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Geochronology and Thermochronology. Edition No. 1. Wiley Works

  • ID: 4427391
  • Book
  • March 2018
  • 480 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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This book is a welcome introduction and reference for users and innovators in geochronology. It provides modern perspectives on the current state-of-the art in most of the principal areas of geochronology and thermochronology, while recognizing that they are changing at a fast pace. It emphasizes fundamentals and systematics, historical perspective, analytical methods, data interpretation, and some applications chosen from the literature. This book complements existing coverage by expanding on those parts of isotope geochemistry that are concerned with dates and rates and insights into Earth and planetary science that come from temporal perspectives.

Geochronology and Thermochronology offers chapters covering: Foundations of Radioisotopic Dating; Analytical Methods; Interpretational Approaches: Making Sense of Data; Diffusion and Thermochronologic Interpretations; Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, Lu-Hf; Re-Os and Pt-Os; U-Th-Pb Geochronology and Thermochronology; The K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar Systems; Radiation-damage Methods of Geo- and Thermochronology; The (U-Th)/He System; Uranium-series Geochronology; Cosmogenic Nuclides; and Extinct Radionuclide Chronology.
  • Offers a foundation for understanding each of the methods and for illuminating directions that will be important in the near future - Presents the fundamentals, perspectives, and opportunities in modern geochronology in a way that inspires further innovation, creative technique development, and applications - Provides references to rapidly evolving topics that will enable readers to pursue future developments
Geochronology and Thermochronology is designed for graduate and upper-level undergraduate students with a solid background in mathematics, geochemistry, and geology.

Read an interview with the editors to find out more:
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Preface ix

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Geo and chronologies 1

1.2 The ages of the age of the earth 2

1.3 Radioactivity 7

1.4 The objectives and significance of geochronology 13

1.5 References 15

2 Foundations of radioisotopic dating 17

2.1 Introduction 17

2.2 The delineation of nuclear structure 17

2.3 Nuclear stability 19

2.3.1 Nuclear binding energy and the mass defect 19

2.3.2 The liquid drop model for the nucleus 20

2.3.3 The nuclear shell model 22

2.3.4 Chart of the nuclides 23

2.4 Radioactive decay 23

2.4.1 Fission 23

2.4.2 Alpha-decay 24

2.4.3 Beta-decay 25

2.4.4 Electron capture 25

2.4.5 Branching decay 25

2.4.6 The energy of decay 25

2.4.7 The equations of radioactive decay 27

2.5 Nucleosynthesis and element abundances in the solar system 30

2.5.1 Stellar nucleosynthesis 30

2.5.2 Making elements heavier than iron: s-, r-, p-process nucleosynthesis 31

2.5.3 Element abundances in the solar system 32

2.6 Origin of radioactive isotopes 33

2.6.1 Stellar contributions of naturally occurring radioactive isotopes 33

2.6.2 Decay chains 33

2.6.3 Cosmogenic nuclides 33

2.6.4 Nucleogenic isotopes 35

2.6.5 Man-made radioactive isotopes 36

2.7 Conclusions 36

2.8 References 36

3 Analytical methods 39

3.1 Introduction 39

3.2 Sample preparation 39

3.3 Extraction of the element to be analyzed 40

3.4 Isotope dilution elemental quantification 42

3.5 Ion exchange chromatography 43

3.6 Mass spectrometry 44

3.6.1 Ionization 46

3.6.2 Extraction and focusing of ions 49

3.6.3 Mass fractionation 50

3.6.4 Mass analyzer 52

3.6.5 Detectors 57

3.6.6 Vacuum systems 60

3.7 Conclusions 62

3.8 References 63

4 Interpretational approaches: making sense of data 65

4.1 Introduction 65

4.2 Terminology and basics 65

4.2.1 Accuracy, precision, and trueness 65

4.2.2 Random versus systematic, uncertainties versus errors 66

4.2.3 Probability density functions 67

4.2.4 Univariate (one-variable) distributions 68

4.2.5 Multivariate normal distributions 68

4.3 Estimating a mean and its uncertainty 69

4.3.1 Average values: the sample mean, sample variance, and sample standard deviation 70

4.3.2 Average values: the standard error of the mean 70

4.3.3 Application: accurate standard errors for mass spectrometry 71

4.3.4 Correlation, covariance, and the covariance matrix 73

4.3.5 Degrees of freedom, part 1: the variance 73

4.3.6 Degrees of freedom, part 2: Student’s t distribution 73

4.3.7 The weighted mean 75

4.4 Regressing a line 76

4.4.1 Ordinary least-squares linear regression 76

4.4.2 Weighted least-squares regression 77

4.4.3 Linear regression with uncertainties in two or more variables (York regression) 77

4.5 Interpreting measured data using the mean square weighted deviation 79

4.5.1 Testing a weighted mean’s assumptions using its MSWD 79

4.5.2 Testing a linear regression’s assumptions using its MSWD 80

4.5.3 My data set has a high MSWD - what now? 81

4.5.4 My data set has a really low MSWD - what now? 81

4.6 Conclusions 82

4.7 Bibliography and suggested readings 82

5 Diffusion and thermochronologic interpretations 83

5.1 Fundamentals of heat and chemical diffusion 83

5.1.1 Thermochronologic context 83

5.1.2 Heat and chemical diffusion equation 83

5.1.3 Temperature dependence of diffusion 85

5.1.4 Some analytical solutions 86

5.1.5 Anisotropic diffusion 86

5.1.6 Initial infinite concentration (spike) 86

5.1.7 Characteristic length and time scales 86

5.1.8 Semi-infinite media 87

5.1.9 Plane sheet, cylinder, and sphere 88

5.2 Fractional loss 88

5.3 Analytical methods for measuring diffusion 89

5.3.1 Step-heating fractional loss experiments 89

5.3.2 Multidomain diffusion 92

5.3.3 Profile characterization 93

5.4 Interpreting thermal histories from thermochronologic data 94

5.4.1 “End-members” of thermochronometric date interpretations 94

5.4.2 Equilibrium dates 95

5.4.3 Partial retention zone 95

5.4.4 Resetting dates 96

5.4.5 Closure 97

5.5 From thermal to geologic histories in low-temperature thermochronology: diffusion and advection of heat in the earth’s crust 105

5.5.1 Simple solutions for one- and two-dimensional crustal thermal fields 107

5.5.2 Erosional exhumation 108

5.5.3 Interpreting spatial patterns of erosion rates 109

5.5.4 Interpreting temporal patterns of erosion rates 113

5.5.5 Interpreting paleotopography 113

5.6 Detrital thermochronology approaches for understanding landscape evolution and tectonics 116

5.7 Conclusions 121

5.8 References 123

6 Rb–Sr, Sm–Nd, and Lu–Hf 127

6.1 Introduction 127

6.2 History 127

6.3 Theory, fundamentals, and systematics 128

6.3.1 Decay modes and isotopic abundances 128

6.3.2 Decay constants 128

6.3.3 Data representation 129

6.3.4 Geochemistry 131

6.4 Isochron systematics 133

6.4.1 Distinguishing mixing lines from isochrons 136

6.5 Diverse chronological applications 137

6.5.1 Dating diagenetic minerals in clay-rich sediments 137

6.5.2 Direct dating of ore minerals 138

6.5.3 Dating of mineral growth in magma chambers 140

6.5.4 Garnet Sm–Nd and Lu–Hf dating 141

6.6 Model ages 143

6.6.1 Model ages for volatile depletion 144

6.6.2 Model ages for multistage source evolution 146

6.7 Conclusion and future directions 148

6.8 References 148

7 Re–Os and Pt–Os 151

7.1 Introduction 151

7.2 Radioactive systematics and basic equations 151

7.3 Geochemical properties and abundance in natural materials 154

7.4 Analytical challenges 154

7.5 Geochronologic applications 156

7.5.1 Meteorites 156

7.5.2 Molybdenite 158

7.5.3 Other sulfides, ores, and diamonds 159

7.5.4 Organic-rich sediments 161

7.5.5 Komatiites 161

7.5.6 Basalts 163

7.5.7 Dating melt extraction from the mantle - Re–Os model ages 164

7.6 Conclusions 167

7.7 References 167

8 U–Th–Pb geochronology and thermochronology 171

8.1 Introduction and background 171

8.1.1 Decay of U and Th to Pb 171

8.1.2 Dating equations 173

8.1.3 Decay constants 173

8.1.4 Isotopic composition of U 174

8.2 Chemistry of U, Th, and Pb 176

8.3 Data visualization, isochrones, and concordia plots 176

8.3.1 Isochron diagrams 176

8.3.2 Concordia diagrams 177

8.4 Causes of discordance in the U–Th–Pb system 178

8.4.1 Mixing of different age domains 180

8.4.2 Pb loss 180

8.4.3 Intermediate daughter product disequilibrium 182

8.4.4 Correction for initial Pb 183

8.5 Analytical approaches to U–Th–Pb geochronology 184

8.5.1 Thermal ionization mass spectrometry 185

8.5.2 Secondary ion mass spectrometry 187

8.5.3 Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry 188

8.5.4 Elemental U–Th–Pb geochronology by EMP 188

8.6 Applications and approaches 188

8.6.1 The age of meteorites and of Earth 188

8.6.2 The Hadean 192

8.6.3 P–T–t paths of metamorphic belts 194

8.6.4 Rates of crustal magmatism from U–Pb geochronology 197

8.6.5 U–Pb geochronology and the stratigraphic record 200

8.6.6 Detrital zircon geochronology 202

8.6.7 U–Pb thermochronology 204

8.6.8 Carbonate geochronology by the U–Pb method 209

8.6.9 U–Pb geochronology of baddeleyite and paleogeographic reconstructions 211

8.7 Concluding remarks 212

8.8 References 212

9 The K–Ar and 40Ar/39Ar systems 231

9.1 Introduction and fundamentals 231

9.2 Historical perspective 232

9.3 K–Ar dating 233

9.3.1 Determining 40Ar* 233

9.3.2 Determining 40K 234

9.4 40Ar/39Ar dating 234

9.4.1 Neutron activation 234

9.4.2 Collateral effects of neutron irradiation 237

9.4.3 Appropriate materials 240

9.5 Experimental approaches and geochronologic applications 242

9.5.1 Single crystal fusion 242

9.5.2 Intragrain age gradients 243

9.5.3 Incremental heating 243

9.6 Calibration and accuracy 248

9.6.1 40K decay constants 248

9.6.2 Standards 249

9.6.3 So which is the best calibration? 250

9.6.4 Interlaboratory issues 252

9.7 Concluding remarks 252

9.7.1 Remaining challenges 252

9.8 References 253

10 Radiation-damage methods of geochronology and thermochronology 259

10.1 Introduction 259

10.2 Thermal and optically stimulated luminescence 259

10.2.1 Theory, fundamentals, and systematics 259

10.2.2 Analysis 260

10.2.3 Fundamental assumptions and considerations for interpretations 264

10.2.4 Applications 265

10.3 Electron spin resonance 266

10.3.1 Theory, fundamentals, and systematics 266

10.3.2 Analysis 267

10.3.3 Fundamental assumptions and considerations for interpretations 268

10.3.4 Applications 269

10.4 Alpha decay, alpha-particle haloes, and alpha-recoil tracks 270

10.4.1 Theory, fundamentals, and systematics 270

10.5 Fission tracks 273

10.5.1 History 273

10.5.2 Theory fundamentals and systematics 273

10.5.3 Analyses 274

10.5.4 Fission-track age equations 276

10.5.5 Fission-track annealing 278

10.5.6 Track-length analysis 280

10.5.7 Applications 281

10.6 Conclusions 284

10.7 References 285

11 The (U–Th)/He system 291

11.1 Introduction 291

11.2 History 291

11.3 Theory, fundamentals, and systematics 292

11.4 Analysis 294

11.4.1 “Conventional” analyses 294

11.4.2 Other analytical approaches 306

11.4.3 Uncertainty and reproducibility in (U–Th)/He dating 307

11.5 Helium diffusion 310

11.5.1 Introduction 310

11.5.2 Apatite 311

11.5.3 Zircon 322

11.5.4 Other minerals 332

11.5.5 A compilation of He diffusion kinetics 334

11.6 4He/3He thermochronometry 342

11.6.1 Method requirements and assumptions 346

11.7 Applications and case studies 348

11.7.1 Tectonic exhumation of normal fault footwalls 348

11.7.2 Paleotopography 349

11.7.3 Orogen-scale trends in thermochronologic dates 350

11.7.4 Detrital double-dating and sediment provenance 353

11.7.5 Volcanic double-dating, precise eruption dates, and magmatic residence times 353

11.7.6 Radiation-damage-and-annealing model applied to apatite 355

11.8 Conclusions 355

11.9 References 356

12 Uranium-series geochronology 365

12.1 Introduction 365

12.2 Theory and fundamentals 367

12.2.1 The mathematics of decay chains 367

12.2.2 Mechanisms of producing disequilibrium 369

12.3 Methods and analytical techniques 369

12.3.1 Analytical techniques 369

12.4 Applications 372

12.4.1 U-series dating of carbonates 372

12.4.2 U-series dating in silicate rocks 378

12.5 Summary 389

12.6 References 390

13 Cosmogenic nuclides 395

13.1 Introduction 395

13.2 History 395

13.3 Theory, fundamentals, and systematics 396

13.3.1 Cosmic rays 396

13.3.2 Distribution of cosmic rays on Earth 396

13.3.3 What makes a cosmogenic nuclide detectable and useful? 397

13.3.4 Types of cosmic-ray reactions 398

13.3.5 Cosmic-ray attenuation 399

13.3.6 Calibrating cosmogenic nuclide-production rates in rocks 400

13.4 Applications 401

13.4.1 Types of cosmogenic nuclide applications 401

13.4.2 Extraterrestrial cosmogenic nuclides 401

13.4.3 Meteoric cosmogenic nuclides 402

13.5 Conclusion 415

13.6 References 416

14 Extinct radionuclide chronology 421

14.1 Introduction 421

14.2 History 422

14.3 Systematics and applications 423

14.3.1 26Al–26Mg 423

14.3.2 53Mn–53Cr chronometry 425

14.3.3 107Pd–107Ag 428

14.3.4 182Hf–182W 430

14.3.5 I–Pu–Xe 433

14.3.6 146Sm–142Nd 436

14.4 Conclusions 441

14.5 References 441

Index 445
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Peter W. Reiners University of Arizona.

Richard W. Carlson Carnegie Institution of Washington.

Paul R. Renne Berkeley Geochronology Center.

Kari M. Cooper
Darryl E. Granger
Noah M. McLean
Blair Schoene
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