Bones and Cartilage provides the most in-depth review and synthesis assembled on the topic, across all vertebrates. It examines the function, development and evolution of bone and cartilage as tissues, organs and skeletal systems. It describes how bone and cartilage develop in embryos and are maintained in adults, how bone is repaired when we break a leg, or regenerates when a newt grows a new limb, or a lizard a new tail.
The second edition of Bones and Cartilage includes the most recent knowledge of molecular, cellular, developmental and evolutionary processes, which are integrated to outline a unified discipline of developmental and evolutionary skeletal biology. Additionally, coverage includes how the molecular and cellular aspects of bones and cartilage differ in different skeletal systems and across species, along with the latest studies and hypotheses of relationships between skeletal cells and the most recent information on coupling between osteocytes and osteoclasts All chapters have been revised and updated to include the latest research.
- Offers complete coverage of every aspect of bone and cartilage, with updated references and extensive illustrations
- Integrates development and evolution of the skeleton, as well a synthesis of differentiation, growth and patterning
- Treats all levels from molecular to clinical, embryos to evolution, and covers all vertebrates as well as invertebrate cartilages
- Includes new chapters on evolutionary skeletal biology that highlight normal variation and variability, and variation outside the norm (neomorphs, atavisms)
- Updates hypotheses on the origination of cartilage using new phylogenetic, cellular and genetic data
- Covers stem cells in embryos and adults, including mesenchymal stem cells and their use in genetic engineering of cartilage, and the concept of the stem cell niche
Part I Vertebrate Skeletal Tissues 1. Vertebrate Skeletal Tissues 2. Bone 3. Vertebrate Cartilages Part II Origins and Types of Skeletal Tissues 4. Invertebrate Cartilages, Notochordal Cartilage and Cartilage Origins 5. Intermediate Tissues 6. Lessons from Fossils Part III Unusual Modes of Skeletogenesis 7. Horns and Ossicones 8. Antlers 9. Tendon Skeletogenesis and Sesamoids Part IV Stem and Progenitor Cells 10. Embryonic Stem and Progenitor Cells 11. Stem and Progenitor Cells in Adults Part V Skeletogenic Cells 12. Bipotential Osteochondroprogenitor Cells 13. Dedifferentiation of Chondrocytes and Endochondral Ossification 14. Dedifferentiation and Stem Cells: Regeneration of Urodele Limbs and Mammalian Fingertips 15. Cells to Make and Cells to Break Part VI Embryonic Origins 16. Skeletal Origins: Somitic Mesoderm, Vertebrae, Pectoral and Pelvic Girdles 17. Skeletal Origins: Neural Crest Cells 18. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Interactions initiate Skeletogenesis Part VII Getting Started 19. The Membranous Skeleton: Condensations 20. From Condensation to Differentiation 21. Skulls, Eyes and Ears: Condensations and Tissue Interactions Part VIII Similarity and Diversity 22. Hondrocyte Diversity 23. Cartilage Diversity 24. Osteoblast and Osteocyte Diversity and Osteogenesis in vitro 25. Diversity of Bone as a Tissue and as an Organ Part IX Maintaining Cartilage in Good Times and in Bad 26. Maintaining Differentiated Chondrocytes through Cell-Matrix Interactions 27. Maintenance Awry
Chondrodysplasias and Achondroplasia 28. Restarting Mammalian Articular Chondrocytes 29. Repair of Fractures and Regeneration of Growth Plates Part X Growing Together and Growing Apart 30. Initiating Skeletal Growth 31. Growth and Morphogenesis of Long Bones 32. Long Bone Growth: A Case of Crying Wolf? Part XI Staying Apart 33. The Temporomandibular Joint and Cranial Synchondroses 34. Sutures and Craniosynostosis Part XII Limb Buds 35. The Mesodermal Limb Field and the Apical Epithelial Ridge 36. Adding or Deleting an Apical Epithelial Ridge 37. Limb Buds in Limbed and Limbless Tetrapods Part XIII Limbs and Limb Skeletons 38. Axes and Polarity of Limb Buds and Limbs 39. Patterning and Shaping Limb Buds and Limb Skeletons 40. Before Limbs There Were Fins Part XIV Backbones and Tails 41. Vertebral Chondrogenesis: Cell Differentiation and Morphogenesis 42. Relationships between Notochord and Vertebral Cartilage 43. Tail Buds, Tails and Taillessness Part XV Evolutionary Skeletal Biology 44. Variation 45. Variation Outside the Norm: Neomorphs and Atavisms
I have been interested in and studying skeletal tissues since my undergraduate days in Australia in the 1960s. Those early studies on the development of secondary cartilage in embryonic birds, first published in 1967, have come full circle with the discovery of secondary cartilage in dinosaurs12. Bird watching really is flying reptile watching. Skeletal tissue development and evolution, the embryonic origins of skeletal tissues (especially those that arise from neural crest cells), and integrating development and evolution in what is now known as evo-devo have been my primary preoccupations over the past 50+ years.