Microbiology of Aerosols

  • ID: 4376259
  • Book
  • 320 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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An Introduction to the Microbiology of Bioaerosols and Their Impact on the World in Which We Live

The microbiology of aerosols is an emerging field of research that lies at the interface of a variety of scientific and health–related disciplines. This eye–opening book synthesizes the current knowledge about microorganisms—bacteria, archaea, fungi, viruses—that are aloft in the atmosphere. The book is written collaboratively by an interdisciplinary and international panel of experts and carefully edited to provide a high–level overview of the emerging field of aerobiology.

Four sections within Microbiology of Aerosols present the methods used for sampling and characterizing airborne microorganisms, their emission sources and short– to long–distance dispersal, their influence on atmospheric processes and clouds, and their consequences for human health and agro–ecosystems. Practical considerations are also discussed, including sampling techniques, an overview of the quantification and characterization of bioaerosols, transport of bioaerosols, and a summary of ongoing research opportunities in the field. Comprehensive in scope, the book:

  • Explores this new field that is applicable to many disparate disciplines
  • Covers the emission of bioaerosols to their deposit, covering both quantitative and qualitative aspects
  • Provides insights into social and environmental effects of the presence of bioaerosols in the atmosphere
  • Details the impact of bioaerosols on human health, animal and plant health, and on physical and chemical atmospheric processes

Written by authors internationally recognized for their work on biological aerosols and originating from a variety of scientific fields collaborated on, Microbiology of Aerosols is an excellent resource for researchers and graduate or PhD students interested in atmospheric sciences or microbiology.

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List of Contributors xi

Preface xv

Hunting fog xvii

It all happens up there … xix

Cela se passe là–haut … xxi

Part I Bioaerosols, Sampling, and Characterization 1

1.1 Main Biological Aerosols, Specificities, Abundance, and Diversity 3P. Amato, E. Brisebois, M. Draghi, C. Duchaine, J. Fröhlich–Nowoisky, J.A. Huffman, G. Mainelis, E. Robine and M. Thibaudon

1.1.1 Introduction 3

1.1.2 Pollen 4

1.1.3 Fungi 5

1.1.4 Bacteria 7

1.1.5 Archaea 9

1.1.6 Viruses 10

References 11

1.2 Sampling Techniques 23P. Amato, E. Brisebois, M. Draghi, C. Duchaine, J. Fröhlich–Nowoisky, J.A. Huffman, G. Mainelis, E. Robine and M. Thibaudon

1.2.1 Introduction 23

1.2.2 Passive and surface sampling 24

1.2.3 Filtration 25

1.2.4 Inertia–based samplers: sedimentation samplers, impactors, cyclones 28 Sedimentation samplers 28 Impactors 28 Centrifugal impactors 33

1.2.5 Impingement 34

1.2.6 Electrostatic sampling 36 Electrostatic samplers for improved detection sensitivity 37 Personal or portable samplers 38 Utilization of native microorganism charges 39 Concerns regarding electrostatic collectors 39

References 40

1.3 Quantification and Characterization of Bioaerosols (offline techniques) 49J. Fröhlich–Nowoisky, P. Amato, P. Renard, E. Brisebois and C. Duchaine

1.3.1 Cultures and metabolic/phenotypic characterization of microbial isolates 49

1.3.2 Microscopy and flow cytometry 53 Light microscopy 53 Epifluorescence microscopy 54 Electron microscopy 55 Flow cytometry 56

1.3.3 Nucleic acid–based methods 56 DNA extraction and amplification 56 Quantification 57 Analysis of the diversity 58 Sequencing 59 Microarrays 60

1.3.4 Chemical and biological tracers 60 Biomarkers 61 Ice nucleation activity 62 Mass spectrometry 63 Spectroscopy 64 Immunoassay method 65

1.3.5 Biological activity–based methods 65 Supplementation with nutrients 65 Supplementation with radiolabeled precursors of anabolism 65 Enzymatic activity 66 Adenosine 5′–triphosphate 66 Virus infectivity 67

References 67

1.4 Online Techniques for Quantification and Characterization of Biological Aerosols 83J.A. Huffman and J. Santarpia

1.4.1 Introduction 83

1.4.2 Single–particle fluorescence spectroscopy 84 Single–particle fluorescence spectrometer 86 Two–wavelength single–particle fluorescence analyzer 87 Fluorescence aerodynamic particle sizer (FLAPS)/ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UV–APS) 88 Wideband integrated bioaerosol sensor (WIBS+) and spectral intensity bioaerosol sensor (SIBS) 90 Other 93 Data analysis strategies 94

1.4.3 Bioaerosol mass spectrometry 94 Bioaerosol mass spectrometry (BAMS) 96 Aerosol time–of–flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) 96 Aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) 97 Other 97

1.4.4 Other real–time bioaerosol detection techniques 97 Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) 97 Resource Effective Bioidentification System (REBS) 97 Molecular tracer techniques 98 PBAP detection via elemental analysis 98 Automated pollen counting 98

Acknowledgments 99

References 99

Part II Sources and Transport of Microbial Aerosols 115

2.1 Bioaerosol Sources 117N. Wéry, A. Galès and Y. Brunet

2.1.1 Introduction 117

2.1.2 Emission mechanisms 119 Passive and active release 119 Erosion, abrasive dislodgment, and abrasive damage 120 Bubble bursting 121 Emissions from man–made systems 121 Differences in concentration factors between microorganisms: selection during aerosolization 122

2.1.3 Measuring emission fluxes 123 Introduction 123 Chamber measurements 123 Flux–gradient relationships 124 A novel method for measuring vertical atmospheric fluxes? 125 Downwind dispersion modelling 125 Conclusion 126

2.1.4 Impact of aerosol sources on the concentration and diversity of airborne microbial communities in the near–surface atmosphere 126 Effect of source type on microbial loads 126 Effect of source type on microbial diversity 127 Impact of meteorological factors on source contribution 128

2.1.5 Identifying predictors of bioaerosol emission and airborne community composition 129 Predictors of airborne community composition 129 Indicators for monitoring bioaerosol emission 129

2.1.6 Conclusion 130

References 131

2.2 Short–Scale Transport of Bioaerosols 137Y. Brunet, N. Wéry and A. Galès

2.2.1 Introduction 137

2.2.2 Particle dynamics and deposition processes 138

2.2.3 Transport processes and dispersal scales 140

2.2.4 Survival of microorganisms during transport 142

2.2.5 Modeling tools for the transport of microbial aerosols 143 Gaussian approaches 143 Modeling dispersal in plant canopies 144 Toward larger scales 145 Modeling the survival of airborne microorganisms 146

2.2.6 Dispersal patterns 147 Release conditions 147 Concentration variations downwind from sources 147 Landscape–scale patterns 148

2.2.7 Conclusion 149

References 149

2.3 Global–Scale Atmospheric Dispersion of Microorganisms 155D.W. Griffin, C. Gonzalez–Martin, C. Hoose and D.J. Smith

2.3.1 Historical context 155

2.3.2 Mechanisms of dispersion 156 Natural sources 156 Anthropogenic sources 159

2.3.3 Microorganisms associated with long–range dispersion 161 Ubiquity 161 Long–range transport studies by method type 165

2.3.4 Residence time, transport history, and emission models 167 General principles 167 Global and regional models including biological aerosols 168 Determining transport history with proxy aerosols 172

2.3.5 Implications for planetary exploration 174 Aerobiology informs astrobiology 174

Acknowledgments 178

References 178

Part III Impacts of Microbial Aerosols on Atmospheric Processes 195

3.1 Impacts of Bioaerosols on Atmospheric Ice Nucleation Processes 197T.C.J. Hill, P.J. DeMott, F. Conen and O. Möhler

3.1.1 Introduction 197

3.1.2 Measurements of ice–nucleating particles 199 Online and offline measurements of single ice–nucleating particles using diffusion chambers 199 Offline ice–nucleating particle measurements using bulk aerosol and precipitation samples 200 Cloud simulation laboratories 201 Contact freezing measurements 202 Compositional analyses of ice–nucleating particles 203

3.1.3 Findings from laboratory experiments, field collections, and field studies 203

3.1.4 Atmospheric implications 207 Ecological advantages of ice nucleation and the bioprecipitation hypothesis 207 Correlation with precipitation cycles (stimulation of ice–nucleating particle release by rainfall?) 208 A special role for bioaerosols in secondary ice generation and precipitation formation? 209

3.1.5 Conclusion and future needs 210

References 210

3.2 Impacts on Cloud Chemistry 221A.–M. Delort, L. Deguillaume, P. Renard, V. Vinatier, I. Canet, M. Vaïtilingom and N. Chaumerliac

3.2.1 Introduction 221

3.2.2 Chemical composition of clouds 222

3.2.3 Clouds as oxidative reactors 225

3.2.4 Clouds as spaces of biodegradation 227 Biotransformation of carboxylic acids, methanol, and formaldehyde 228 Comparison between biodegradation and radical chemistry 230

3.2.5 Interactions with cloud oxidants 232 Interactions with reactive oxidant species 232 Interactions with iron 233

3.2.6 Clouds as spaces of organic compound functionalization 235 Formation of high molecular weight compounds via chemical reactions 235 Formation of high molecular weight compounds via microbial activity 236

3.2.7 Conclusion 238

References 239

Part IV Impacts of Bioaerosols on Human Health and the Environment 249

4.1 Health Impacts of Bioaerosol Exposure 251P. Blais Lecours, C. Duchaine, M. Thibaudon and D. Marsolais

4.1.1 Introduction 251

4.1.2 Hazardous potential of bioaerosols 251 Factors affecting the hazardous potential of bioaerosols 251 Epidemiological data in documented environments 252

4.1.3 Infectious diseases associated with bioaerosols 253 Identification of agents with infectious potential in bioaerosols 253 Determinants of maintenance of infectious potential in bioaerosols 254

4.1.4 Toxic and hypersensitivity disease–associated bioaerosols 254 Balance of biological mechanisms determining toxic reactions and hypersensitivity 254 Airborne agents responsible for immunogenic responses 254 Pollen grain and fungal spore surveillance 255 Diseases associated with non–infectious culturable and non–culturable fractions 256

4.1.5 Biological agents used for bioterrorism 258 Bioterrorism 258 Classification of bioterrorism agents 259 Point detection of biological agents and exposure limit values of bioaerosols 263

4.1.6 Conclusion 263

References 263

4.2 Impacts of Microbial Aerosols on Natural and Agro–ecosystems: Immigration, Invasions, and their Consequences 269C.E. Morris and D.C. Sands

4.2.1 Introduction 269

4.2.2 Colonization of virgin and extreme habitats 270 The emergence of terrestrial eukaryotes 270 Modern rebirth of pristine land: colonization in the wake of volcanic eruptions 270 The conquest of rocks: weathering and the liberation of mineral nutrients 272 Colonization of sculpted and painted rocks: deterioration of cultural heritage 273 High–altitude/latitude environments 273

4.2.3 Invasion of agriculture 274

4.2.4 Opportunities for research 276

References 277

Index 281

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About the Editors

Anne–Marie Delort, Université Clermont Auvergne, CNRS, Institut de Chimie de Clermont–Ferrand (ICCF), France.

Pierre Amato, Université Clermont Auvergne, CNRS, Institut de Chimie de Clermont–Ferrand (ICCF), France.

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