Recent research on skin immunity and the skin microbiome reveals the complexity of the skin and its importance in the development of immunity against arthropod-borne diseases. In diseases such as malaria, borreliosis, leishmaniasis, trypanosomiasis, etc., the skin interface has been shown as an essential site for pathogens to hide from the immune system, and as a potential site of persistence. Only very few vaccines have been successfully developed so far against these diseases, likely because of an insufficient understanding on the development of skin immunity against pathogens. Skin and Arthropod Vectors expands our knowledge on the role of the skin interface during the transmission of arthropod-borne diseases and particularly its immunity. This work may support researchers who strive for developing more efficient diagnostic tools and vaccines. It also gives scientists and advanced students working in related areas a better insight on how humans and animals are attractive to arthropods to develop better repellents, or to set up transgenic arthropods.
- Offers the only compilation of research focusing on both the skin interface and arthropod vectors, with contributions from international experts
- Advances research in the effort toward generating more effective diagnostic tools and vaccines focusing on the skin interface
- Can also serve as supplemental material for dermatology lectures or specialized lectures on medical entomology and skin immunity
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Nathalie Boulanger and Cédric Lenormand
2. Arthropods: Definition and Medical Importance
Gérard Duvallet, Nathalie Boulanger and Vincent Robert
3. Impact of Skin Microbiome on Attractiveness to Arthropod Vectors and Pathogen Transmission
Niels O. Verhulst, Nathalie Boulanger and Jeroen Spitzen
4. Arthropod Saliva and Its Role in Pathogen Transmission: Insect Saliva
Mosquito Saliva, Skin, Allergy, and the Outcome of Malaria Infection-From Mice to Men
Claudia Demarta-Gatsi, Salaheddine Mécheri and Richard E. Paul
Role of Sand Fly Saliva on Leishmania Infection and the Potential of Vector Salivary Proteins as Vaccines
Shadden Kamhawi, Jesus G. Valenzuela, Iliano V. Coutinho-Abreu, Cláudia Ida Brodskyn
5. Tick Saliva and Its Role in Pathogen Transmission
Sarah Bonnet, Mária Kazimírová, Jennifer Richardson and Ladislav Simo
6. Insect-Borne Pathogens and Skin Interface: Flagellate Parasites and Skin Interface
Natalia Tavares, Léa Castellucci, Camila de Oliveira, Cláudia Brodskyn
Dorien Mabille, Louis Maes, Guy Caljon
7. Skin and Other Pathogens: Malaria and Plague
Emergence of a Skin Phase in Mammalian Malaria
Pauline Formaglio, Laura Mac-Daniel, Rogerio Amino, Robert Ménard
Yersinia Pestis and Plague
Jeffrey G. Shannon
8. Insect-Borne Viruses and Host Skin Interface
Christopher G. Mueller and Van-Mai Cao-Lormeau
9. Tick-Borne Bacteria and Host Skin Interface
Quentin Bernard, Ema Helezen and Nathalie Boulanger
10. Tick-Borne Viruses and Host Skin Interface
Mária Kazimírová, Pavlína Bartíková and Iveta Stibrániová
11. Skin and Arthropod-Borne Diseases: Applications to Vaccine and Diagnosis
Live Vaccines Against Preerythrocytic Malaria: A Skin Issue?
Laura Mac-Daniel, Rogerio Amino, Robert Ménard
Lyme Vaccine: Borrelia and Tick as Targets to Identify Vaccine Candidates Against Lyme Borreliosis?
Ema Helezen, Nathalie Boulanger
12. Tools to Decipher Vector-Borne Pathogen and Host Interactions in the Skin
Pauline Formaglio, Joppe W. Hovius, Chetan Aditya, Joana Tavares, Lauren M.K. Mason, Robert Ménard, Nathalie Boulanger and Rogerio Amino
Dr. Nathalie Boulanger has been associate professor in parasitology at the University of Strasbourg, France, since 1995. For more than a decade, her research team has developed a project on skin and Lyme borreliosis. The research developed covers the main aspects of the interaction of arthropod vectors and the skin: role of arthropod saliva, skin microbiome, development of in vitro and in vivo models, applications of the topics to diagnostics and vaccine aspects, and more. Dr. Boulanger has received both Fulbright and Monahan grants and has past experience researching malaria and coccidiosis vaccines. She has teaching experience in zoology, public health, entomology, parasitology, and medical mycology.