Smart Water Technologies and Techniques. Data Capture and Analysis for Sustainable Water Management. Challenges in Water Management Series

  • ID: 4413139
  • Book
  • 256 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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An Insightful Examination of Smart Water Systems and Technology

Inland water supplies are under increasing pressure. Climate, social, and demographic change have begun tipping the balance toward demand management, as supplies begins to dwindle. Water and wastewater infrastructure will play a central role in the management of this increasingly valuable resource, and Smart Water Technologies and Techniques: Data Capture and Analysis for Sustainable Water Management provides insight on a key part of the solution.

Smart water applications optimise the way water and wastewater services are used, allowing more efficient allocation of limited resources while adding flexibility to the system. Automation, real–time data capture, and rapid interpretation allow utilities and users to monitor, manage, and act on the part of the water cycle that matters to them, minimizing costs of providing service through optimal use of extant assets.

This book brings together the core principles, key developments, and current state–of–the–art into a single resource that:

  • Considers smart water within operational, economic, policy, and regulatory contexts
  • Provides a comprehensive overview of the smart water concept and the latest advances in the field
  • Examines key considerations and objections raised to date
  • Discusses the potential value of smart water, from perception to policy
  • Shows how smart water systems can optimize efficiency and flexibility of water and wastewater management
  • Explores future directions for smart water development in the pursuit of balanced supply and demand

Although primarily designed for water supply and sanitation, smart water systems may be applied to irrigation, reservoir and dam management, inland water flows, and more, making it a valuable asset as water scarcity begins to spread around the globe. This book answers the questions, assuages concerns, and explains the technology that could revolutionize the way water is accessed and supplied.

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Introduction xiii

1 What do we Mean by Smart Water? 1

Introduction 1

1.1 Defining Smart 1

1.1.1 Smart and Utilities and Public Services 1

1.1.2 Smart Consumer Goods 1

1.2 Smart Power and Smart Grids 2

1.2.1 Smart Grids 2

1.3 Cleantech and Smart Cleantech 3

1.3.1 Smart Cleantech 4

1.4 Smart Water 4

1.4.1 Smart Water and the Flow of Information 5

1.4.1.1 Monitoring and Data Collection 5

1.4.1.2 Data Transmission and Recovery 5

1.4.1.3 Data Interpretation 5

1.4.1.4 Data Manipulation 6

1.4.1.5 Data Presentation 6

1.4.1.6 From Top Down to Bottom Up; Inverting the Flow of Information 6

1.4.2 Smart Water and Managing the Water Cycle 7

1.4.2.1 Potable Water Systems 7

1.4.2.2 Sewerage Systems 7

1.4.2.3 Energy Use and Recovery 7

1.4.2.4 Smart Environment 7

1.4.2.5 Flood Management and Mitigation 7

1.4.2.6 Resource Management 8

1.4.2.7 Integrated Water Management 8

1.4.3 Smart Water and the Food, Water, Energy, and the Environment Nexus 8

1.5 Water, Smart Water and Cleantech 8

1.6 Disruption and a Conservative Sector 9

1.6.1 Why Water Utilities are Risk ]Averse 9

1.6.2 A Question of Standards 9

1.6.3 Disruption in a Conservative Sector 10

1.7 The Size of this Market; Estimates and Forecasts 10

1.7.1 A Survey of Surveys 11

1.8 Venture Capital Funding Flows 13

1.8.1 Smart Water Cleantech Funding 14

1.8.2 Funding Smart Water Companies 14

1.8.3 The Evolution of Venture Capital Funding 15

1.9 Two Perspectives on Venture Capital and New Technologies 15

1.9.1 The Global Cleantech 100 Cleantech Companies to Watch 16

1.9.2 The Gartner Hype Cycle Investor and Customer Expectations and Realities 16

1.10 Sales of Smart Systems 18

1.11 Smart Water for Consumers 18

1.12 Smart Water for Utilities and Industrial Customers 18

1.13 Irrigation and Surface Water Monitoring 19

1.14 Water and the Internet of Things 19

1.15 Some Initial Caveats 19

1.15.1 A Caveat about a Swiftly Evolving Future 20

1.15.2 A Caveat on Data and the Silo Mentality 20

Conclusions 20

References 21

2 Why do we Need Smart Water? 27

Introduction 27

2.1 The Water Supply Crunch 27

2.1.1 Water Scarcity and Stress 27

2.1.2 Renewable Water Resources 28

2.1.3 Population Growth and Urbanisation 28

2.1.4 Water Shortage, Scarcity and Stress 30

2.1.5 Population and Water Stress 31

2.1.6 Industrial Water Usage 34

2.1.7 The Supply Management Paradigm 35

2.1.8 Funding Constraints; The Need to do More with Less Funding 35

2.1.9 Affordability is a Concern, Especially in Less Equal Societies 37

2.1.10 Paying for Water and Wastewater 39

2.2 The Impact of Climate Change 40

2.2.1 The Cost of Adapting to a Changing Climate 42

2.3 Leakage and Water Losses 42

2.4 Water Efficiency and Demand Management 43

2.4.1 Demand Management and Consumer Behaviour 43

2.4.2 Balancing Water Use; Seasonal Demand and Availability 43

2.4.3 Water Efficiency The Demands of Demand Management 44

2.4.4 Water Metering 45

2.4.4.1 The Development of Metering in England and Wales 45

2.5 Lowering Energy Usage 46

2.5.1 The Cost of Energy 47

2.5.2 Where Energy is Consumed 47

2.5.3 Energy Efficiency 48

2.5.4 Turning Wastewater into a Resource 49

2.6 Appreciating Asset Condition and its Effective Performance 49

2.6.1 Improvements in Asset Efficiency and Operating Costs 50

2.6.2 The Need to Understand Underground Assets 50

2.6.3 Pumps and Potential Savings 51

2.6.4 The Scope for Savings 51

Conclusions 52

References 52

3 The Technologies and Techniques Driving Smart Water 57

Introduction 57

3.1 From Innovation to Application The Necessity of Integration 57

3.2 Digital Manufacturing The Right Size at the Right Price 59

3.3 Smart Objects and the Internet of Things 60

3.4 The Hierarchy of Smart Hardware and Software 61

3.4.1 Automatic Decisions and Operations 61

3.4.2 Data Management and Display 61

3.4.3 Collection and Communication 62

3.4.4 Sensing and Control 63

3.4.5 Relevant Aspects that Exist Outside the Smart Network, as the Physical Layer 64

3.4.6 Smart Water Grids as Integrated Data Hierarchies 64

3.5 Case Studies: Towards Implementation 65

3.5.1 Case Study 3.1: Northumbrian Water s Regional Control Centre 65

3.5.1.1 Northumbrian Water s Aims and Outcomes 65

3.5.1.2 Smart Systems for Northumbrian Water Schneider s SCADA 67

3.5.1.3 Smart Systems for Northumbrian Water Aquadapt s Water Management System 67

3.5.2 Case Study 3.2: Big Data at D r Cymru Welsh Water 68

3.5.3 Case Study 3.3: Non ]Revenue Water Reduction at Aguas de Cascais 69

3.5.4 Case Study 3.4: Smart Meter Services for Aguas de Portugal 70

3.5.4.1 EPAL s DMA Analysis Project Methodology 71

3.5.4.2 Implementing Innovation 72

3.5.4.3 Results to Date 72

3.5.4.4 The Waterbeep Service at EPAL 73

3.5.5 Case Study 3.5: The Vitens Innovation Playground 74

3.5.5.1 Performance and Practicalities 74

3.5.5.2 The Beginnings of Big Data 74

3.5.5.3 Incertameter 75

3.5.5.4 Quasset 75

3.5.5.5 Optiqua 75

3.5.5.6 Arson Engineering 75

3.5.5.7 Scan Messtechnik GmbH 75

3.5.5.8 Homeria 75

3.5.5.9 StereoGraph 76

3.5.5.10 Mycometer 76

Conclusions 76

References 76

4 Domestic Water and Demand Management 79

Introduction 79

4.1 Metering and Smart Water Metering 79

4.1.1 Adoption of Metering 79

4.1.2 The Adoption of Metering in England and Wales 80

4.1.3 Tariff Structures 85

4.2 Types of Water Meter 85

4.2.1 Types of AMR Meter Reading 86

4.2.2 Smart Metering From AMR to AMI 86

4.2.3 Smart Water Meters and Demand Management 87

4.2.4 The Cost of Smart Metering 87

4.2.5 Operating Costs for Smart Metering 89

4.2.6 Smart Meter Deployments to Date 90

4.2.7 Metering Deployment, Development and Utility Cash ]flow 90

4.3 Smart Metering in Practice 91

4.3.1 What Data Means for Utilities and their Customers 91

4.3.2 The Need to Appreciate Customer Behaviour 91

4.3.3 Water Metering and Demand Management 92

4.3.4 Multi Utility Metering 94

4.3.5 Wessex Water A Seasonal Tariff Trial 94

4.3.6 Smart Meters and Utility Size in the USA 95

4.3.7 Sewerage Metering What Goes In, and Out 95

4.3.7.1 Wessex Water: Smart Wastewater Metering 96

4.3.8 Smart Metering and Leak Detection for Commercial Customers 97

4.4 Domestic Water 97

4.4.1 Domestic Devices 97

4.4.2 Monitoring Water Use 98

4.4.3 Water Harvesting and Reuse 99

4.4.4 Reducing Water Consumption at the Tap Level 99

4.4.5 Optimising Water Flow From the Tap 99

4.4.6 Domestic Flood Prevention 100

4.4.7 Water Efficient Appliances 101

4.4.8 Commercial and Municipal Applications 101

4.4.8.1 Low ]Flow Shower Heads 102

4.4.8.2 Vacuum Lavatories 102

4.4.8.3 Minimum Water Cleaning 102

4.4.8.4 Glass Washers for Caterers 102

4.5 Developing Water Efficiency Standards 103

4.5.1 Australia Water Efficiency Approvals 103

4.5.2 Water Efficiency Labels in Portugal, Singapore and the EU 103

4.5.3 Europe s Water Label 104

4.5.4 Voluntary and Mandatory Schemes 105

4.6 Case Studies: The Emergence of Smart Domestic Metering and Appliances 106

4.6.1 Case Study 4.1: Smart Water Metering in Japan 107

4.6.2 Case Study 4.2: Water Use in the Home 107

4.6.2.1 At Home with Water 108

4.6.2.2 At Home with Water 2 108

4.6.3 Case Study 4.3: Smart Metering from an Energy Utility Perspective 109

4.6.3.1 Psychological Basis: Experiential Learning 110

4.6.4 Case Study 4.4: Southern Water s Smart Metering Roll ]Out 110

4.6.5 Case Study 4.5: Malta s Smart Water Metering Roll ]Out 112

4.6.6 Case Study 4.6: Smart Metering and Demand Management for Thames Water 112

4.6.6.1 The Need for Metering 112

4.6.6.2 Deploying the Meters 113

4.6.6.3 Findings from Fixed Network Trials: 2012 15 113

4.6.6.4 Preparing for the Migration from AMR to AMI 113

4.6.6.5 Customer Engagement and Awareness 114

4.6.6.6 Benefits Identified 115

4.6.6.7 Risks to Consider 116

4.6.6.8 Going Forward 116

4.6.7 Case Study 4.7: Retail Competition in England and Scotland 116

4.6.8 Case Study 4.8: Preparing for a Smart Meter Roll ]Out in the USA 117

4.6.9 Case Study 4.9: Reducing Water Consumption in Melbourne 117

4.6.10 Case Study 4.10: Smart Meters in the USA, A Utility Perspective 118

4.6.11 Case Study 4.11: Jersey Water, Using AMR and AMI 118

4.6.12 Case Study 4.12: Orbital Systems A Water Efficient Power Shower 118

4.6.13 Case Study 4.13: Enabling Utilities to Communicate Meter Readings 119

Conclusions 120

References 121

5 Optimising how we Manage Water and Wastewater 127

Introduction 127

5.1 Traditional Techniques and Expectations 127

5.2 Living in a Real ]time World 128

5.2.1 Why we Need More Testing Intensity of Water Use 129

5.2.2 Why we Need Faster Testing Predict Rather than Respond 129

5.2.3 The Role of Domestic Smart Metering in Informing the Utility 129

5.3 Network Monitoring and Efficiency 129

5.3.1 Leakage Detection and Location 129

5.3.2 Assessing Asset Condition 130

5.3.3 Water Pressure Management and Leakage Detection 131

5.3.4 Optimising Pumping 133

5.3.5 Dealing with the Data 134

5.4 Drinking Water Quality 134

5.4.1 Drinking Water Potability, Aesthetics and Public Confidence 135

5.4.2 Going Back to the Source Catchment Management 135

5.5 Water Utilities and the Wider Environment 135

5.5.1 River and Ground Water Quality Assessment 136

5.5.2 Flood Detection and Management 136

5.5.2.1 Smart Flood Management 136

5.5.3 Bathing Water Monitoring 138

5.6 Wastewater and Sewerage 139

5.6.1 Sludge Condition and Treatment 139

5.6.2 As a Renewable Resource Water and Wastewater Reuse 139

5.6.3 Storm Sewerage Overflow Detection and Response 139

5.6.4 Wastewater as a Public Health Monitoring Tool 140

5.6.5 Smart Sewerage Capacity Optimisation 142

5.7 Avoiding Surplus Assets 143

5.7.1 Making the Extant Networks Deliver More 143

5.7.2 Efficient Deployment of Meters and Monitors 144

5.8 Case Studies 145

5.8.1 Case Study 5.1: Fast Action Leakage Detection in Copenhagen 146

5.8.2 Case Study 5.2: Data Logging and Network Optimisation 146

5.8.3 Case Study 5.3: Developing a Leak Detection and Management System in Jerusalem 147

5.8.4 Case Study 5.4: Mapping the Underground for Locating Utility Assets 149

5.8.5 Case Study 5.5: Energy Efficient Pumping in Spain and Brazil 150

5.8.6 Case Study 5.6: Smart Water in Malta The System 151

5.8.7 Case Study 5.7: Wireless Enabled Sewerage Monitoring and Management 152

5.8.8 Case Study 5.8: Monitoring for Sewer Overflows 153

5.8.9 Case Study 5.9: Flood Warnings and Event Management 153

5.8.10 Case Study 5.10: Sewerage Monitoring in a Remote Community 154

5.8.11 Case Study 5.11: Flood Monitoring and Management in Bordeaux 154

Conclusions 155

References 156

6 Appropriate Technology and Development 161

Introduction 161

6.1 Sustainable Development and Water in Developing Economies 161

6.2 Overcoming Traditional Obstacles 162

6.2.1 Aid ]Funded Rural Hand Pumps in Sub ]Saharan Africa 163

6.2.2 Reducing Water Losses and Unbilled Water in Developing Economies 163

6.2.3 Developing Water Pumps that are Built to Last 163

6.3 The Impact of Mobile Telephony 164

6.3.1 The Need for Access to Services and Infrastructure 164

6.3.2 Making Innovation Matter Mobile Money and Water 165

6.4 An Overview of Smart Water Initiatives Seen in Developing Economies 167

6.4.1 India s Smart Cities Mission 167

6.4.2 Remote Pump Condition Monitoring 167

6.4.3 SWEETSense A Multi Use Monitor 168

6.4.4 Data Collection, Transmission and Interpretation Systems mWater 168

6.4.5 Managing and Monitoring Losses 169

6.4.6 Smart Sanitation Logistics and Lavatories 170

6.4.7 Sanitation Apps 170

6.5 Case Studies 171

6.5.1 Case Study 6.1: Smart Water ATMs in an Informal Settlement in Nairobi, Kenya 171

6.5.2 Case Study 6.2: Smart Sanitation Collection in Senegal 172

6.5.3 Case Study 6.3: India Performance ]Based PPP Contract for Water Services 172

Conclusions 172

References 174

7 The Other 70%: Agriculture, Horticulture and Recreation 177

Introduction 177

7.1 Resource Competition and Municipal, Agricultural and Industrial Demand 177

7.1.1 Population Growth and Hunger Drive Demand 177

7.1.2 Loss of Productive Land 178

7.1.3 Irrigation and Productivity 178

7.1.4 Irrigation Efficiency 180

7.1.5 Urban and Domestic Irrigation 181

7.2 The Economics of Irrigation 181

7.3 Smart Irrigation and Sustainability 183

7.3.1 The Market for Smart Irrigation 183

7.3.2 Policy Drivers 185

7.4 Smart Irrigation Agriculture 187

7.4.1 Smart Irrigation Systems 187

7.4.2 The Impact of Smart Irrigation 188

7.4.3 Regulated Deficit Irrigation 190

7.5 Lawns, Parks and Sports Fields 190

7.6 Case Studies 192

7.6.1 Case Study 7.1: Wine Growing in the USA 192

7.6.2 Case Study 7.2: Remote Sensing of Customer Water Consumption 193

7.6.3 Case Study 7.3: ETwater An Integrated Garden Irrigation Management System 194

Conclusions 194

References 195

8 Policies and Practicalities for Enabling Smart Water 199

Introduction 199

8.1 Regulation as a Policy Driver 199

8.2 Direct Policy Interventions 200

8.3 Indirect Policy Interventions 200

8.4 Policy as an Inhibitor 201

8.5 Policy Challenges 201

8.6 Case Studies 202

8.6.1 Case Study 8.1: Australia Localised Initiatives 202

8.6.2 Case Study 8.2: Ontario, Canada A Smart Grid for Water 202

8.6.3 Case Study 8.3: Israel Supporting Smart Technologies 203

8.6.4 Case Study 8.4: Korea Smart Water as Part of a National Competitiveness Package 203

8.6.5 Case Study 8.5: Singapore Smart Management as a Part of Holistic Water Management 204

8.6.6 Case Study 8.6: The United Kingdom Mixed Signals 205

8.6.7 Case Study 8.7: The USA State Level Mandates 207

Conclusions 208

References 209

9 Obstacles to Adoption 211

Introduction 211

9.1 Public Concerns about Health and Privacy 211

9.2 Trust, Technology and Politics 212

9.3 Ownership of Data 213

9.4 Stranded Assets 213

9.5 The Role of Utilities 214

9.6 Integrity and the Internet 214

9.7 A Question of Standards Revisited 214

9.8 Demand Management and Flushing Sewage Through the Network 215

9.9 Data Handling Capacity for the Internet of Things 215

9.10 Leakage Management is Hampered by its Measurement 216

9.11 Smart Water has its Logical Limits 216

Conclusions 216

References 217

10 Towards Smart Water Management 219

Introduction 219

10.1 Conservatism and Innovation 219

10.2 A Set of Desired Outcomes 220

10.3 The Impact of Smart Water 223

10.3.1 Irrigation 223

10.3.2 Smart Water and Overall Demand 224

10.3.3 Smart Water and Spending 225

Conclusions 225

References 226

Conclusions 229

Index 231

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DAVID A. LLOYD OWEN is the managing director of Envisager Limited. He advises governments, multilateral institutions and financiers on water policy, especially in relating to sustainability, economics and regulation. He has written eight books on water management and markets.

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