Natural antioxidant phytochemicals usually exist at a very low level, and differ from proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids, which are macro–nutrients and abundant in food products. They are microconstituents in plants and agricultural and food products. Furthermore, the type and quantity of antioxidant phytochemicals vary significantly from source to source. Different types of antioxidants may have different antioxidant activity and bioavailablity. Although most antioxidants have UV absorption, using the traditional spectrophotometric method to quantify the antioxidants is not practical because they could be significantly masked or interfered with by many other compounds in the sources. Thus, the analysis methods for antioxidant phytochemicals are more complicated and sophisticated than those employed for macro–nutrient compounds.
This is the first book to focus on the sample preparation procedures and methods developed for identifying and quantifying natural antioxidants in plants and food products. The principle of quantification methods for natural antioxidant–rich phytochemicals is introduced, and current methods used in the determination of antioxidants in different sources are reviewed and summarized by experts in the field. As a handbook of analysis of natural antioxidant–rich phytochemicals, the volume provides practical information enabling researchers to identify the appropriate analysis methods for specific antioxidants. This book may also serve as a lecture resource for courses relating to food analysis, functional foods and nutrition.
Chapter 1 Important Antioxidant Phytochemicals in Agricultural Food Products 1Zhimin Xu
Chapter 2 The Procedure, Principle, and Instrumentation of Antioxidant Phytochemical Analysis 25Brittany White, Lydia Rice, and Luke R. Howard
Chapter 3 Analysis Methods of Phenolic Acids 69Zhimin Xu
Chapter 4 Analysis Methods of Carotenoids 105Rachel E. Kopec, Jessica L. Cooperstone, Morgan J. Cichon, and Steven J. Schwartz
Chapter 5 Analysis Methods of Anthocyanins 149Ronald L. Prior and Xianli Wu
Chapter 6 Analysis Methods of Ellagitannins 181Stephen T. Talcott and Kimberly A. Krenek
Chapter 7 Analytical Methods of Flavonols and Flavones 207Francisco A. Tomas–Barberan and Federico Ferreres
Chapter 8 Analysis Methods of Proanthocyanidins 247Liwei Gu
Chapter 9 Analysis Methods of Flavanones 275G.K. Jayaprakasha, Amit Vikram, and Bhimanagouda S. Patil
Chapter 10 Analysis Methods of Phytosterols 313Laura Nystr om
Chapter 11 Analysis Methods for Tocopherols and Tocotrienols 353Robert A. Moreau and Anna–Maija Lampi