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The Global Market for Green and Sustainable Electronics Manufacturing 2024-2034

  • Report

  • 205 Pages
  • September 2023
  • Region: Global
  • Future Markets, Inc
  • ID: 5877803

The electronics industry has witnessed massive growth over the past few decades, with electronic devices becoming an integral part of modern life. However, this growth has also led to significant environmental impacts, including high energy consumption, resource depletion, and electronic waste (e-waste). According to the UN, waste electronics is the fastest growing and most hazardous waste stream globally.  This has resulted in an increasing need to make electronics manufacturing more sustainable and environmentally friendly, leading to the emergence of "green electronics" as an approach to reducing the electronics industry's environmental footprint.

Development of sustainable printed circuit board (PCB) designs has grown recently as part of the push for green manufacturing. Traditional  PCB manufacturing relies on energy intensive and high-emission processes that involve copper, epoxy resin, glass fiber, and water that are harmful to the environment. Recycling techniques have low efficiency and include laborious processes.

New materials are being utilized that are easily recyclable, and biodegradable polymers and paper PCBs are used in PCB manufacturing. Environmentally friendly etchants for existing subtractive processes and additive manufacturing such as inkjet and laser printing is also increasingly utilized. By employing additive methods, energy consumption during manufacturing can be even five times less than with conventional methods.  Sustainable and printable substrate materials including different cellulose and wood-based materials, bioplastics, and biocomposites have been developed. 

The Global Market for Green and Sustainable Electronics Manufacturing 2024-2034 provides a comprehensive analysis of the global green electronics manufacturing industry. The report covers industry trends, drivers, challenges, approaches, technologies, materials, processes, and leading companies across printed circuit boards (PCBs), integrated circuits (ICs), batteries, assembly, and the electronics supply chain. Market revenues and forecasts are provided for sustainable PCBs and ICs, segmented by substrate and process types, through 2034. 

The report profiles 40  innovative companies offering greener materials, chemistries, equipment and manufacturing services enabling the transition to more circular, lower carbon electronics. Multiple tables summarize key manufacturers, processes, materials, and sustainability strategies for green electronics.

Analysis is provided on trends in renewables, additive processes, biobased and recycled materials, toxicity reduction, supply chain transparency, e-waste recovery, and life cycle optimization to minimize electronics' environmental footprint. The report helps electronics OEMs, PCBs, ICs, EMS companies and suppliers benchmark sustainability efforts and identify new opportunities.

Report contents include:

  • Overview of green electronics manufacturing and drivers for sustainability such as e-waste reduction, lower emissions, and resource efficiency.
  • Analysis of environmental impacts like carbon emissions, water usage, and waste.
  • Regulations and certifications promoting sustainable electronics.
  • Powering electronics through renewable batteries.
  • Use of bioplastics for injection molded parts.
  • Comparison of conventional vs sustainable manufacturing approaches.
  • Analysis of strategies including renewable energy, materials efficiency, sustainable chemistry, recycled materials, and supply chain management.
  • Sustainable PCB manufacturing including materials, substrates, patterning, component attachment.
  • Sustainable integrated circuits manufacturing.
  • End-of-life considerations for electronics.
  • Global PCB market size and forecast 2018-2034.
  • Sustainable PCB and IC revenue forecasts segmented by technology type.
  • Profiles of 40  companies providing green materials, equipment, and manufacturing services. Companies profiled include DP Patterning, Elephantech, Infineon Technologies, Jiva Materials, Samsung, Syenta, and Tactotek. Additional information on bio-based battery, conductive ink, green & lead-free solder and halogen-free FR4 companies.

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Table of Contents

1.1 Green electronics manufacturing
1.2 Drivers for sustainable electronics
1.3 Environmental Impacts of Electronics Manufacturing
1.3.1 E-Waste Generation
1.3.2 Carbon Emissions
1.3.3 Resource Utilization
1.3.4 Waste Minimization
1.3.5 Supply Chain Impacts
1.4 New opportunities from sustainable electronics
1.5 Regulations
1.5.1 Certifications
1.6 Powering sustainable electronics (Bio-based batteries)
1.7 Bioplastics in injection moulded electronics parts

2.1 Conventional electronics manufacturing
2.2 Benefits of Green Electronics manufacturing
2.3 Challenges in adopting Green Electronics manufacturing
2.4 Approaches
2.4.1 Closed-Loop Manufacturing
2.4.2 Digital Manufacturing Advanced robotics & automation AI & machine learning analytics Internet of Things (IoT) Additive manufacturing Virtual prototyping Blockchain-enabled supply chain traceability
2.4.3 Renewable Energy Usage
2.4.4 Energy Efficiency
2.4.5 Materials Efficiency
2.4.6 Sustainable Chemistry
2.4.7 Recycled Materials Advanced chemical recycling
2.4.8 Bio-Based Materials
2.5 Greening the Supply Chain
2.5.1 Key focus areas
2.5.2 Sustainability activities from major electronics brands
2.5.3 Key challenges
2.5.4 Use of digital technologies
2.6.1 Conventional PCB manufacturing
2.6.2 Trends in PCBs High-Speed PCBs Flexible PCBs 3D Printed PCBs Sustainable PCBs
2.6.3 Reconciling sustainability with performance
2.6.4 Sustainable supply chains
2.6.5 Sustainability in PCB manufacturing Sustainable cleaning of PCBs
2.6.6 Design of PCBs for sustainability Rigid Flexible Additive manufacturing In-mold elctronics (IME)
2.6.7 Materials Metal cores Recycled laminates Conductive inks Green and lead-free solder Biodegradable substrates Bacterial Cellulose Mycelium Lignin Cellulose Nanofibers Soy Protein Algae PHAs Biobased inks
2.6.8 Substrates Halogen-free FR4 FR4 limitations FR4 alternatives Bio-Polyimide Metal-core PCBs Biobased PCBs Flexible (bio) polyimide PCBs Recent commercial activity Paper-based PCBs PCBs without solder mask Thinner dielectrics Recycled plastic substrates Flexible substrates
2.6.9 Sustainable patterning and metallization in electronics manufacturing Introduction Issues with sustainability Regeneration and reuse of etching chemicals Transition from Wet to Dry phase patterning Print-and-plate Approaches Direct Printed Electronics Photonic Sintering Biometallization Plating Resist Alternatives Laser-Induced Forward Transfer Electrohydrodynamic Printing Electrically conductive adhesives (ECAs Green electroless plating Smart Masking Component Integration Bio-inspired material deposition Multi-material jetting Vacuumless deposition Upcycling waste streams
2.6.10 Sustainable attachment and integration of components Conventional component attachment materials Materials Conductive adhesives Biodegradable adhesives Magnets Bio-based solders Bio-derived solders Recycled plastics Nano adhesives Shape memory polymers Photo-reversible polymers Conductive biopolymers Processes Traditional thermal processing methods Low temperature solder Reflow soldering Induction soldering UV curing Near-infrared (NIR) radiation curing Photonic sintering/curing Component embedding Hybrid integration
2.7.1 IC manufacturing
2.7.2 Sustainable IC manufacturing
2.7.3 Wafer production Silicon Gallium nitride ICs Flexible ICs Fully printed organic ICs
2.7.4 Oxidation methods Sustainable oxidation Metal oxides Recycling Thin gate oxide layers
2.7.5 Patterning and doping Processes Wet etching Dry plasma etching Lift-off patterning Surface doping
2.7.6 Metallization Evaporation Plating Printing Printed metal gates for organic thin film transistors Physical vapour deposition (PVD)
2.8 End of life
2.8.1 Hazardous waste
2.8.2 Emissions
2.8.3 Water Usage
2.8.4 Recycling Mechanical recycling Electro-Mechanical Separation Chemical Recycling Electrochemical Processes Thermal Recycling
2.8.5 Green Certification

3.1 Global PCB manufacturing industry
3.1.1 PCB revenues
3.2 Sustainable PCBs
3.3 Sustainable ICs

4 COMPANY PROFILES (44 company profiles)
5.1 Objectives of This Report

List of Tables
Table 1. Key factors driving adoption of green electronics
Table 2. Key circular economy strategies for electronics
Table 3. Regulations pertaining to green electronics
Table 4. Companies developing bio-based batteries for application in sustainable electronics
Table 5. Benefits of Green Electronics Manufacturing
Table 6. Challenges in adopting Green Electronics manufacturing
Table 7. Major chipmakers' renewable energy road maps
Table 8. Energy efficiency in sustainable electronics manufacturing
Table 9. Composition of plastic waste streams
Table 10. Comparison of mechanical and advanced chemical recycling
Table 11. Example chemically recycled plastic products
Table 12. Bio-based and non-toxic materials in sustainable electronics
Table 13. Key focus areas for enabling greener and ethically responsible electronics supply chains
Table 14. Sustainability programs and disclosure from major electronics brands
Table 15. PCB manufacturing process
Table 16. Challenges in PCB manufacturing
Table 17. 3D PCB manufacturing
Table 18. Comparison of some sustainable PCB alternatives against conventional options in terms of key performance factors
Table 19. Sustainable PCB supply chain
Table 20. Key areas where the PCB industry can improve sustainability
Table 21. Improving sustainability of PCB design
Table 22. PCB design options for sustainability
Table 23. Sustainability benefits and challenges associated with 3D printing
Table 24. Conductive ink producers
Table 25. Green and lead-free solder companies
Table 26. Biodegradable substrates for PCBs
Table 27. Overview of mycelium fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications
Table 28. Application of lignin in composites
Table 29. Properties of lignins and their applications
Table 30. Properties of flexible electronics-cellulose nanofiber film (nanopaper)
Table 31. Companies developing cellulose nanofibers for electronics
Table 32. Commercially available PHAs
Table 33. Main limitations of the FR4 material system used for manufacturing printed circuit boards (PCBs)
Table 34. Halogen-free FR4 companies
Table 35. Properties of biobased PCBs
Table 36. Applications of flexible (bio) polyimide PCBs
Table 37. Main patterning and metallization steps in PCB fabrication and sustainable options
Table 38. Sustainability issues with conventional metallization processes
Table 39. Benefits of print-and-plate
Table 40. Sustainable alternative options to standard plating resists used in printed circuit board (PCB) fabrication
Table 41. Applications for laser induced forward transfer
Table 42. Copper versus silver inks in laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) for electronics fabrication
Table 43. Approaches for in-situ oxidation prevention
Table 44. Market readiness and maturity of different lead-free solders and electrically conductive adhesives (ECAs) for electronics manufacturing
Table 45. Advantages of green electroless plating
Table 46. Comparison of component attachment materials
Table 47. Comparison between sustainable and conventional component attachment materials for printed circuit boards
Table 48. Comparison between the SMAs and SMPs
Table 49. Comparison of conductive biopolymers versus conventional materials for printed circuit board fabrication
Table 50. Comparison of curing and reflow processes used for attaching components in electronics assembly
Table 51. Low temperature solder alloys
Table 52. Thermally sensitive substrate materials
Table 53. Limitations of existing IC production
Table 54. Strategies for improving sustainability in integrated circuit (IC) manufacturing
Table 55. Comparison of oxidation methods and level of sustainability
Table 56. Stage of commercialization for oxides
Table 57. Alternative doping techniques
Table 58. Metal content mg/Kg in Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) from waste desktop computers
Table 59. Chemical recycling methods for handling electronic waste
Table 60. Electrochemical processes for recycling metals from electronic waste
Table 61. Thermal recycling processes for electronic waste
Table 62. Global PCB revenues 2018-2034 (billions USD), by substrate types
Table 63. Global sustainable PCB revenues 2018-2034, by type (millions USD)
Table 64. Global sustainable ICs revenues 2018-2034, by type (millions USD)
Table 65. Oji Holdings CNF products

List of Figures
Figure 1. Closed-loop manufacturing
Figure 2. Sustainable supply chain for electronics
Figure 3. Flexible PCB
Figure 4. Vapor degreasing
Figure 5. Multi-layered PCB
Figure 6. 3D printed PCB
Figure 7. In-mold electronics prototype devices and products
Figure 8. Silver nanocomposite ink after sintering and resin bonding of discrete electronic components
Figure 9. Typical structure of mycelium-based foam
Figure 10. Flexible electronic substrate made from CNF
Figure 11. CNF composite
Figure 12. Oji CNF transparent sheets
Figure 13. Electronic components using cellulose nanofibers as insulating materials
Figure 14. BLOOM masterbatch from Algix
Figure 15. Dell's Concept Luna laptop
Figure 16. Direct-write, precision dispensing, and 3D printing platform for 3D printed electronics
Figure 17. 3D printed circuit boards from Nano Dimension
Figure 18. Photonic sintering
Figure 19. Laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT)
Figure 20. Material jetting 3d printing
Figure 21. Material jetting 3d printing product
Figure 22. The molecular mechanism of the shape memory effect under different stimuli
Figure 23. Supercooled Soldering™ Technology
Figure 24. Reflow soldering schematic
Figure 25. Schematic diagram of induction heating reflow
Figure 26. Fully-printed organic thin-film transistors and circuitry on one-micron-thick polymer films
Figure 27. Types of PCBs after dismantling waste computers and monitors
Figure 28. Global PCB revenues 2018-2034 (billions USD), by substrate types
Figure 29. Global sustainable PCB revenues 2018-2034, by type (millions USD)
Figure 30. Global sustainable ICs revenues 2018-2034, by type (millions USD)
Figure 31. Piezotech® FC
Figure 32. PowerCoat® paper
Figure 33. BeFC® biofuel cell and digital platform
Figure 34. DPP-360 machine
Figure 35. P-Flex® Flexible Circuit
Figure 36. Fairphone 4
Figure 37. In2tec’s fully recyclable flexible circuit board assembly
Figure 38. C.L.A.D. system
Figure 39. Soluboard immersed in water
Figure 40. Infineon PCB before and after immersion
Figure 41. Nano OPS Nanoscale wafer printing system
Figure 42. Stora Enso lignin battery materials
Figure 43. 3D printed electronics
Figure 44. Tactotek IME device
Figure 45. TactoTek® IMSE® SiP - System In Package
Figure 46. Verde Bio-based resins

Companies Mentioned (Partial List)

A selection of companies mentioned in this report includes, but is not limited to:

  • AlixLabs AB
  • Alpha Assembly Solutions
  • Altana AG (Heliosonic GmbH)
  • Arctic Biomaterials Oy
  • Arjowiggins Group
  • Arkema S.A
  • BeFC
  • Celus GmbH
  • CondAlign AS
  • DP Patterning AB
  • ElectraMet
  • Elephantech, Inc.
  • Enlipsium
  • Fairphone B.V.
  • Flexciton Limited
  • Green Li-ion
  • Green Mineral, Inc.
  • Imec
  • In2tec
  • Infineon Technologies AG
  • Intel
  • IOTech Group Ltd.
  • Jiva Materials Ltd.
  • Kieron Printing Technologies BV
  • Luminovo GmbH
  • Mint Innovation
  • NanoOPS, Inc
  • Navitas Semiconductor
  • NEU Battery Materials
  • Oji Paper Company
  • Pragmatic Semiconductor
  • Rongna New Energy
  • Sabic
  • SAFI-Tech
  • Samsung
  • Soitec
  • Stora Enso Oyj
  • Sunray Scientific
  • Syenta
  • TactoTek Oy
  • Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company Limited (TSMC)
  • Toray Industries
  • Verde Bioresins, Inc.
  • VTT