Neuroscience of Alcohol: Mechanisms and Treatment presents the fundamental information necessary for a thorough understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of alcohol addiction and its effects on the brain. Offering thorough coverage of all aspects of alcohol research, treatment and prevention, and containing contributions from internationally recognized experts, the book provides students, early-career researchers, and investigators at all levels with a fundamental introduction to all aspects of alcohol misuse.
Alcohol is one of the world's most common addictive substances, with about two billion individuals worldwide consuming it in one form or another and three million annual deaths that are associated with alcohol misuse. Alcohol alters a variety of neurological processes, from molecular biology, to cognition. Moreover, addiction to alcohol can lead to numerous other health concerns and damage virtually every organ system in the body, making diagnosis and treatment of individuals addicted to alcohol of critical importance.
- Integrates cutting-edge research on the pharmacological, cellular and molecular aspects of alcohol use, along with its effects on neurobiological function
- Discusses alcohol use as a component of dual-use and poly addictions
- Outlines numerous screening and treatment strategies for alcohol misuse
- Covers both the physical and psychological effects of alcohol use and withdrawals to provide a fully-formed view of alcohol dependency and its effects
Part 1: General Aspects of Alcohol Usage and Addiction 1. General aspects: Significance, statistics, definitions, epidemiology, diagnostic criteria, and geographical distribution 2. Changes in alcohol use in adolescents 3. Alcohol usage in college 4. Alcohol consumption in old age 5. Alcohol and premature ageing: the example of dementia 6. Self-medication with alcohol 7. Alcohol consumption in different ethnic groups 8. Alcohol Consumption and gender 9. Acetaldehyde and neuroscience
Part 2: Effects of Alcohol on Neurobiological Function 10. Alcohol and cortical spreading depression 11. Alcohol and hypothalamic neuropeptide signalling 12. Prenatal alcohol exposure developmental abnormalities in the brain 13. Glycine and alcohol-induced neurodegeneration 14. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), glutamate and cravings for alcohol
Part 3: Psychology, Behavior and Addiction 15. Stress and alcohol consumption 16. Alcohol and appetite 17. Alcohol and memory decline 18. Occipito-temporal sensitivity to emotional faces in alcoholism 19. Violence and alcohol 20. Alcohol and visual and verbal learning deficits 21. Maternal separation stress and fetal spectrum alcohol disorder 22. Eating behaviors and fetal spectrum alcohol disorder 23. Functional MRI (fMRI) and reward processing and inhibitory control in alcoholism 24. Reward processing in offspring of alcoholics 25. Inhibitory control in social drinkers
Part 4: Pharmacology and Neuropharmacology 26. Cannabinoid CB1 receptor and alcohol 27. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR) agonists and alcohol 28. Neuropeptide S and alcohol 29. Neuropeptide Y and alcohol 30. kappa opioid receptors and alcohol 31. mu-opioid receptor and alcohol 32. The rostromedial tegmental nucleus and alcohol 33. Cortisol and alcohol 34. Promising systems for the treatment of alcohol use disorders
Part 5: Withdrawal, Craving in Misuse and Addiction 35. Medications and alcohol withdrawal syndrome 36. The striatum and alcohol withdrawal 37. Implicated brain areas in withdrawal 38. Assessment of withdrawal symptomology 39. Mechanism of propofol's activity in alcohol withdrawal syndrome 40. Alcohol and stress pathways in relation to craving 41. The craving beliefs questionnaire (CBQ) and alcohol craving measures 42. Alcohol and anxiety in withdrawal 43. Mood and alcohol in craving 44. Emotional stability and alcohol
Part 6: Alcohol as a Component of Dual-Use and Poly Addictions 45. Alcohol and psychotropic drugs 46. Alcohol and caffeine 47. Alcohol and nicotine 48. Alcohol and cannabinoids 49. Alcohol and cocaine 50. Alcohol and methamphetamine 51. Alcohol and heroin 52. Alcohol, acetaldehyde and dopamine
Part 7: Cellular Effects and Molecular Biology of Alcohol 53. Alcohol use disorders and ADH1B 54. Alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) 55. Alcohol and mGluR2/3 signalling 56. Neurological tissues in alcohol misusers, metabolomics and neurotransmitters 57. Glutamate transporter 1 isoforms and alcohol consumption 58. Alcohol and molecular aspects of the glutamate reward neurocircuitry 59. Acetaldehyde in the brain after alcohol exposure 60. Alcohol-induced neuroinflammation
Part 8: Screening and Markers in Relation to Misuse and Addiction 61. Screening for alcohol misuse in disease: the focus on HIV 62. Screening for underage alcohol drinking 63. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) 64. Self-reported screening of alcohol misuse 65. Alcohol screening in trauma centers 66. Biomarkers of alcohol misuse 67. Pregnancy, Meconium ethyl glucuronide (EtG) as a biomarker for alcohol use
Part 9: Treatments and Strategies for Alcohol Addiction 68. Use of benzodiazepines in alcohol withdrawal 69. Novel medications and use of genetic models for alcohol treatments 70. Alcoholism and psychosocial predictors of relapse 71. Negative emotions and alcohol use disorder treatment 72. Alcohol misuse and motivation-enhancing treatments 73. Cognitive training in Veterans with Alcohol Use Disorders 74. Family-based prevention of alcohol misuse 75. Couples-based substance abuse treatment in relation to alcohol 76. Barriers for treating alcohol related problems
Victor R. Preedy, PhD, is Professor of Nutritional Biochemistry in the Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, at the King's College in London. He is also a Professor of Clinical Biochemistry in the Department of Clinical Biochemistry. Dr. Preedy is also Director of the Genomics Centre, King's College London. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal College of Pathologists in 2000. In 1993, he gained a D.Sc. degree for his outstanding contribution to protein metabolism. He was elected as a Fellow to the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health (2004) and The Royal Institute of Public Health (2004). In 2009, Dr. Preedy was also elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society for Public Health (RSPH). He has written or edited over 550 articles, which includes over 160 peer-reviewed manuscripts based on original research and 85 reviews and 30 books. His interests pertain to matters concerning Public Health and how this is influenced by nutrition, addictions and other lifestyle factors. Professor Preedy is especially committed to bridging the person-public health divide.