Pharma-Ecology. The Occurrence and Fate of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in the Environment. 2nd Edition

  • ID: 4517112
  • Book
  • 368 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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The revised edition of the guide to environmental impact of pharmaceuticals and personal care products

The revised and updated second edition of Pharma–Ecology joins the health and environmental sciences professions′ concern over the occurrence and fate of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in the environment and explores how to best minimize their impact. The text highlights the biological effects of various classes of pharmaceutical compounds under clinical settings, their modes of action, and approximate quantities consumed. The second edition contains the most recent knowledge about the ecological impact of PPCPs as more sensitive detection techniques have become available, since the book was first published.

The second edition offers the most up–to–date information on pharma ecology and bridges the gap between medicine, public health, and environmental science. This new edition contains helpful learning objectives for each chapter, as well as a brief section at the end of each chapter that presents a set of open ended questions. This vital resource:

    Explores the biological effects of pharmaceutical compounds under clinical settings, their modes of action, approximate quantities consumed

    Provides researchers and scientists with critical background data on the environmental impacts of PPCPs

    Contains the most current information on PPCPs′ ecological impacts, based on new detection techniques

    Bridges the gap between medicine, public health, and environmental science

Written for ecologists, engineers, microbiologists, pharmacists, toxicologists, chemists, physicians, and veterinarians involved in pollution and environmental analysis, the second edition of Pharma–Ecology contains the most current information available on the environmental impact of pharmaceuticals and personal care products.

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Preface i

Chapter 1: Usage of Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products 1–1

1.1. Pharmaceutical Consumption Trends 2–1

1.2. References 2–1

Chapter 2: Most prescribed pharmaceuticals and related Endpoints 2–1

2.1. Antihypertensives and Cardiovascular 2–1

2.2 Antiolytic sedatives, hypnotics and antipsychotics 2–1

2.3. Analgesics and anti–inflammatory drugs 2–1

2.4. References 2–1

Chapter 3: Usage of Antimicrobial Agents and Related Endpoints 3–1

3.1. Cell wall synthesis inhibiting antibiotics 3–1

3.2. Inhibitors of protein synthesis 3–1

3.3. Nucleic acid synthesis inhibitors 3–1

3.4. Antagonism to metabolic processes 3–1

3.5. Antibiotics that disrupt membrane integrity 3–1

3.6. Other antibiotics 3–1

3.7. References 3–1

Chapter 4: Usage of Other Groups of Pharmaceuticals and related Endpoints 4–1

4.1. Gastrointestinal drugs 4–1

4.2. Anti–diabetic drugs 4–1

4.3. Diuretics and electrolytes 4–1

4.4. Thyroid system medication 4–1

4.5. Respiratory drugs 4–1

4.6. Oral contraceptive and reproductive therapeutics 4–1

4.7. Biophosphonates and other skeletal ailment drugs 4–1

4.8. Steroids 4–1

4.9. Hematologic drugs 4–1

4.10. Nutritional drugs 4–1

4.11. Triptans 4–1

4.12. Anesthetics 4–1

4.13. Antineoplast and immunosuppressants 4–1

4.14. References 4–1

Chapter 5: Personal Care Products of Environmental Concern 5–1

5.1. Fragrances and musks 5–1

5.2. Ultraviolet light filters 5–1

5.3. Detergents 5–1

5.4. Disinfectants 5–1

5.5. References 5–1

Chapter 6: Detection and Occurrence of PPCPs in the Environment 6–1

6.1. Detection of PPCPs in the environment 6–1

6.1.1. Detection using instrumentation 6–2

6.1.2. Detection using bioassays 6–2

6.2. Occurrence of PPCPs in various environment 6–1

6.2.1. Aquatic systems 6–2

6.2.1.1. PPCPs in wastewater 6–2

6.2.1.2. PPCPs in surface water 6–2

6.2.1.3. PPCPs in groundwater 6–2

6.2.1.4. PPCPs in potable water 6–2

6.2.1.1. PPCPs in wastewater 6–2

6.2.2. Occurrence of PPCPs in sediments 6–2

6.2.3. Occurrence of PPCPs in soil 6–2

6.2.4. PPCPs in aerial environments 6–2

6.3. Excretion as a driver of pharmaceutical occurrence in the environment 6–1

6.4. References 6–1

Chapter 7: Ecopharmacokinetics and Ecopharmacodynamics of PPCPs 7–1

7.1. Overview of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics 7–1

7.1.1. PPCP sorption and bioavailability in the environment 7–2

7.2. Degradation of PPCPs in the environment 7–1

7.2.1. Degradation of antibiotics in the environment 7–2

7.2.1.1. Degradation of quinolone compounds 7–2

7.2.1.2. Fate of lactams and cephalosporin PPCPs in surface water 7–2

7.2.1.3. Degradation of tetracyclines 7–2

7.2.1.4. Degradation of macrolides 7–2

7.2.1.5. Fate of other important groups of antibiotics 7–2

7.2.2. Degradation of analgesics and anti–inflammatory drugs 7–2

7.2.3. Degradation of estrogens and other reproductive hormones 7–2

7.2.4. Degradation of other important pharmaceuticals 7–2

7.2.5. Degradation of surfactants 7–2

7.3. Role of physicochemical factors in the fate of PPCPs in the environment 7–1

7.3.1. Molecular size as an attribute to absorption and persistence 7–2

7.3.2. Solubility and hydrolysis 7–2

7.3.3. Effects of dissociation, partitioning and lipophilicity on degradability 7–2

7.3.4. Effects of moisture and oxygen to the fate of PPCPs in the environment 7–2

7.3.5. Effects of temperature in PPCP dynamics and degradation in the environment 7–2

7.3.6. Other determinants of PPCP fate and persistence in the environment 7–2

7.3.6.1. Presence of other compounds 7–2

7.3.6.2. Photolysis of PPCPs 7–2

7.3.6.3. Degradation of tetracyclines 7–2

7.4. References 7–1

Chapter 8: Ecotoxicity of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products 8–1

8.1. Conventional assessment of the risk 8–1

8.2. Ecological impact of PPCPs on microorganisms and microbial processes 8–1

8.2.1. Antibiotic resistance 8–2

8.2.1.1. Acquisition of antibiotic resistance 8–2

8.2.1.2. Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance 8–2

8.2.2. Biogeochemical perturbations 8–2

8.3. Effects of PPCPs on invertebrates 8–1

8.4. PPCP ecotoxicity on aquatic organisms 8–1

8.4.1. Endocrine disrupters in the aquatic system 8–2

8.4.2. Effects of antibiotic resistance to aquatic organisms 8–2

8.4.3. Ecotoxicological effects of cosmetics on aquatic organisms 8–2

8.4.4. Ecotoxicity of other PPCPs in aquatic organisms 8–2

8.5. Ecotoxicity of PPCPs on terrestrial wildlife 8–1

8.6. Livestock and human health 8–1

8.6.1. Clinical antibiotic resistance cases 8–2

8.6.2. PPCP–related allergic reactions 8–2

8.6.3. Endocrine disruption in humans and livestock 8–2

8.6.4. Is there an association between PPCPs in the environment and some cancers? 8–2

8.6.5. Other PPCPs of concern to humans and livestock in the environment 8–2

8.7. Ecotoxicity of PPCPs on vegetation 8–1

8.8. General considerations in long–term PPCP toxicity 8–1

8.9. References 8–1

Chapter 9: Technologies for Removing and Reducing PPCPs in the Environment 9–1

9.1. Conventional treatment systems 9–1

9.1.1. Primary treatment 9–2

9.1.2. Secondary treatment 9–2

9.1.2.1. Lagoons 9–2

9.1.2.2. Fixed filter systems 9–2

9.1.2.3. Suspended filter systems 9–2

9.2. Advanced treatment processes 9–1

9.2.1. Advanced filtration systems 9–2

9.2.1.1. Activated carbon 9–2

9.2.1.2. Filtration membranes 9–2

9.2.1.2.1. Membrane type and pore size 9–2

9.2.1.2.2. Molecular size of the compounds 9–2

9.2.1.2.3. Other important considerations with membranes 9–2

9.2.2. Oxidation processes 9–2

9.2.2.1. Chlorination 9–2

9.2.2.2. Ozonation 9–2

9.2.3. UV treatment 9–2

9.2.4. Electrolysis 9–2

9.2.5. Advanced oxidation processes 9–2

9.3. Effect of wastewater retention time on PPCP removal 9–1

9.4. Formulation and regimen design for reduced environmental impact 9–1

9.5. Source separation of urine and decentralization needs 9–1

9.6. Future technological trends 9–1

9.7. References 9–1

Chapter 10: Guidelines for a Regulatory Framework on PPCPs in the Environment 10–1

10.1. Improving assessment of the risks from PPCPs in the environment 2–1

10.2. Effect of mixtures 2–1

10.3. Effects of chronic exposure to low PPCP doses 2–1

10.4. Use of quantitative structural activity relationships in ecotoxicology 2–1

10.5. Toxicogenomic approaches for guiding regulations 2–1

10.6. Social responsibility in legislation and making policy 2–1

10.7. Drug approval and advertising 2–1

10.8. Use of prescription records for mapping PPCPs 2–1

10.9. References 2–1

Index I–1

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Patrick K. Jjemba, PhD, MBA, is the Director of Operations at DE&P Technical Services, an environmental consultancy company engaged in water and wastewater treatment, quality control, operations, and process improvement. 

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