Food Fortification in a Globalized World outlines experiences over the past 50 years-and future potential-for the application of food fortification across a variety of foods in the industrialized and developing world. The book captures recent science and applications trends in fortification, including emerging areas such as biofortification, nutraceuticals and new nutrient intake recommendations, standards, policy and regulation. The book proposes a balanced and effective food fortification strategy for nations to adopt. In covering the most technical scientific details in an approachable style, this work is accessible to a range of practitioners in industry, government, NGOs, academia and research.
Food fortification has become an increasingly significant strategy to address gaps in micronutrient intakes in populations with measurable impact in both industrialized and developing countries. While the positive impacts are well recognized there are new concerns in some countries that excessive fortification of foods, outdated nutritional labeling rules and misleading marketing tactics used by food manufacturers may result in young children consuming harmful amounts of some vitamins and minerals.
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Table of ContentsSection 1
Need and Approach 1. Food Fortification: Past Experience, Current Status, And Potential for Globalization 2. Prevalence, Causes and Consequences of Micronutrient Deficiencies. The Gap Between Need and Action 3. Developing National Strategies to Prevent and Control Micronutrient Deficiency: The Role of Food Fortification
Recommendations and Guidance 4. Using Dietary Reference Values to Define Fortification Levels for National Programs
Delivery Methods 5. National Mandated Food Fortification Programs 6. Market Driven Fortification 7. Biofortification: An Agricultural Tool to Access Mineral and Vitamin Deficiencies
Technical and Business Considerations 8. Grain Fortification Processes, Technologies and Implementation Criteria 9. Financing and Sustainability of Food Fortification 10. Creating Consumer Demand and Driving Appropriate Utilization of Fortified Foods 11. The Importance of Public Private Collaboration in Food Fortification Programs
Fortification Vehicles 12. Wheat and Maize Flour Fortification 13. Rice Fortification 14. Salt Fortification 15. Fortification of Condiments and Sauces 16. Fortification of Bouillon Cubes 17. Fornication of Fats and Cooking Oils 18. Fortification of Milk and Dairy Products 19. Fortification of Breakfast Cereals
Nutrient Wise Review of Evidence and Safety of Fortification 20. Efficacy and Safety of Iron Fortification 21. Efficacy and Safety of Zinc Fortification 22. Efficacy and Safety of Iodine Fortification 23. Global Status and Efficacy of Folic Acid Fortification 24. Safety of Folic Acid Fortification 25. Efficacy and Safety of Vitamin a Fortification 26. Efficacy and Safety of Vitamin B12 Fortification 27. Efficacy and Safety of Calcium and Vitamin D Fortification
Program Performance Measurement and Improvement 28. Program Performance Overview and Synthesis of Information for Food Fortification 29. Regulatory Monitoring of Mandatory Fortification Programs 30. Consumption Monitoring: Coverage, Provision and Utilization 31. Economics of Food Fortification 32. Impact Evaluation of Food Fortification Programs: Review of Methodological Approaches and Methods to Strengthen Them
National Program Case Studies and Lessons Learned 33. National Program Case Studies and Lessons Learned: South Africa 34. Food Fortification in Senegal: A Case Study and Lessons Learned 35. Equity of Impact on Anemia and Iron Status of The Food Fortification Program of Costa Rica 36. Food Fortification in Canada 37. National Program Case Studies and Lessons Learned: Bangladesh
Business Case Studies 38. Business Considerations for Food Fortification: Cargill India Experience with Oil Fortification 39. Nestle Fortification of Bouillon Cubes in Central and West Africa
Future Trends and Strategies 40. Future Trends and Strategies
AuthorsM.G.Venkatesh Mannar Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. M.G. Venkatesh Mannar is a champion and technology leader in global nutrition with 35 years experience in pioneering effective international nutrition, technology and development initiatives focused on the world's most vulnerable citizens. A chemical engineer and food technologist by training, Mannar served as President of the Micronutrient Initiative (MI) in Ottawa for nearly 20 years until February 2014. In that role Mannar directed the organisation's mission to develop, implement and monitor supplementation and food fortification programs to address malnutrition in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Middle East. In 2013, for his leadership in the global fight against malnutrition and micronutrient deficiency Mannar was appointed an Officer of the Order of Canada, one of the country's greatest civilian honors. He is currently pursuing his research and teaching interests in applying engineering solutions to nutrition as Adjunct Professor in the Department of Chemical Engineering & Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto. Richard F. Hurrell Human Nutrition, Institute for Food, Nutrition and Health, ETH Zurich, Switzerland. Richard Hurrell graduated in Food Technology from the University of Reading in the UK in 1969 and after a short spell in the food industry took a Masters in Nutrition and a PhD at the University of Cambridge UK under Kenneth Carpenter specializing in Bioavailability (lysine) and the effect of food processing on nutritional quality of foods. He joined Nestlé Research in Switzerland in 1978 and became head of the micronutrient group focusing on iron bioavailability and fortification in relation to infant foods. After a one year sabbatical in Kansas University with Jim Cook in 1984, iron bioavailability was extensively studied collaboratively between KU and Nestlé using human radioisotope studies and focusing on food factors such as phytic acid, polyphenols and proteins. At the same time, he introduced stable isotope techniques with mass spectrometry at Nestlé Research so as to work with children and optimize iron and zinc absorption from infant foods focusing on phytic acid removal.
He moved to Institute of Food Science, ETH Zurich in 1994 as the full Professor of Human Nutrition, introducing nutrition into the food science curriculum and setting up a research program based on micronutrient malnutrition focused on the developing world. Human stable isotope studies on iron and zinc absorption in women and children from fortified and biofortified foods, and long term feeding studies in women and children to measure the efficacy of fortified foods formed the basis of this research. He was joint author of the WHO food fortification guidelines (2006,2009) and has worked closely with Harvest Plus, GAIN, IAEA and GAIN to improve micronutrient malnutrition. He has been a GAIN Board member since 2002, ILSI Europe Board since 2010 and was Editor of the International Journal of Vitamin and Nutrition Research 2001-2014. He has some 200 peer reviewed publications with recent interest in the influence of infections on iron bioavailability; the influence of phytases on iron and zinc absorption in infants; the influence of inulin and carotenoids on iron absorption; efficacy of zinc, vitamin A and iron from triple fortified extruded rice; iron absorption from biofortified beans; and the efficacy in women and children of NaFeEDTA fortified margarine and atta flour.
He retired as Head of Human Nutrition at the Institute of Food, Nutrition and Health at ETH in 2012 taking Professor Emeritus status and continues to work closely with GAIN, WHO, Harvest Plus and other international organizations.