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Sulfur - History, Technology, Applications & Industry, 3rd Edition

  • Book

  • 238 Pages
  • January 2023
  • ChemTec Publishing
  • ID: 5797796

This book, scientific and technical in nature, is written in a clear and concise style by the author who aims at presenting scholarly content to be understood by those who do not have a strong background in chemistry, and the text will be enjoyed until the last page by anyone.

The latest edition of this highly regarded book is a reference that brings the latest information on the evolving role of sulfur in several industrial processes, as well as its relationship to the environment. It is dedicated to those who need to know about the modalities and potentialities of sulfur use.

The book has seven chapters, each devoted to either method of production or a set of applications as they intertwined during different stages of industrial and technological developments. The first chapter is a brief introduction that provides an overview of the physical properties of sulfur, its natural sources, and its ancient markets.

It is followed by the “Sulfur Age,” also known as the Industrial Age, during which the dominant market for sulfur and sulfuric acid emerged, such as the Leblanc industry and phosphate fertilizers.

Sicily was the first global supplier of sulfur. Sulfur demand soared, becoming the first global commodity industry.

Large sulfur deposits were discovered in Texas and Louisiana. Hidden under the quagmire, the elusive deposits remained beyond the technology of the day. A new inventive process was discovered by Herman Frasch.

His technology created the great sulfur companies of the world, and America became the largest producer (and user) of sulfur (China is the major producer of sulfur today). Herman Frasch is less known but of similar stature as Edison. His patented inventions gave the edge to American industry, which went from 100% import to becoming the largest producer and exporter in less than one decade.

Sulfur is a common contaminant of oil and natural gas. It must be removed from these materials before they can be used as energy sources. It is the basis of the most modern industry. Recovery of sulfur from oil sands is the further extension of the present process, and its future is discussed.

The sulfur industry is an excellent “case study” of entrepreneurship and its relationship with investors. This book reveals the characteristics of entrepreneurs and inventors and the approaches required to formulate goals. Most importantly, it shows how to succeed in new ventures. Rockefeller might have become a failed entrepreneur if Frasch had not rescued him from his “bad investment.” Frasch turned certain failures into successes through his technological expertise and determination. Frasch’s major expertise was in the oil industry and specifically in the removal of sulfur from oil.

Sulfur deposits cover most regions of the world and their exploration techniques have been investigated in detail throughout this text.

The interested audience of this book goes far beyond the boundaries of sulfur applications and the oil industry, and as such, it should be found in every technical, university, and public library.

Table of Contents

1 Le Roi du Sol
2 The Sulfur Age
2.1 Sulfuric acid manufacturing
2.1.1 The Nordhausen process
2.1.2 The Bell
2.1.3 The chamber
2.1.4 The contact
2.1.5 Metallurgical sulfuric
2.1.6 Pyrites Spain Italy Norway Canada China
2.2 Sulfuric acid
2.2.1 The Leblanc
2.2.2 Phosphate

3 Native Sulfur - Sicily
3.1 Ancient sulfur
3.2 Renaissance sulfur
3.3 Industrial revolution (“Sulfur Age”)
3.3.1 Sicily
3.3.2 The Zolfare, the Solfatari & the Carusi
3.3.3 The Doppioni, Calcarella, Calcaroni & the Gill furnace
3.3.4 The Gabelloti
3.3.5 The British wine merchants
3.3.6 The Sulfur War of 1840
3.3.7 The post-Sulfur War era & the rise of pyrites
3.4 The cartels
3.4.1 Anglo-Sicilian Sulfur Company (ASSC): 1896 to 1906
3.4.2 Consorzio Obligatorio per D'Industrial Solfifera Siciliana (COISS): 1906 to 1932
3.4.3 Ufficio per la Vendita dello Zolfo Italiano (UVZI): 1934 to 1940
3.4.4 Ente Zolfi Italiani (EZI): 1940 to 1962
3.4.5 Ente Minerario Siciliano (EMS): 1962 to 1985

4 Frasch Sulfur - Texas/Louisiana
4.1 Native (non-Frasch) sulfur mines
4.2 Herman Frasch
4.2.1 His life & family
4.2.2 His oil ventures
4.2.3 His alkali venture
4.2.4 His salt ventures
4.2.5 His sulfur ventures: Union Sulfur
4.5 The other sulfur companies
4.5.1 Freeport Sulfur
4.5.2 Texas Gulf Sulfur
4.5.3 Duval Texas Sulfur
4.5.4 Jefferson Lake Sulfur
4.5.5 Sulexco
4.6 Liquid sulfur
4.7 Non-U.S. Frasch mines
4.7.1 Mexico
4.7.2 Poland
4.7.3 U.S.S.R.
4.7.4 Iraq
4.7.5 Brazil

5 Recovered Sulfur - Alberta
5.1 Sour, more sour, & sourest
5.2 Alberta & the global sulfur market
5.3 Sulfur blocks & broken sulfur
5.4 Sulfur forming: slate & prills
5.5 Marketing &
5.5.1 Cansulex & Prism
5.5.2 Alberta to Vancouver
5.6 The global competition
5.6.1 U.S.
5.6.2 Western Europe
5.6.3 Persian Gulf Iran Iraq Saudi Arabia Other
5.6.4 Caspian Sea
5.6.5 Japan
5.7 Sulfur pricing: the penny syndrome

6 The Sulfur Entrepreneur
6.1 The desperate entrepreneur & the reluctant investor
6.1.1 Institutional investors
6.1.2 Private investors
6.1.3 Entrepreneurs
6.2 The revolutionary technology: to switch or not to switch, that is the question
6.3 The ultimate venture: the monopoly game
6.4 Who killed the sulfur entrepreneur?
6.5 Climate change will cause sulfur change

ReferencesAppendix I. Sulexco AgreementsAppendix II. FTC Review of SulexcoAppendix III. Global Sulfur ProductionIndex