energy
  • Fortescue Metals Group
  • Fujikura
  • GE
  • Granit
  • Gravitricity
  • Greenco Group
  • GreenTech
  • H2 Inc
  • Harbin
  • HBI
  • Heatrix
  • Heter
  • Highview Power
  • Hitachi
  • HiNa
  • Hochtief
  • Huaneng
  • Huisman
  • Hydrostor
  • IEA
  • ILI Group
  • Illionois Cap.
  • Innatech
  • InnoEnergy
  • IOT Energy
  • Ioxus
  • Invinity Energy Systems
  • Jianhai
  • JKM
  • JMEnergy
  • JSC Uzbekhydroenergo
  • Kilowatt Labs.
  • Korchip
  • Kraft Block
  • Kyocera
  • Kyoto Group
  • Lamborghini
  • Largo
  • Lazard
  • Liaoning BE
  • Licap
  • Lightyear
  • Ligna E
  • Linde
  • Lockheed Martin
  • Locogen
  • LS Ultracap
  • Magnum
  • Malta
  • MAN Energy Solutions
  • Magaldi
  • Malta
  • Maxwell tech.
  • MGA Thermal
  • Mine Storage
  • Mitsubishi Hitachi
  • Morand
  • MusashiES
  • MSE International
  • Natron
  • NDC
  • NAWA Tech.
  • Nichicon
  • Nippon Chemical
  • ONEO
  • Omni Power
  • Optixal
  • PaperB
  • Panasonic
  • Phelas
  • Premio
  • Primus Power
  • Quidnet Energy
  • Rcam Technologies
  • Redflow
  • Reliance Industries
  • RHEnergise
  • RTX Raytheon
  • Rye Development
  • SaltX Tech.
  • Samwha
  • Schmid Group
  • Seattle Elec.
  • Sech
  • Seiko Industries
  • Sens Pumped Hydro Storage
  • ShandongG
  • Shanghai Pluspark
  • Shenzhen Chenixinhong
  • Shenzhen Forecon
  • Shenzhen Jiashengtai
  • Shenzhen JinHong
  • Shenzhen Topmay
  • Shenzhen Xuyangto
  • Sherwood Energy
  • Siemens Energy
  • SinkFloatSolutions
  • Sintef
  • Skeleton Technologies
  • SPEL Suriya
  • SPS
  • Stiesdah
  • Storelectric
  • StorEn Technologies
  • StorTera
  • Storworks Power
  • Subsea 7
  • Sumitomo Electrical Industries
  • Surge Supercapacitors
  • Swanbarton
  • Taiyo Yuden
  • Taurima
  • Terrastor
  • Tesla
  • Tiamat
  • TDK
  • Tecate
  • Tokin
  • Toomen
  • Torc
  • Toshiba
  • Total
  • Toyota
  • UCap
  • UET
  • UniEnergy Technologies
  • VFlowTech
  • VINATech
  • Vishay
  • Voith Hydro
  • Volt Storage
  • VRB Energy
  • WIMA
  • Wuhan ST
  • Wurth
  • YCE
  • YMIN
  • Yunasco
  • ZapGo
  • Zoxcwll
  • ZTT


Research Inputs Include:

  • Appraisal of which targeted needs are genuine
  • Web, literature, databases, experience and patents
  • Close study of research pipeline
  • Appraisal of regional initiatives
  • Actitivies of standard bodies
  • Limitations of physics and chemistry
  • Interviews