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Cellulose Science and Technology. Chemistry, Analysis, and Applications

  • ID: 4398441
  • Book
  • December 2018
  • 480 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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The field of renewable resources is burgeoning today more than ever.  Thus, cellulose science is one of the most scientifically active research fields today in the framework of bioeconomy trends and related fields of biorefineries and biomass utilization.

Cellulose Science and Technology: Chemistry, Analysis, and Applications addresses concepts and novel developments in the rapidly evolving field of cellulose chemistry, providing an emphasis on the fundamental aspects of nanocellulose and microfibrillated cellulose. Featuring contributions from leading cellulose scientists worldwide, the book describes current attempts to provide and widen the scope of applications of cellulosics in biomass utilization and biomaterial production.

The authors address three main topics (chemistry, analysis, and novel applications of cellulosic materials) and provide a panoramic snapshot of state–of–the–art cellulose research. Integrating nanoscience and applications in materials, energy, biotechnology, and more, the book appeals broadly to students and researchers in chemistry, materials, energy, and environmental science.

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1 Aminocelluloses polymers with fascinating properties and application potential
Thomas Heinze, Thomas Elschner and Kristin Gankse

1.1 Introduction

2 Amino–/ammonium group containing cellulose esters

2.1 (3–Carboxypropyl)trimethylammonium chloride esters of cellulose

2.2 Cellulose–4–(N–methylamino)butyrate (CMABC)

3 6–Deoxy–6–amino cellulose derivatives

3.1 Spontaneous self–assembling of 6–deoxy–6–amino cellulose derivatives

3.2 Application potential of 6–deoxy–6–amino cellulose derivatives

4 Amino cellulose carbamates

4.1 Synthesis

4.2 Properties


2 Preparation of photosensitizer–bound cellulose derivatives for photocurrent generation system
Toshiyuki Takano

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Porphyrin–bound cellulose derivatives [1–3]

2.3 Phthalocyanine–bound cellulose derivatives [4, 5]

2.4 Squaraine–bound cellulose derivative [6]

2.5 Ruthenium(II) complex–bound cellulose derivative [7]

2.6 Fullerene–bound cellulose derivative [8]

2.7 Porphyrin–bound chitosan derivative [11]

2.8 Conclusions


3 Synthesis of cellulosic bottlebrushes with regioselectively substituted side chains and their self–assembly
K. Sakakibara, Y. Kinose and Y. Tsujii

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Strategy for accomplishing regioselective grafting of cellulose

3.3 Regioselective introduction of the first polymer side chain

3.3.1 Introduction of poly(styrene) at O–2, 3 position of 6–O–p–methoxytritylcellulose (1)

3.3.2 Introduction of poly(ethylene oxide) at O–2, 3 position of 6–O–p–methoxytritylcellulose (1)

3.4 Regioselective introduction of the second polymer side chain

3.4.1 Introduction of poly(styrene) at O–6 position of 2,3–di–O–PEO cellulose (5) via grafting–from approach

3.4.2 Introduction of poly(styrene) at O–6 position of 2,3–di–O–PEO cellulose (5) via grafting to approach combining click reaction

3.5 SEC–MALS study

3.5 Summary and Outlook


4 Recent Progress on Oxygen Delignification of Softwood Kraft pulp
Adriaan, R. P. van Heiningen1, Yun Ji and Vahid Jafari

4.1 Introduction and state of the art of commercial oxygen delignification

4.2 Chemistry of delignification and cellulose degradation

4.3 Improving the reactivity of residual lignin

4.4 Improving delignification/cellulose degradation selectivity during oxygen delignification

4.5 Improving pulp yield by using oxygen delignification

4.6 Practical Implementation of High Kappa Oxygen Delignification


5 Towards a better understanding of cellulose swelling, dissolution and regeneration on the molecular level
Thomas Rosenau, Antje Potthast, Andreas Hofinger, Markus Bacher, Yuko Yoneda, Kurt Mereiter, Fumiaki Nakatsubo, Christian Jäger, Alfred D. French and Kanji Kajiwara

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Results and discussion

5.2.1 The viewpoint of cellulose

5.2.2 The viewpoint of cellulose solvents

5.3 Conclusions


6 Interaction of Water Molecules with Carboxyalkyl Cellulose
H. Miyamoto, K. Sakakibara, I. Wataoka, Y. Tsujii, C. Yamane and K. Kajiwara

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and carboxyethyl cellulose (CEC)

6.3 DSC (differential scanning calorimetry)

6.4 Small–angle X–ray scattering (SAXS)

6.5 Molecular dynamics

6.6 Chemical modification and biodegradability


7 Analysis of the substituent distribution in cellulose ethers recent contributions
Petra Mischnick

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Methyl cellulose

7.2.1 Average DS and methyl pattern in the glucosyl unit

7.2.2 Distribution along and over the chain

7.2.3 Summary

7.3 Hydroxalkylmethyl celluloses

7.3.1 Hydroxyethylmethyl celluloses

7.3.2 Hydroxypropylmethyl celluloses

7.3.3 Summary

7.4 Carboxymethyl cellulose

7.5 Outlook


8 Adhesive mixtures as sacrificial substrates in paper aging
Irina Sulaeva, Ute Henniges, Thomas Rosenau and Antje Potthast

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Materials and Methods

8.2.1 Chemicals

8.2.2 Preparation of adhesive mixtures and films from individual components

8.2.3 Preparation of coated paper samples

8.2.4 Accelerated heat–induced aging

8.2.5 GPC analysis

8.2.6 Contact angle measurements

8.2.7 Analysis of paper brightness

8.3 Results and discussion

8.3.1 GPC analysis of adhesive mixtures and individual components

8.3.2 Molar mass analysis of paper samples

8.3.3 Contact angle analysis

8.3.4 UV/Vis measurements of paper brightness

8.4 Conclusions


9 Solution–State NMR Analysis of Lignocellulosics in Non–Derivatizing Solvents
Ashley J. Holding, Alistair W. T. King and Ilkka Kilpeläinen

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Solution–State 2D NMR of Lignocellulose and Whole Biomass

9.3 Solution State 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy of Cellulose and Pulp

9.4 Solution–State NMR Spectroscopy of Modified Nanocrystalline Cellulose

9.5 Solution state 31P NMR spectroscopy and Quantification of Hydroxyl Groups

9.6 Conclusions and Future Prospects


10 Surface chemistry and characterization of cellulose nanocrystals
Samuel Eyley, Christina Schütz and Wim Thielemans

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Cellulose nanocrystals

10.3 Morphological and structural characterization

10.3.1 Microscopy

10.3.2 Small angle scattering

10.3.3 Powder X–ray di raction

10.3.4 Solid state NMR spectroscopy

10.4 Chemical characterization

10.4.1 Infrared spectroscopy

10.4.2 Elemental analysis

10.4.3 X–ray photoelectron spectroscopy

10.4.4 Other methods

10.5 Conclusion


11 Some comments on chiral structures from cellulose
Derek G. Gray

11.1 Chirality and cellulose nanocrystals

11.2 Can CNC form nematic or smectic ordered materials?

11.3 Why do some CNC films not display iridescent colours?

11.4 Is there any pattern to the observed expressions of chirality at length scales from the molecular to the macroscopic?


12 Supramolecular aspects of native cellulose: fringed–fibrillar model, levelling–off degree of polymerization and production of cellulose nanocrystals
Eero Kontturi

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Fringed–fibrillar model: crystallographic, spectroscopic, and microscopic evidence

12.3 Leveling–off degree of polymerization (LODP)

12.4 Preparation of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs)

12.5 Conclusions


13 Cellulose Nanofibrils: From Hydrogels to Aerogels
Marco Beaumont, Antje Potthast and Thomas Rosenau

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Cellulose nanofibrils

13.3 Hydrogels

13.3.1 Cellulose nanofibrils

13.3.2 Composites

13.3.3 Modification

13.4 Aerogels

13.4.1 Drying of solvogels

13.4.2 Mechanical properties

13.4.3 Conductive aerogels

13.4.4 Hydrophobic aerogels and superabsorbents

13.4.5 Other applications

13.5 Conclusion


14 High–performance lignocellulosic fibers spun from ionic liquid solution
Michael Hummel, Anne Michud, Yibo Ma, Annariikka Roselli, Agnes Stepan, Sanna Hellstén, Shirin Asaadi and Herbert Sixta

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Materials and Methods

14.2.1 Pulp dissolution and filtration

14.2.2 Rheological measurements

14.2.3 Chemical composition analysis

14.2.4 Molar mass distribution analysis

14.2.5 Fiber spinning

14.2.6 Mechanical analysis of fibers

14.3 Results and Discussion

14.3.1 Lignocellulosic solutes

14.3.2 Rheological properties

14.3.3 Fiber spinning

14.3.4 Fiber properties

14.3.5 Summary of the influence of non–cellulosic constituents on the fiber properties

14.4 Conclusions


15 Bio–based aerogels: a new generation of thermal super–insulating materials
Tatiana Budtova

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Cellulose I based aerogels and their composites

15.3 Cellulose II based aerogels and their composites

15.4 Pectin based aerogels and their composites

15.5 Starch based aerogels

15.6 Alginate aerogels

15.7 Conclusions and prospects


16 Nanocelluloses at the Oil–Water Interface: Emulsions toward Function and Material Development
Siqi Huan, Mariko Ago, Maryam Borghei and Orlando J. Rojas

16.1 Cellulose nanocrystal properties in the stabilization of O/W interfaces

16.2 Surfactant–free emulsions

16.3 Emulsions stabilized with modified nanocelluloses

16.4 Surfactant–assisted emulsions

16.5 Emulsions with polymer co–emulsifiers

16.6 Double emulsions

16.7 Emulsion or emulsion–precursor systems with stimuli–responsive behavior

16.8 Closing Remarks


17 Honeycomb–patterned cellulose as a promising tool to investigate wood cell wall formation and deformation
Yasumitsu Uraki, Liang Zhou, Qiang Li, Teuku Beuna Bardant and Keiichi Koda

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Theory of honeycomb deformation

17.3 HPRC with cellulose II polymorphism and their tensile strength

17.4 Validity of deformation models

17.5 Deposition of wood cell wall components on the film of HPBC film


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Thomas Rosenau
Antje Potthast
Johannes Hell
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