Understanding, Assessing, and Responding to Terrorism. Protecting Critical Infrastructure and Personnel. 2nd Edition

  • ID: 4455797
  • Book
  • 512 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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A Comprehensive Guide to Understanding, Assessing, and Responding to Terrorism in this Modern Age

This book provides readers with a thorough understanding of the types of attacks that may be perpetrated against a critical asset, and how to identify potential targets, conduct a meaningful vulnerability analysis, and apply protective measures to secure personnel and facilities. The new edition of Understanding, Assessing, and Responding to Terrorism updates existing material and includes several new topics that have emerged, including information on unconventional weapons and new international terrorist groups as well as a new chapter on Regulations and Standards.

A vulnerability analysis methodology, consisting of several steps which include the techniques necessary to conduct a vulnerability analysis is introduced and applied through several sample scenarios. By using easily customized templates for the screening process, valuation of a critical asset as a target, vulnerability analysis, security procedures, emergency response procedures, and training programs, the book offers a practical step–by–step process to help reduce risk. Each different type of terrorism is briefly discussed however, the book focuses on those potential attacks that may involve weapons of mass destruction. There is a discussion of what physical and administrative enhancements can be implemented to improve a facility′s ability to devalue, detect, deter, deny, delay, defend, respond, and recover to a real or threatened terrorist attack whether it be at a facility, or in the community. Techniques on how personnel safety and security can be improved through the implementation of counter–terrorism programs are also outlined.

An overview of the major counter–terrorism regulations and standards are presented, along with the significant governmental efforts that have been implemented to help prevent terrorist attacks and foster preparedness at both private and public sector facilities and for personnel.

Understanding, Assessing, and Responding to Terrorism, Second Edition:

  • Updates existing material, plus includes several new topics that have emerged including information on unconventional weapons, new international terrorist groups, new terrorist tactics, cyber terrorism, and Regulations and Standards
  • Outlines techniques for improving facility and personnel safety and security through the implementation of counter–terrorism programs
  • Unites the emergency response/public sector community with the private sector over infrastructure protection, thus allowing for easier communication between them
  • Includes questions/exercises at the end of each chapter to facilitate its use as a textbook

Understanding, Assessing, and Responding to Terrorism, Second Edition is a must–have reference for private and public sector risk managers, safety engineers, security professionals, facility managers, emergency responders, and others charged with protecting facilities and personnel from all types of hazards (accidental, intentional, and natural).

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Preface xiii

1 The Terrorist Threat 1

1.1 What Is Terrorism? 1

1.2 The History of Terrorism 1

1.3 The Motivation for Terrorism 2

1.4 Can the Use of Terrorism be Justified? 3

1.5 The Role of Media in Terrorism 3

1.6 The Role of Social Media in Terrorism 4

1.7 Encryption 4

1.8 Civil Liberty and Terrorism 5

1.9 Terrorism Statistics 5

1.10 Purpose of Terrorism 8

1.11 Goals of Terrorism 8

1.12 Case Study: Economic Effects of a Terrorist Attack 9

1.13 Objectives of Terrorism 9

1.14 The Terrorism Challenge 10

1.15 The Evolution of Terrorism 10

1.16 Terrorist Tactics 10

1.17 Difference between Terrorism and Insurgency 10

1.18 The Difference between a Terrorist Attack, a Criminal Event, and Suspicious Activity 11

1.19 Case Study: Crime versus Terrorism 12

1.20 Common Terms in Terrorism 12

1.21 Types of Terrorist Organizations 14

1.22 International Terrorism 16

1.23 Examples of International Terrorist Groups 18

1.24 Recent International Terrorist Attacks 25

1.25 Domestic Terrorism 30

1.26 Examples of Domestic Terrorist Groups 32

1.27 Recent Domestic Terrorist Attacks 33

References 35

Questions 35

Project 35

2 Critical Infrastructure 37

2.1 Introduction 37

2.2 Evolution of the Definition of Critical Infrastructure 37

2.3 Current Definition of Critical Infrastructure 40

2.4 Definition of Key Resources 41

2.5 Definition of Key Assets 41

2.6 Discussion of Critical Infrastructure 42

2.7 Soft Targets 49

2.8 Hard Targets 49

2.9 Cascading Effects from Interdependencies of Critical Infrastructures 50

2.10 Coordination of Critical Infrastructure Protection 51

2.11 Selection of Critical Infrastructure, Key Resources, and Key Assets 53

2.12 Identification and Selection of Soft Targets by a Jurisdiction 54

2.13 Target Attractiveness 54

2.14 Inventorying and Prioritizing Critical Infrastructure/Key Resources/Key Assets/ Soft Targets 55

References 64

Questions 65

Project 65

Appendix 2.1 Executive Order 13010 by PresidentWilliam J. Clinton 65

Appendix 2.2 Presidential Decision Directive 63 by PresidentWilliam J. Clinton 67

Annex A: Structure and Organization 71

Annex B: Additional Taskings 73

Appendix 2.3 Executive Order 13228 by President GeorgeW. Bush 75

Appendix 2.4 Executive Order 13231 by President GeorgeW. Bush 79

Appendix 2.5 Homeland Security Presidential Directive 7 by President GeorgeW. Bush 85

Appendix 2.6 Presidential Policy Directive 21 by President Barack Obama 90

3 Types of Terrorist Attacks 99

3.1 Introduction 99

3.2 Types of Destructive Events 99

3.3 Who Can Execute an Attack? 100

3.4 Ways inWhich a Critical Asset May Be Attacked 101

3.5 Target Selection 103

3.6 Identifying Lucrative Targets 104

3.7 Characteristics of a Terrorist Attack 106

3.8 Results of a Successful Terrorist Attack 106

3.9 Terrorist Tactics 107

3.10 Case Study of a Terrorist Attack 119

3.11 The Interrupted Terrorist Plots 120

References 120

Questions 121

Project 121

Appendix 3.1 Executive Order 13636 by President Barack Obama Executive Order 13636 of

February 12, 2013 121

Appendix 3.2 Presidential Policy Directive 21 by President Barack Obama 126

Appendix 3.3 Presidential Policy Directive 41 by Barack Obama 133

4 Weapons of Mass Destruction 137

4.1 Introduction 137

4.2 History ofWeapons of Mass Destruction 138

4.3 Why Use aWeapon of Mass Destruction? 139

4.4 Limitations of the Use ofWeapon of Mass Destruction Materials 139

4.5 Indicators of a PossibleWeapon of Mass Destruction Attack 140

4.6 Results of aWeapon of Mass Destruction Attack 140

4.7 How a Chemical, Biological, or Radiological Agent Can Enter the Body 140

4.8 Effectiveness of a Chemical, Biological, or Radiological Attack 141

4.9 Obtaining aWeapon of Mass Destruction 142

4.10 Questions aboutWeapons of Mass Destruction 142

4.11 Types ofWeapons of Mass Destruction 143

4.12 OtherWeapons Used by Terrorists 178

4.13 Weaponization of Chemical and Biological Agents 179

References 184

Questions 184

Project 185

5 The Terrorist s Preparation for an Attack 187

5.1 General 187

5.2 Target Considerations 187

5.3 The Terrorist s Investment 187

5.4 Example of Terrorist Financing 188

5.5 Eight Indicators of Terrorism 189

5.6 Raising Suspicion 200

5.7 Summary of Attack Process 200

References 201

Questions 201

Project 201

6 Risk and Threat Assessment 203

6.1 Introduction 203

6.2 Definitions 203

6.3 The Risk of Attack 203

6.4 Risk 204

6.5 Risk Management 212

6.6 Risk Assessment and Management Approach 216

6.7 Probability of Attack Occurrence 221

6.8 Consequences of a Successful Attack 222

6.9 The CARVER Assessment Tool 222

6.10 Threat and Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment Guide (THIRA) 225

References 233

Questions 233

Project 233

Appendix 6.1 Presidential Policy Directive 8 by President Barack Obama 233

7 The Security Vulnerability Analysis 237

7.1 Introduction 237

7.2 What is a Security Vulnerability Analysis? 237

7.3 The Purpose of a Security Vulnerability Analysis 238

7.4 Preparing to Conduct a Security Vulnerability Analysis 240

7.5 The Security Vulnerability Analysis Process 240

7.6 Administrative Functions in the Security Vulnerability Analysis Process 246

7.7 Risk Assessment 248

7.8 Preparing to Conduct a Threat and Risk Analysis 249

7.9 The Buffer Zone Protection Plan 254

7.10 The CARVER Target Analysis Tool 255

Reference 257

Questions 257

Project 257

8 Principles of Protective Security 259

8.1 Introduction 259

8.2 Prevention 259

8.3 Information Collection 260

8.4 Information Sharing 260

8.5 Risk Mitigation 262

8.6 Cost Benefit Analysis 262

8.7 Situational Awareness 263

8.8 Security 264

8.9 Suspicious Activity 268

8.10 What Can Be Done to Protect People and Facilities 270

8.11 Conclusion 277

8.12 References 278

Questions 278

Project 278

9 Effective Security Countermeasures 279

9.1 Introduction 279

9.2 Counterterrorism Policy: National Security Strategy 279

9.3 Hardening and Strengthening 280

9.4 What Are Security Countermeasures? 281

9.5 Management of Change 285

9.6 Risk Management 285

9.7 Critical Asset Resiliency 285

9.8 Critical Infrastructure Protection 288

9.9 Protecting Building Environments from Airborne Chemical, Biological, or Radiological Attacks 289

9.10 All Hazards Protection 291

9.11 Cost Benefit Analysis 291

9.12 Information Sharing and Analysis Centers 291

9.13 Private Sector s Responsibility 291

9.14 Protecting Critical Infrastructure, Key Resources, and Key Assets 292

9.15 Standoff Distance 303

9.16 Response to an Active Shooter 303

9.17 Preparing for Attacks on Transportation 306

9.18 Administrative Security Enhancements 306

9.19 Recommendations for Enhanced Security Through Various ISACs 320

References 326

Questions 327

Project 327

Appendix 9.1 Directive on National Continuity Policy, NSPD 51/HSPD 20, by President GeorgeW. Bush 327

Appendix 9.2 Homeland Security Presidential Directive 8 by President GeorgeW. Bush 331

10 General Emergency Response Considerations 335

10.1 Introduction 335

10.2 Definition of First Responder 335

10.3 Emergency Response Plans 335

10.4 Pre–incident Planning 337

10.5 Drills and Exercises 338

10.6 Emergency Response Priorities 341

10.7 Operational Risk Management 342

10.8 Situational Awareness 344

10.9 Homeland Security Presidential Directive 5 344

10.10 The Incident Command System 347

10.11 Determining Potential Outcomes 353

10.12 Approving the Level of Personal Protective Equipment 354

10.13 Developing a Plan of Action 356

10.14 Components of the Incident Command System 359

10.15 Media Relations 366

10.16 Evaluating Progress of the Plan of Action 368

10.17 Terminating the Incident 368

10.18 Critical Incident Stress 370

10.19 Family Preparedness 371

References 371

Questions 271

Project 271

Appendix 10.1 Homeland Security Presidential Directive 5 by President GeorgeW. Bush 372

Appendix 10.2 Incident Command System Form 208 376

11 Emergency Response to aWeapon of Mass Destruction Attack 379

11.1 Introduction 379

11.2 Use of aWeapon of Mass Destruction 379

11.3 The Emergency Scene as a Crime Scene 379

11.4 Size Up 381

11.5 The Secondary Device 381

11.6 Evacuation of Personnel in aWeapon of Mass Destruction Attack 382

11.7 Protecting Building Environments from Airborne Agents 384

11.8 Emergency Response Actions at the Scene of aWeapon of Mass Destruction Incident 384

References 411

Questions 411

Project 411

12 Homeland Security Laws, Regulations, and Standards 413

12.1 What Is Homeland Security? 413

12.2 2002 National Strategy for Homeland Security 413

12.3 The 2007 National Strategy for Homeland Security 421

12.4 Office of Homeland Security 423

12.5 The Department of Homeland Security 423

12.6 The Transportation Security Administration 426

12.7 The Chemical Facility Anti–Terrorism Standards 427

12.8 The Chemical Facility Anti–Terrorism Standards of 2014 428

12.9 Chemical Terrorism Vulnerability Information 428

12.10 CVI Authorized User Training 430

12.11 Protected Critical Infrastructure Information Program 430

12.12 Chemical Security Assessment Tool 432

12.13 CFATS Top Screen 432

12.14 Enhanced CFATS Tiering Methodology 433

12.15 Security Vulnerability Assessment 435

12.16 Site Security Plan/Alternative Security Plan 435

12.17 CFATS Facility Inspections 437

12.18 CFATS Ongoing Compliance 438

12.19 Regional Resiliency Assessment Program 438

12.20 Maritime Transportation Security Act 439

12.21 US Coast Guard Maritime Security Levels 443

12.22 TransportationWorker Identification Credential 444

References 444

Questions 445

Project 445

Appendix 12.1 Authorizing Statute for the Chemical Facility Anti–terrorism Standards Regulations (6 CFR Part 27) 445

Appendix 12.2 CFATS Appendix A, List of COI, and STQ 447

Appendix 12.3 CFATS Act of 2014 463

Appendix 12.4 US Coast Guard Facility Vulnerability and Security Measures Summary 477

Index 481

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Brian T. Bennett
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