Safety in Design

  • ID: 4469581
  • Book
  • 224 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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This book introduces the topic of intrinsic safeguarding, an approach that is successful in the chemical industry, into other fields of society. Mainly covering design aspects this book also covers procedures for preventing and alleviating the impact of accidents. Also based on the author s own experience in the field the book contains collected data from approximately 70 accidents/incidents which could have been prevented or its effects mitigated. The methodology emanates from intrinsic continuous process safeguarding in the chemical industry, a concept based on chemical and physical properties of reaction systems. The stability of reaction systems protected in this way falls within very wide limits and is therefore not endangered by human errors or failures of instrumentation. If implemented these safety procedures can help prevent loss of life, prevent injuries and prevent material damage.
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Preface

Acknowledgements

Table of Contents

1. Introduction

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Intrinsic continuous process safeguarding

1.3 The Flixborough accident in the U.K. in 1974

1.4 The Seveso emission in Italy in 1976

1.5 The Bhopal emission in India in 1984

1.6 Concluding remarks

2. Procedural, active, and passive safety

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Definitions

2.3 Four failures of emergency power units

2.3.1 Introduction

2.3.2 Twenteborg hospital at Almelo in The Netherlands in 2002

2.3.3 Westfries Gasthuis (hospital) at Hoorn in The Netherlands in 2003

2.3.4 ZGT Hengelo hospital at Hengelo (O) in The Netherlands in 2011

2.3.5 Chemical plant

2.3.6 Additional remark

2.4 The failure of the Blowout Preventer (BOP) at the Gulf Oil Explosion in 2010

2.5 The safeguarding of Formula One races

2.6 Dust explosion relief venting

3. Safety improvements over the years

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Transport

3.2.1 Road transport in The Netherlands

3.2.2 Unidirectional road traffic in tunnels

3.2.3 Rail transport in The Netherlands

3.2.4 Chlorine transport by rail

3.2.5 Sinking of the RMS Titanic in 1912

3.2.6 Oil tankers with double hull

3.2.7 Two Comet accidents in 1954

3.2.8 Helium gas for Zeppelins Zeppelin crash in 1937

3.3 Industry

3.3.1 Cotton spinning plants

3.3.2 Akzo Nobel extracts salt without subsidences

3.3.3 Two new cocoa warehouses at Amsterdam in 2011

3.3.4 Flame retardants

3.3.5 Clamp–on ultrasonic flow measurement

3.4 Society

3.4.1 Inundation of part of The Netherlands in 1953

3.4.2 Replacement of coal gas by natural gas in The Netherlands

3.4.3 CFCs

3.4.4 Dioxin in feed

3.4.5 Street motor races in The Netherlands

3.4.6 An unexpected effect: squatters wear moped safety helmets

4. Safety aspects need attention

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Transport

4.2.1 Bus on natural gas afire at Wassenaar in The Netherlands in 2012

4.2.2 Light trucks–and–trailers are dangerous

4.2.3 Car refrigerants

4.2.4 The Eschede train accident in Germany in 1998

4.2.5 Burning battery in Boeing 787 Dreamliner in 2013

4.2.6 Ferry service on the North Sea Canal in The Netherlands

4.3 Society

4.3.1 Earth quakes related to the production of natural gas in the Northern part of The Netherlands

4.3.2 Fire at Chemie–Pack at Moerdijk in The Netherlands in 2011

4.3.3 Inflammable building insulation material

4.3.4 Rolling shutters

5. Make accidents and incidents virtually impossible

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Transport

5.2.1 Bus accident near Barcelona in Spain in 2009

5.2.2 Bus accident in Hungary in 2003

5.2.3 Two train/truck–and trailer collisions at Gronau in Germany in 2011 and 2013

5.2.4 Derailment at Wetteren in Belgium in 2013

5.2.5 Derailment at Santiago di Compostella in Spain in 2013

5.2.6 Derailment at Fort Richmond, Philadelphia, U.S.A. in 2015

5.2.7 Sinking of the Baltic Ace in the North Sea in 2012

5.2.8 Aerotoxic syndrome

5.3 Society

5.3.1 Death in a container for used clothes at Hannover in Germany in 2012

5.3.2 Death in a restaurant at Zutphen in The Netherlands in 2014

5.3.3 Traffic accident at Raard in The Netherlands in 2013

5.3.4 Accident at a soccer match at Eindhoven in The Netherlands in 2013

5.3.5 A gust of wind at Delden in The Netherlands in 2013

5.3.6 Boy falls into water basin at Hengelo (O) in The Netherlands in 2013

5.3.7 Damaged cow teats at Losser in The Netherlands in 2009

6. Design with ample margins

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Transport

6.2.1 Coach accident in the Sierre tunnel in Switzerland in 2012

6.2.2 Accident with a bus at Almelo in The Netherlands in 2003

6.2.3 Accident in a cable–railway at Kaprun in Austria in 2000

6.2.4 Flashing red lights for rail transport

6.2.5 Luge accident at Whistler in Canada in 2010

6.2.6 Concorde accident at Paris in 2000

6.2.7 Space Shuttle Challenger accident in 1986

6.2.8 Space Shuttle Columbia accident in 2003

6.2.9 Air France Flight AF 447 accident in 2009

6.2.10 Turkish Airlines Flight TK195 accident near Amsterdam in 2009

6.3 Society

6.3.1 Mine accident at Lengede in Germany in 1963

6.3.2 Collapse of Terminal 2E of Roissy Airport at Paris in 2004

6.3.3 Escape of a gorilla in a zoological garden at Rotterdam in The Netherlands in 2007

7. The risks of enclosed spaces

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Transport Lethal accident aboard the Dutch ship Lady Irina in 2013

7.3 Industry Lethal accident during maintenance of a phosphorus furnace at Flushings in The Netherlands in 2009 

7.4 Society

7.4.1 Fire in a nightclub at West Warwick, Rhode Island in the U.S.A. in 2003

7.4.2 Slurry silo at Makkinga in The Netherlands in 2013

8. Examples from the chemical industry

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Runaway reaction at T2 Laboratories at Jacksonville, Florida in the U.S.A. in 2007

8.3 Reactions with epoxides

8.4 Explosions at Shell Moerdijk at Moerdijk in The Netherlands in 2014

8.5 DSM melamine plant explosion at Geleen in The Netherlands in 2003

8.6 Dryer explosion in a Dow plant at King s Lynn, Norfolk in the U.K. in 1976

9. Gas explosions

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Flashing inflammable liquids

9.3 Mexico City in 1984

9.4 Nijmegen in The Netherlands in 1978

9.5 Los Alfaques in Spain in 1978

9.6 Viareggio in Italy in 2009

9.7 A narrow escape at Tilburg in The Netherlands in 2015

9.8 Diemen in The Netherlands in 2014

10. Nuclear power stations

10.1 Introduction

10.1.1 General

10.1.2 Physics

10.2 Pressurised Water Reactors (PWRs) and Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs)

10.2.1 Introduction

10.2.2 PWR

10.2.3 BWR

10.3 Three Mile Island (TMI)

10.4 Fukushima Unit 1

10.5 High Temperature Gas–cooled Reactors (HTGRs)

10.5.1 Introduction

10.5.2 Safety aspects of HTGRs

10.5.3 PBR

10.5.4 Prismatic Block Reactor

10.5.5 Comparison PBR and Prismatic Block Reactor

10.6 Comparison Light Water Reactors (LWRs, i.e., PWRs and BWRs) and HTGRs

Notation

Index

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C.M. van′ t Land
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