Safety of Lithium Batteries describes how best to assure safety during all phases of the life of Lithium ion batteries (production, transport, use, and disposal). About 5 billion Li-ion cells are produced each year, predominantly for use in consumer electronics. This book describes how the high-energy density and outstanding performance of Li-ion batteries will result in a large increase in the production of Li-ion cells for electric drive train vehicle (xEV) and battery energy storage (BES or EES) purposes. The high-energy density of Li battery systems comes with special hazards related to the materials employed in these systems.
The manufacturers of cells and batteries have strongly reduced the hazard probability by a number of measures. However, absolute safety of the Li system is not given as multiple incidents in consumer electronics have shown.
- Presents the relationship between chemical and structure material properties and cell safety
- Relates cell and battery design to safety as well as system operation parameters to safety
- Outlines the influences of abuses on safety and the relationship to battery testing
- Explores the limitations for transport and storage of cells and batteries
- Includes recycling, disposal and second use of lithium ion batteries
1. Introduction 2. General overview of non-lithium battery systems and their safety issues 3. Overview of lithium battery systems 4. Safety aspects of lithium-primary batteries 5. Safety of lithium-secondary batteries
an introduction 6. General overview of lithium-secondary battery safety issues 7. Lithium-secondary cell
sources of risks and their effects 7A. Sources of Risk 7B. Chemical reaction to risk scenarios 7C. Analysis of Gases Emitted in Safety Events 7D. Internal Short Circuits 7E. Effect of electrical energy and aging on cell safety 8. Li-secondary battery
Risk management by manufacturers 8A. Managing of risk by cell manufacturers 8B. Managing of risk by battery manufacturers 8C. Managing of risk by car manufacturers 8D. Managing of risk by manufacturers of consumer equipment 8E. Managing of risk by manufacturers of battery energy storage systems 9. Lithium-secondary battery
risk management by users and stakeholders 10. Lithium-secondary battery
safety tests 10A. Safety tests 10B. Modeling of safety tests and events 11. Lithium-secondary battery
special risks 11A. Special risks during transport and storage 11B. Special hazards of lithium batteries at end of life 12. Lithium-secondary battery
Damage control 12A. Handling of safety incidents 12B. Procedures for incident investigations 12C. Ignition and extinction of battery fires 12D. Overview about accidents: Selected lessons learned from prior safety-related failures of lithium-secondary batteries 12E. Legal aspects on high-voltage battery safety
Prof. Dr. Jürgen Garche has more than 40 years of experience in battery and fuel cell research & development. In his academic career the focus was on material research. Thereafter, he worked on and directed cell and system development of conventional (LAB, NiCd, NiMH) and advanced (Li-Ion, NaNiCl2, Redox-Flow) batteries. His experience includes also fuel cells (mainly low temperature FCs) and supercaps. He established the battery & FC division of the ZSW in Ulm (Germany), an industry related R&D institute with about 100 scientists and technicians. His interest in battery safety goes back to the work with the very large battery safety testing center of the ZSW. In 2004 he founded the FC&Battery consulting office FCBAT; furthermore he is a senior professor at Ulm University.
Dr. Klaus Brandt has over 35 years of experience in research, development and manufacturing of lithium and lithium ion batteries. He co-founded Moli Energy in Canada which produced the first rechargeable battery with a lithium metal anode. In the field of lithium ion batteries, he worked in various management positions for battery companies like Varta and Duracell. His last industrial position was with Clariant which produced cathode and anode active materials for lithium ion batteries.