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Recent Advances in Polyphenol Research. Volume 4

  • ID: 2898997
  • Book
  • 464 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Plant polyphenols are secondary metabolites that constitute one of the most common and widespread groups of natural products. They express a large and diverse panel of biological activities including beneficial effects on both plants and humans. Many polyphenols, from their structurally simplest representatives to their oligo/polymeric versions (also referred to as vegetable tannins) are notably known as phytoestrogens, plant pigments, potent antioxidants, and protein interacting agents.

Sponsored by the scholarly society Groupe Polyphénols, this publication, which is the fourth volume in this highly regarded Recent Advances in Polyphenol Research series, is edited by Annalisa Romani, Vincenzo Lattanzio, and Stéphane Quideau. They have once again, like their predecessors, put together an impressive collection of cutting–edge chapters written by expert scientists, internationally respected in their respective field of polyphenol sciences. This Volume 4 highlights some of the latest information and opinion on the following major research topics about polyphenols: 

Biosynthesis and genetic manipulation
Ecological role of polyphenols in plant defense
Actions of polyphenols in human health protection
Physical organic chemistry and organic synthesis

Chemists, biochemists, plant scientists, pharmacognosists and pharmacologists, biologists, ecologists, food scientists and nutritionists will all find this book an invaluable resource. Libraries in all universities and research institutions where these disciplines are studied and taught should have copies on their bookshelves.

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1 Monolignol Biosynthesis and its Genetic Manipulation: the Good, the Bad and the Ugly
Richard A. Dixon, M. S. Srinivasa Reddy and Lina Gallego–Giraldo

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Function and distribution of lignin in plants

1.3 Targets for modification of lignin biosynthesis

1.4 Impacts of lignin modification by targeting the monolignol biosynthetic pathway

1.5 Impacts of lignin modification by targeting TFs

1.6 Monolignol pathway modification and plant growth

1.7 Conclusions it isn t all that bad!

2 Perturbing Lignin Biosynthesis: Metabolic Changes in Response to Manipulation of the Phenylpropanoid Pathway
Nickolas A. Anderson and Clint Chapple

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Changes in metabolism associated with phenylpropanoid pathway disruptions

2.3 Atypical lignins

2.4 Dwarfism

2.5 Conclusions

3 Function, Structure and Evolution of Flavonoid Glycosyltransferases in Plants
Keiko Yonekura–Sakakibara and Kazuki Saito

3.1 Introduction

3.2 UDP–dependent glycosyltransferases

3.3 Glycoside hydrolase–type glycosyltransferases

3.4 Conclusions

4 The Chemistry and Chemical Ecology of Ellagitannins in Plant–Insect Interactions: from Underestimated Molecules to Bioactive Plant Constituents
Juha–Pekka Salminen

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Definitions and chemical structures of hydrolysable tannins

4.3 Biosynthetic pathways of hydrolysable tannins in plants

4.4 Distribution of different types of tannins in plants

4.5 Tannins in plant–herbivore interactions

4.6 Conclusions

5 Diverse Ecological Roles of Plant Tannins: Plant Defense and Beyond
C. Peter Constabel, Kazuko Yoshida and Vincent Walker

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Overview of Tannin Structure and Function in Defense

5.3 Tissue Localization and Ecological Function

5.4 Tannins in Plant–Soil–Environment Interactions

5.5 Conclusions

6 Epigenetics, Plant (Poly)phenolics and Cancer Prevention
Clarissa Gerhauser

6.1 Overview of epigenetic gene regulation

6.2 Influence of polyphenols on DNA methylation

6.3 Influence of polyphenols on histone modifying enzymes

6.4 Influence of noncoding (micro) RNAs on gene expression

6.5 Chemopreventive polyphenols affecting the epigenome by multiple mechanisms

6.6 Summary and conclusions

7 Discovery of Polyphenol–Based Drugs for Cancer Prevention and Treatment The Tumor Proteasome as a Novel Target
Fathima R. Kona, Min Shen, Di Chen, Tak Hang Chan and Q. Ping Dou

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Secondary metabolites of plants

7.3 Plant polyphenols and their analogs

7.4 Natural polyphenols in reversing drug resistance

7.5 Conclusions

8 Flavonoid Occurrence, Bioavailability, Metabolism and Protective Effects in Humans: Focus on Flavan–3–ols and Flavonols
Luca Calani, Margherita Dall Asta, Renato Bruni and Daniele Del Rio

8.1 Introduction to flavonoids in human nutrition

8.2 Focus on flavan–3–ols and flavonols

8.3 Metabolism and bioavailability of flavonoids in humans

8.4 In vitro studies

8.5 In vivo studies

8.6 Conclusions

9 Inhibition of VEGF Signalling by Polyphenols in Relation to Atherosclerosis and Cardiovascular Disease
Rebecca L. Edwards and Paul A. Kroon

9.1 Introduction

9.2 VEGF and VEGF signalling

9.3 VEGF signalling and angiogenesis

9.4 Angiogenesis in atherosclerosis

9.5 Polyphenols in foods and diets, and their absorption and metabolism

9.6 Effects of polyphenols on VEGF signalling, angiogenesis and atherosclerosis

9.7 Relationships between polyphenol consumption and cardiovascular disease risk

9.8 Conclusions

10 Phenolic Compounds in a Sex–Gender Perspective
Ilaria Campesi, Annalisa Romani, Maria Marino and Flavia Franconi

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Phenolic compounds classification and molecular mechanisms

10.3 Sex–gender and xenokinetics of phenolic compounds

10.4 Sex–gender differences in xenodynamics

10.5 Conclusions

11 Thermodynamic and Kinetic Processes of Anthocyanins and Related Compounds and their Bio–Inspired Applications
Fernando Pina

11.1 Why the thermodynamics and kinetics of the structural transformations of anthocyanins in aqueous solution are so important

11.2 Anthocyanins in aqueous solution

11.3 The influence of anthocyanin self–aggregation on the determination of the rate and equilibrium constants

11.4 Photochromism Applications bio–inspired in anthocyanins

11.5 Appendix 1. Construction of the energy level diagram of the network species

11.6 Appendix 2. Calculation of the mole faction distribution of the network species

12 Synthetic Strategies and Tactics for Catechin and Related Polyphenols
Ken Ohmori and Keisuke Suzuki

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Early synthetic work

12.3 Stereoselective Approaches to Flavan–3–ols

12.4 Conclusions

Subject index

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Annalisa Romani
Vincenzo Lattanzio
Stephane Quideau
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