+353-1-416-8900REST OF WORLD
+44-20-3973-8888REST OF WORLD
1-917-300-0470EAST COAST U.S
1-800-526-8630U.S. (TOLL FREE)

Aromatherapy: The Science of Essential Oils

  • Book

  • June 2024
  • Bentham Science Publishers Ltd
  • ID: 5960318
Aromatherapy is a medical practice that uses aromatic compounds or essential oils to influence mood and health. Essential oils used in aromatherapy are created from a wide variety of medicinal plants, flowers, herbs, roots, and trees that are found all over the world and have significant, well-documented benefits on enhancing physical, emotional, and spiritual wellbeing.

This book is a comprehensive reference on aromatic compounds present in essential oils and their therapeutic use. Starting from fundamentals of essential oil biosynthesis the book guides the reader through their basic biochemistry, toxicology, profiling, blending and clinical applications. The concluding chapters also present focused information about the therapeutic effects of essential oils on specific physiological systems, plant sources, skin treatment and cancer therapeutics.

The combination of basic and applied knowledge will provide readers with all the necessary information for understanding how to develop preclinical formulations and standard clinical therapies with essential oils. This is an essential reference for anyone interested in aromatherapy and the science of essential oils.

Readership

Medicinal chemists, pharmacologists and herbalists; health care practitioners in the field of alternative and complementary medicine.

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1 AROMATHERAPY EVOLUTION AND BLENDING BASICS OF ESSENTIAL
  • OILS
  • Shikha Agnihotry, Deepti Chopra, Jyoti Singh, Sandeep Negi, Ajeet Kumar, Srivastav
  • Jaya Upadhyay and Gagan Sharma
1. INTRODUCTION

2. AROMATHERAPY EVOLUTION
2.1. India
2.2. China
2.3. Egyptians
2.4. Greeks
2.5. Romans
2.6. Hebrews and Early Christians
2.7. Middle Ages (500-1500AD)
2.8. Medieval Islam
2.9. Tudor Times (1485-1603)
2.10. 17th Century
2.11. 18th Century and Industrial Revolution
2.12. 19th Century Scientific Approach
2.13. Development of Aromatherapy in the 20th Century

3. ESSENTIAL OILS
3.1. Top Notes
3.2. Middle Notes
3.3. Base Notes

4. SAFETY GUIDELINES
4.1. Internal Use
4.2. Hazardous Oils
4.3. Toxicity
4.4. Patch Test
4.5. Dermal/Skin Irritation
4.5.1. Sensitization
4.5.2. Phototoxicity
4.5.3. Pregnancy
4.5.4. Epilepsy
4.5.5. Diabetes
4.5.6. Homeopathy
4.5.7. Neat Application
4.5.8. Babies and Children
4.5.9. Assessing Condition

5. SELECTING OILS
5.1. For Cold And Flu
5.2. For Skin Care
5.3. For Headache
5.4. For Wounds
5.5. For Mental Fatigue
5.6. For Cystitis
5.7. For Eczyema
5.8. For Refreshing
5.9. For Stress
5.10. Sore Throat
5.11. Detoxifying/Hangovers/Cellulite
5.12. For Purifying Sick Room
5.13. Effects of Essential Oils
5.14. Through Smell
5.15. Through Skin
  • CONCLUSION
  • REFERENCES
CHAPTER 2 PLANT AS POTENTIAL RESOURCES FOR EFFICACIOUS ESSENTIAL
  • OILS: UNDERPINNING AROMATHERAPY EVOLUTION
  • Pragati Misra, Ghanshyam Pandey, Shambhavi Pandey, Atul Singh, Arun K.
  • Chaurasia, Eugenia P. Lal, Shikha Agnihotry, Ajeet Kumar Srivastav and Pradeep
  • Kumar Shukla
1. INTRODUCTION

2. PLANTS AS SOURCE OF ESSENTIAL OILS
2.1. Salvia
2.2. Hyssop
2.3. Nepeta
2.4. Thymus
2.5. Mentha
2.6. Rosemary
2.7. Eucalyptus
2.8. Lippia
2.9. Boswellia
2.10. Lavender
2.11. Rose
2.12. Marjoram
2.13. Pomegranate
2.14. Cinnamon
2.15. Glycyrrhiza
2.16. Dictamnus
  • CONCLUSION
  • REFERENCES
CHAPTER 3 ESSENTIAL OIL BIOCHEMISTRY
  • Manoj Kumar Tripathi, Rahul M. Srivastava, Muzaffar Hasan1, Chirag Maheshwari
  • and Rajpal S. Jadam
1. INTRODUCTION

2. CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ESSENTIAL OILS

3. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND CONGENERIC GROUPS
3.1. Chemistry of Essential oils
3.1.1. Terpenes/Terpenoids-
3.1.2. Phenylpropanoids

4. BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OIL
4.1. Essential Oils as Antibacterial Agents
4.2. Essential Oils as Antifungal Agents
4.3. Essential Oils as Antioxidant Agents
4.4. Other Activities of Essential Oil

5. ESSENTIAL OIL PREPARATION TECHNIQUES
5.1. Classical Extraction Techniques
5.1.1. Maceration
5.1.2. Cold Pressing
5.1.3. Hydrodistillation (HD)
5.1.4. Steam Distillation (SD)
5.1.5. Solvent Extraction
5.1.6. Enfleurage
5.1.7. Soxhlet Extraction
5.2. Innovative Extraction Techniques
5.2.1. Supercritical Fluid Extraction
5.2.2. Microwave-Assisted Hydrodistillation (MAHD)
5.2.3. Subcritical Extraction
5.2.4. Solvent Free Microwave Extraction
5.3. Chromatographic Separation Techniques for Essential Oil
5.3.1. Thin Layer Chromatography
5.3.2. Analytical TLC
5.3.3. Liquid Chromatography
5.3.4. Gas Chromatography
5.3.5. IR Spectrophotometry
5.3.6. NMR Spectroscopy

6. PHOTO TOXICITY

7. PROCESSING OF ESSENTIAL OILSS FOR FLAVOR FUNCTIONS
  • CONCLUSION
  • REFERENCES
CHAPTER 4 ESSENTIAL OILS’ BIOSYNTHESIS AND THEIR APPLICATION
  • Sandeep Negi, Ajeet Kumar Srivastav and Lakshmi Bala
1. INTRODUCTION

2. AROMATIC PLANTS' ESSENTIAL OIL-SECRETING CELLS
2.1. Osmophores
2.2. Glandular Trichomes (GTs)

3. BIOSYNTHESIS OF ESSENTIAL OILS
3.1. Essential Oils' Chemical Composition
3.2. Extraction of Essential Oils
3.3. Essential Oils Extracted by Steam Distillation
3.4. Essential Oil Extraction using Various Solvents

4. FACTORS INFLUENCING ESSENTIAL OIL QUANTITY AND QUALITY IN
  • PLANTS
4.1. Developmental Stage of the Plant
4.2. The Influence of UV Radiation
4.3. Effect of Light Quality
4.4. Effect of Salt Stress
4.5. Effect by the Presence of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi
4.6. Impact of Fertilizers on Essential Oil

5. HEALTH BENEFITS OF ESSENTIAL OILS
5.1. Important Roles in Hormonal Balance
5.2. Increase Immunity and Fight Infections
5.3. Helps in the Improvement of Digestion
5.4. Promotes Energy Towards Higher Levels
5.5. Boost Cognitive Function
5.6. Reduce Anxiety and Emotional Stress
5.7. Reduce Pain and Aches
5.8. Improve the Health of Your Skin and Hair
5.9. Decrease Toxicity
5.10. Reduce Migraines and Headaches
5.11. Encourage Restful Sleep
5.12. Relief from Inflammation
5.13. The Advantages of Essential Oils for Pain Relief
5.14. Skin Irritations Can Be Healed
5.15. Alternatives to Candles and Incense that are Less Dangerous
  • CONCLUSION
  • REFERENCES
CHAPTER 5 ESSENTIAL OILS TOXICITY AND CONFLICTS
  • Archana Shukla, Angel Kushwaha, Suman Sanju, Priyanka Spring, Ashwani
  • Kumar, Pragati Misra and Pradeep Kumar Shukla
1. INTRODUCTION

2. TOXICITY MYTHS ABOUT EOS

3. EOS' ORAL TOXICITY, BOTH SHORT-TERM (ACUTE) AND LONG-TERM
  • (CHRONIC)
3.1. Dermal Absorption and Detoxification
3.1.1. EOs and EO Components' Chemo-preventive Efficacy on Tumorigenesis
3.1.2. Skin-damaging Consequences of EOs and EO Components
3.2. Inhalation: Absorption and Detoxification
3.2.1. Detoxification
3.3. Dermatitis and Sensitization
3.4. Photosensitization and Phototoxicity of EOs
3.5. Commonest Allergenic EOs and Components
3.6. Abortifacient and Teratogenic Oils
3.7. Genotoxicity of EOs
3.8. Neurotoxicity of EOs
3.9. Possible Hazards of Novel EOs and Plant Extracts

4. SAFE EOS AND THEIR TOXICITY
4.1. Clary Sage
4.2. Rosemary
4.3. Lavender

5. SAFETY WARNINGS IN AROMA THERAPY INDUSTRY
  • CONCLUSION
  • REFERENCES
CHAPTER 6 HUMAN ORGANS SYSTEM AND ESSENTIAL OILS (EOS)
  • Sandeep Negi, Ajeet Kumar Srivastav and Lakshmi Bala
1. INTRODUCTION

2. MECHANISMS OF ACTION OF NATURAL ESSENTIAL OILS

3. ANTI-CANCER ACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OILS (EOS)
3.1. Antimutagenic

4. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY

5. EFFECT OF ESSENTIAL OILS ON THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

6. EFFECT OF ESSENTIAL OILS ON THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
6.1. Analgesic Action of Essential Oil (EOs)

Author

  • Pradeep Kumar Shukla
  • Ajeet Kumar Srivastav
  • Deepti Chopra
  • Shikha Agnihotry