While political violence is an age–old phenomenon, the events of 9/11 transformed the meaning of terrorism in the eyes of the West. Always difficult to define, terrorism has traditionally been distinguished from other forms of criminal violence due to its motivations and inherent complexities.
The Handbook of the Criminology of Terrorism presents a comprehensive overview of the latest criminological research relating to the origins, evolution, causes, and motivations of terrorism along with the responses to domestic and international terrorist attacks from a criminological perspective.
Featuring a collection of original contributions from leading researchers and renowned international experts in the field, essays cover the major themes and controversies related to the causes and consequences of terrorism; terrorism s origins, terrorism and the criminal justice system, and ways to counter terrorism. Chapters discuss key concepts, reviewing the major conceptual frameworks and the latest empirical findings. The Handbook reveals areas of widespread agreement in the field, debates and controversies, unresolved issues, and suggestions for further research.
The Handbook of the Criminology of Terrorism is an invaluable reference for criminologists, providing illuminating insights into terrorism in the 21st–century.
Notes on Contributors viii
Part I Introduction 1
Bringing Criminology into the Study of Terrorism 3Gary LaFree and Joshua D. Freilich
Part II Etiology 15
1 The Etiology of Radicalization 17Randy Borum
2 Psychological Factors in Radicalization: A 3 N Approach 33David Webber and Arie W. Kruglanski
3 What Makes Them Do It? Individual–Level Indicators of Extremist Outcomes 47John P. Sawyer and Justin Hienz
4 The Terrorists Planning Cycle: Patterns of Pre–incident Behavior 62Brent L. Smith, Paxton Roberts, and Kelly R. Damphousse
5 Group–level Predictors of Political and Religiously Motivated Violence 77Katharine A. Boyd
6 Country–level Predictors of Terrorism 93Nancy A. Morris and Gary LaFree
Part III Theories 119
7 General Strain Theory and Terrorism 121Robert Agnew
8 Social Learning Theory and Becoming a Terrorist: New Challenges for a General Theory 133J. Keith Akins and L. Thomas Winfree, Jr.
9 The Situational Approach to Terrorism 150Henda Y. Hsu and Graeme R. Newman
10 Victimization Theories and Terrorism 162William S. Parkin
11 Analyzing Radicalization and Terrorism: A Situational Action Theory 175Per–Olof H. Wikström and Noémie Bouhana
Part IV Research Methods 187
12 Measuring Terrorism 189Laura Dugan and Michael Distler
13 Paradigmatic Case Studies and Prison Ethnography: Future Directions in Terrorism Research 206Mark S. Hamm and Ramón Spaaij
14 Social Network Analysis and Terrorism 221Aili Malm, Rebecca Nash, and Ramin Moghadam
15 Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Terrorism and Insurgency 232Shane D. Johnson and Alex Braithwaite
16 Applying Multilevel Models to Terrorism Research 244Brian D. Johnson
17 Methodological Advances in the Study of Terrorism: Using Latent Class Growth Analysis to Estimate Terrorism Trends 260Nancy A. Morris
18 Interrupted Time Series Analysis in the Study of Terrorism 276Robert Apel and Henda Y. Hsu
Part V Types of Terrorism 295
19 Far Right Terrorism in the United States 297Pete Simi and Bryan F. Bubolz
20 Left–wing Terrorism: From Anarchists to the Radical Environmental Movement and Back 310Jennifer Varriale Carson
21 Assessing Aerial Hijacking as a Terrorist Tactic 323Susan Fahey
22 Evolution of Suicide Attacks 339Ami Pedahzur and Susanne Martin
23 Terrorist Assassinations: A Criminological Perspective 353Marissa Mandala
Part VI Terrorism and Other Types of Crime 371
24 Organized Crime and Terrorism 373Enrique Desmond Arias and Nazia Hussain
25 Similar from a Distance: A Comparison of Terrorism and Hate Crime 385Ryan D. King, Laura M. DeMarco, and Robert J. VandenBerg
26 Studying Extremist Homicide in the United States 402Jeff Gruenewald and Brent R. Klein
27 Financial Terror: Financial Crime Schemes Involving Extremists Linked to the American Far Right and al–Qaeda and Affiliated Movements 420Brandon A. Sullivan, Joshua D. Freilich, and Steven M. Chermak
28 An Empirical Analysis of Maritime Terrorism Using the Global Terrorism Database 433Bo Jiang
Part VII Countering Terrorism 449
29 Empowering Communities to Prevent Violent Extremism: A Report on the August 2014 National Summit 451Stevan Weine and William Braniff
30 Terrorist Plots the United States: What We have Really Faced, and How We Might Best Defend Against It 468Kevin J. Strom, John S. Hollywood, and Mark W. Pope
31 The Ten Commandments for Effective Counterterrorism 482Simon Perry, David Weisburd, and Badi Hasisi
32 Prosecuting Terrorism post–9/11: Impact of Policy Changes on Case Outcomes 495Christopher A. Shields, Brent L. Smith, and Kelly R. Damphousse
33 Prisons: Their Role in Creating and Containing Terrorists 508Margaret A. Zahn
34 The Individual Risk Assessment of Terrorism: Recent Developments 520John Monahan
35 Legislative Efforts to Prevent Eco–terrorist Attacks 535Yi–Yuan Su and Sue–Ming Yang
36 On the Relevance of Cyber Criminological Research in the Design of Policies and Sophisticated Security Solutions against Cyberterrorism Events 553David Maimon and Alexander Testa
Gary LaFree is Director of the National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START) and a Distinguished Scholar and Professor of Criminology and Criminal Justice at the University of Maryland. His most recent book (with Laura Dugan and Erin Miller) is Putting Terrorism in Context (2015).
Joshua D. Freilich is a member of the Criminal Justice Department and the Criminal Justice PhD Program at John Jay College. He is the Creator and co–Director of the United States Extremist Crime Database (ECDB), an open source relational database of violent and financial crimes committed by political extremists in the U.S.