New and Novel Proteins. Sources, Applications and Advancements for the Food, Pharmaceutical and Agricultural Sectors

  • ID: 4520752
  • Book
  • 368 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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A groundbreaking text that highlights the various sources, applications and advancements concerning proteins from novel and traditional sources

Novel Proteins for Food, Pharmaceuticals and Agriculture offers a guide to the various sources, applications, and advancements that exist and are currently being researched concerning proteins from novel and traditional sources. The contributors noted experts in the field discuss sustainable protein resources and include illustrative examples of bioactive compounds isolated from several resources that have or could obtain high market value in specific markets.

The text also explores a wide range of topics such as functional food formulations and pharmaceutical applications, and how they alter biological activity to provide therapeutic benefits, nutritional values and health protection. The authors also examine the techno–functional applications of proteins and looks at the screening process for identification of bioactive molecules derived from protein sources. In addition, the text provides insight into the market opportunities that exist for novel proteins such as insect, by–product derived, macroalgal and others. The authors also discuss the identification and commercialization of new proteins for various markets. This vital text: 

  • Puts the focus on the various sources, applications and advancements concerning proteins from novel and traditional sources
  • Contains a discussion on how processing technologies currently applied to dairy could be applied to novel protein sources such as insect and macroalgal
  • Reviews the sustainability of protein sources and restrictions that exist concerning development
  • Offers ideas for creating an innovative and enterprising economy that is built on recent developments
  • Details the potential to exploit key market opportunities in sports, infant and elderly nutrition and techno–functional protein applications

Written for industrial researchers as well as PhD and Post–doctoral researchers, and undergraduate students studying biochemistry, food engineering and biological sciences and those interested in market developments, Novel Proteins for Food, Pharmaceuticals and Agriculture offers an essential guide to the sources, applications and most recent developments of the proteins from both innovative and traditional sources.

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Chapter 1   Biological roles and production technologies associated with bovine glycomacropeptide
1.1      Introduction
1.2       Biological properties associated with GMP
           1.2.1    Management of phenylketonuria
           1.2.2    Anti–infective properties
           1.2.3    Prebiotic
           1.2.4    Immunomodulatory activities 
           1.2.5    Satiety
           1.2.6    Anti–carcinogenic 
1.3           GMP Production
           1.3.1    Thermal treatment and ethanol precipitation
           1.3.2    Complexation
           1.3.3    Aqueous two phase systems (ATPS)
           1.3.4    Ultrafiltration
           1.3.5    Chromatography
1.4           Detection of GMP 
           1.4.1  Chromatography
           1.4.2  Capillary electrophoresis
           1.4.3  SDS–PAGE
           1.4.4    Colorimetric
           1.4.5     Immunological
1.5       Conclusion
1.6       References

Chapter 2  Meat Proteins as a potential source of bioactive ingredients for food and pharmaceutical use
2.1   Introduction
2.2   Bioactive peptides from meat sources
        2.2.1  Peptides generated through enzymatic hydrolysis with commercial enzymes
2.3   Bioactive peptides present in processed meat
2.4   Naturally occurring bioactive amino acids and peptides in meat products
2.5  Potential applications of meat derived peptides
2.6  Challenges
       2.6.1  Technical challenges
       2.6.2  Legal challenges
       2.6.3 Consumer challenges
2.7  Conclusions
2.8  References

Chapter 3  Human gastrointestinal endogenous proteins: A recently discovered source of gut modulatory peptides
3.1  Introduction
3.2  A summary of current knowledge regarding motifs GEP–derived bioactive peptides
       3.2.1  In silico evidence for the presence and release of bioactive peptide motifs from GEP
       3.2.2  In silico and in vitro data on novel GEP–derived bioactive peptides
       3.2.3  In vitro release of GEP–derived bioactive peptides
       3.2.4  Preliminary in vivo evidence for bioactive peptides from porcine GEP
3.3 Implications of the above findings regarding GEP as a source of bioactive peptides
       3.3.1  Classification of bioactive peptides
3.4  Bioactive potential of GEP is comparable to dietary proteins
3.5  The site of secretion of GEP affects its bioactive potential
3.6  Digestion of GEP may generate numerous peptides with multiple bioactivities
3.7  Novel bioactive peptides from the GEP
       3.7.1  Systemic effects of bioactive peptides from GEP
       3.7.2  Generation of bioactive peptides from GEP in in vivo systems
3.8 Important considerations while predicting the behaviour of GEP in the human GIT: Correlating in vitro and in vivo studies
       3.8.1  Gut microbiota influences generation of bioactive peptides
       3.8.2  Epithelial cells as a source of bioactive peptides in the GIT
       3.8.3  Structural aspects of proteins/peptides governing digestion and subsequent bioactivity
       3.8.4 Effect of protein–protein interactions and protein modifications
       3.8.5  Safety and toxicity of GEP–derived bioactive peptides
       3.8.6  Conclusions
3.9  References

Chapter 4  Cereal proteins and peptides
4.1   Introduction
4.2  Major cereal grains
       4.2.1 Maize
       4.2.2 Wheat
       4.2.3  Rice
       4.2.4 Barley
4.3  Cereal proteins
      4.3.1 Cereal storage proteins
4.4  Protein quality
       4.4.1  Amino acid composition
       4.4.2 Digestibility
4.5  Bioactive peptides
       4.5.1 Anti–hypertensive peptides
       4.5.2 Anti–cancer cereal peptides
       4.5.3 Antioxidant peptides
       4.5.4 Anti–diabetic peptides
       4.5.5 Anti–inflammatory cereal derived peptides
4.6  Allergenicity
       4.6.1 Coeliac disease
4.7  New protein health applications of cereals
4.8  Conclusion
4.9  References 

Chapter 5 Meat by–products: New insights into potential applications for technical and health applications
5.1  Introduction
5.2  Meat by–products
5.3  Technical applications of meat by–products
       5.3.1 Use of meat by–products as food ingredients and processing aids
       5.3.2 Use of meat by–products as feed and pet food
       5.3.3 Use of meat by–products as fertilizers
       5.3.4 Use of meat by–products as plastics and leather products
       5.3.5 Use of meat by–products as an energy source
5.4  Health related applications of meat proteins
       5.4.1 Bioactive peptides
5.5  Summary
5.6  References

Chapter 6 An overview of potential applications of plant–derived proteins in the food industry focusing on their bioactive and functional properties
6.1  Introduction
6.2  Plant–derived proteins: Sources and composition
6.3  Bioactive peptides generated from fruits and vegetable proteins
       6.3.1 Bioactive peptides and metabolic syndrome
       6.3.2 Fruit and vegetable derived peptides with antioxidant properties
       6.3.3 Other bioactivities
6.4  Techno–functional properties
       6.4.1 Solubility of plant derived proteins
       6.4.2 Gelling properties
       6.4.3 Emulsifying properties
       6.4.4 Foaming properties
6.5  Other applications
6.6  Acknowledgements
6.7  References  

Chapter 7 Seaweed proteins and applications in animal feed
7.1  Introduction
7.2  Macroalgae as a source of proteins, peptides and amino acids
7.3  Seaweed and macroalgal derived products in animal feed
      7.3.1 Macroalgae in the feed of aquaculture animals (shrimp and fish)
      7.3.2 Macroalgae in the feed of monogastric animals (poultry, swine, equine and leporine)
      7.3.3 Macroalgae in the feed of ruminants (small and large)
      7.3.4 Macroalgae in pet food (canine and feline animals)
7.4  Challenges concerning the use of macroalgae in animal feed
      7.4.1 Legislation on the use of macroalgae and seaweed derived products in animal feed
      7.4.2 Sustainability of seaweed supply for its use in animal feed
7.5  Acknowledgements
7.6  References

Chapter 8 Marine by–products as a source of valuable proteins for potential food, pharma and agricultural feed use
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Biological activities of marine derived proteins
       8.2.1 Angiotensin–I–converting enzyme inhibition (ACE–I inhibition)
       8.2.2 Structure of peptides important in the inhibition of enzymes related to the development of Type–2–diabetes
8.3  Fish protein hydrolysates
8.4  Fish blood proteins
       8.4.1 Preparation of fish plasma from salmon
       8.4.2 Concentration of fish plasma from salmon
       8.4.3 Protease inhibitors from fish blood
       8.4.4 Clotting agents from fish blood
       8.4.5 Salmon blood protein used in clotting bandage manufacture
       8.4.6 Potential applications
8.5  Fish testes
8.6  Fish collagen and gelatine
8.7  Stick–water proteins recovered using membrane filtration
8.8  Functional applications of by–product protein hydrolysates
       8.8.1 Solubility
       8.8.2 Water holding capacity
       8.8.3 Oil absorbing capacity
       8.8.4 Emulsifying properties
       8.8.5 Bioavailability of fish derived hydrolysates and peptides
8.9  Conclusion
Chapter 9 Bioavailability, bio–accessibility and nutritional measurement of proteins
9.1  Introduction
9.2  Measurement of protein content in foods
9.3  Bio–accessibility, bioavailability and bioactivity of proteins
9.4  Protein hydrolysates
9.5  In vitro models
9.6  INFOGEST method
       9.6.1 Multifactorial in vitro bio–accessibility models the TNO gastrointestinal (TIM) model
9.7  Cell culture models
       9.7.1 Transcytosis assays using human cerebral micro–vascular endothelial cell line (hCMEC/D3)
       9.7.2 Bioactivities of protein breakdown products bioactive peptides
       9.7.3 Effects on diseases linked to development of metabolic syndrome
       9.7.4 Anti–inflammatory peptides
       9.7.5 Antioxidant activities
       9.7.6 Protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) method for protein evaluation
       9.7.7 The Dispensable Amino Acid Score (DIAAS) method for protein evaluation
9.8  Conclusion
9.9  References

Chapter 10 Protein from vegetable sources: a focus on pea protein
10.1 Introduction
10.2 The advantages of leguminous plants
           10.2.1 Sustainable vegetable protein crops
10.3 Quality of pea protein
           10.3.1 Global composition of the pea seed
           10.3.2 Amino acid composition of pea protein
           10.3.3 Anti–nutritional factors and toxicity
           10.3.4 Allergenicity
10.4 Health potential of pea proteins
           10.4.1 Food intake, satiety and weight management
           10.4.2 Impact on cholesterol
           10.4.3 Blood pressure preventative impact on hypertension
10.5 Applications of pea protein in the human food industry
           10.5.1 Savoury and dairy markets: from a hidden use of plant proteins to plant proteins in the spotlight
           10.5.2 Partial substitution of animal proteins in food product
           10.5.3 Emulsification
           10.5.4 Water binding capacity
           10.5.5 Higher value markets: animal protein alternatives
           10.5.6 Meat alternatives
           10.5.7 Dairy alternatives
10.6 Baking driven by the hunt for protein fortification and gluten–free ingredients
           10.6.1 Protein fortification: pea protein to complete the nutritional and technical offer of wheat protein
           10.6.2 The technical challenge of baking applications: interaction with water
           10.6.3 The solution: Insoluble pea protein and hydrolysed gluten
           10.6.4 Gluten–free
10.7 Specialised nutrition
           10.7.1 Partial substitution of dairy proteins
           10.7.2 Higher value–protein markets (Vegan and sports nutrition)
           10.7.3 Technical challenges: Demanding product formulations
           10.7.4 Nutritional challenges: Demanding consumers
           10.7.5 Future of plant based specialised nutrition products: senior nutrition
10.8 Conclusion
10.9 References

Chapter 11 Seaweeds as a source of proteins for use in pharmaceuticals and high value applications
11.1  Introduction
11.2  Macroalgal proteins, peptides and amino acids
        11.2.1 Macroalgal proteins
        11.2.2 Macroalgal peptides
        11.2.3 Macroalgal amino acids
11.3  Extraction of macroalgal proteins, peptides and amino acids
11.4  Bioactivities of macroalgal proteins, peptides and amino acids
         11.4.1 Antioxidant properties of macroalgal proteins, peptides and amino acids
         11.4.2 Anti–hypertensive properties of macroalgal proteins and peptides
         11.4.3 Anti–proliferative properties of macroalgal proteins and peptides
         11.4.4 Anti–microbial properties of macroalgal proteins and peptides
         11.4.5 Anti–diabetic properties of macroalgal proteins and peptides
11.5  Industrial applications of macroalgal proteins
11.6  Future directions
11.7  Acknowledgements
11.8  References

Chapter 12 Microalgal bioactive compounds including protein, peptides and pigments: Applications, opportunities and challenges during the bio–refinery process
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Cultivation of microalgae
12.3 Biorefinery of microalgae
12.4 Microalgae as a source of protein
12.5 Microalgae as a source of pigments
12.6 Legislation governing the use of microalgae in Europe
          12.6.1 Nutrition claims
          12.6.2 Health claims
          12.6.3 Additive claims in:
          12.6.4 Novel food claims
12.7 Advantages of microalgal use
          12.7.1 Potential applications and uses in the vegetarian and vegan food arena
          12.7.2 Microalgal products on the market
12.8  Conclusion and Acknowledgements
12.9  References 

Chapter 13 Current and future trends in protein use and consumption
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Land Based plant proteins
13.3 Cereal proteins
13.4 Rice, Corn, Sorghum proteins
13.5 Soy protein
13.6 Pulses
13.7 Nut and Tuber proteins
13.8 Insect protein
13.9 Fungal and microbial protein
13.10 Algal proteins
         13.10.1 Microalgae protein
         13.10.2 Macroalgae (Seaweed) protein
13.11 Proteins from animals and animal by–products
13.12 Future protein demands
13.13 Conclusion
13.14 References

Chapter 14 Allergenicity of Proteins
14.1 What is human allergy to protein?
14.2 Classification of allergens
14.3 Protein processing and allergy

Chapter 15 Industrial processing of proteins
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Processing of dairy proteins
15.3 Membrane technologies
15.4 Pressure driven membrane processes
15.5 Ultrafiltration and Dia–filtration (UF/DF) in the production of pharmaceutical proteins
15.6 Extraction of proteins from algae
15.7 Enzyme use for protein extraction from algae
15.8 Novel extraction methods
          15.8.1 Pulse Electric Field (PEF)
          15.8.2 Microwave assisted extraction (MAE)
          15.8.3 Ultrasound treatment
          15.8.4 Application of membrane technology to macroalgae
          15.8.5 Application of membrane technology in the dairy industry
15.9 Novel proteins
          15.9.1 Extraction of proteins from insects
          15.9.2 Fish wastewater proteins
          15.9.3 Characterisation of fish wastewater proteins methods
15.10 Conclusion
15.11 References

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Maria Hayes
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