Neuroscience of Alcohol: Mechanisms and Treatment presents the fundamental information necessary for a thorough understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of alcohol addiction and its effects on the brain. Offering thorough coverage of all aspects of alcohol research, treatment and prevention, and containing contributions from internationally recognized experts, the book provides students, early-career researchers, and investigators at all levels with a fundamental introduction to all aspects of alcohol misuse.
Alcohol is one of the world's most common addictive substances, with about two billion individuals worldwide consuming it in one form or another and three million annual deaths that are associated with alcohol misuse. Alcohol alters a variety of neurological processes, from molecular biology, to cognition. Moreover, addiction to alcohol can lead to numerous other health concerns and damage virtually every organ system in the body, making diagnosis and treatment of individuals addicted to alcohol of critical importance.
- Integrates cutting-edge research on the pharmacological, cellular and molecular aspects of alcohol use, along with its effects on neurobiological function
- Discusses alcohol use as a component of dual-use and poly addictions
- Outlines numerous screening and treatment strategies for alcohol misuse
- Covers both the physical and psychological effects of alcohol use and withdrawals to provide a fully-formed view of alcohol dependency and its effects
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PART I: INTRODUCTORY CHAPTERS 1. Becoming a "Successful" Drinker and a Graduate: A Sociological Perspective on Alcohol Consumption by University Students 2. Molecular Genetics Meets Sociology: Birth Cohort Effects on Alcohol Use and Relationship With Candidate Genes 3. Alcohol and Women: Unique Risks, Effects, and Implications for Clinical Practice 4. ADH and ALDH Polymorphisms in Alcoholism and Alcohol Misuse/Dependence 5. Acetaldehyde in the Brain After Ethanol Exposure: Research Progress and Challenges 6. Consequences of Ethanol Exposure on Neurodevelopment 7. Animal Models of Binge Drinking: Behavior and Clinical Relevance
PART II: NEUROBIOLOGY 8. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure: Developmental Abnormalities in the Brain 9. Connecting Prenatal Alcohol, Its Metabolite Acetaldehyde, and the Fetal Brain 10. Fetal Alcohol Exposure and the Central Nervous Control of Breathing 11. Synaptic Plasticity in the Hippocampus and Alcohol Exposure During Brain Development 12. Ethanol and Cortical Spreading Depression: The Protective Role of ?-Tocopherol 13. Brain Electrophysiological Signatures in Human Alcoholism and Risk 14. Alcohol and Hippocampal Epileptiform Activity 15. Effects of Alcohol on the Corpus Callosum 16. The Role of the Lateral Habenula Circuitries in Alcohol Use Disorders 17. Ventral Pallidum and Alcohol Addiction 18. The Hyperpolarization-Activated Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Ion Channels in the Rewarding Effects of Ethanol 19. Neuroimmune Aspects of Alcoholism and Affective Comorbidity 20. Social Drinking and Motor Inhibition: Evidences From FMRI Go/Nogo Tasks fMRI Studies on Alcohol Effect on Inhibition 21. Myelopathy and Neuropathy Associated With Alcoholism 22. Alcohol Consumption and the Risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis 23. Alcohol and Pain Interactions 24. Neurobiological Aspects of Ethanol-Derived Salsolinol 25. Brain Networks in Active Alcoholism and Enduring Recovery: Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Electrophysiological Studies, and Implications for Targeted Treatments 26. Central Role of Amygdala and Hypothalamus Neural Circuits in Alcohol Withdrawal Symptom
PART III: PSYCHOLOGY, BEHAVIOR, AND ADDICTION 27. Neural Reward Processing in Human Alcoholism and Risk: A Focus on Event-Related Potentials, Oscillations, and Neuroimaging 28. Occipito-Temporal Sensitivity and Emotional Faces in Alcohol Use Disorder 29. Alcohol and Violence in Psychopathy and Antisocial Personality Disorder: Neural Mechanisms 30. Language Lateralization in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders 31. Deprivation in Rewards and Alcohol Misuse 32. Alcohol (Mis)Use in Individuals With Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disability 33. Sex, Stress, and Neuropeptides Interact to Influence Alcohol Consumption 34. Maternal Separation Stress in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: A Case of Double Whammy 35. Impulsivity and Binge Drinking: A Neurocognitive Perspective 36. Acetaldehyde and Motivation 37. Age-Related Differences in the Appetitive and Aversive Motivational Effects of Alcohol 38. Alcoholism in Bipolar Disorders: An Overview of Epidemiology, Common Pathogenetic Pathways, Course of Disease, and Implications for Treatment 39. Socio-Emotional Deficits in Severe Alcohol Use Disorders 40. Relapse Risks in Patients With Alcohol Use Disorders 41. The Neurocognitive Effects of Alcohol Hangover: Patterns of Impairment/Nonimpairment Within the Neurocognitive Domains of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition
PART IV: PHARMACOLOGY, NEUROACTIVES, MOLECULAR, AND CELLULAR BIOLOGY 42. Neuroactive Steroids and Ethanol Exposure: Relevance to Ethanol Sensitivity and Alcohol Use Disorders Risk 43. Alcohol's Effects on Extracellular Striatal Dopamine 44. Nicotinic Cholinergic Mechanisms in Alcohol Abuse and Dependence 45. Opioid System and Alcohol Consumption 46. The Enkephalinergic System and Ethanol Effects 47. Alcohol and Central Glutamate Activity: What Goes Up Must Come Down? 48. Ethanol and Hippocampal Gene Expression: Linking in Ethanol Metabolism, Neurodegeneration, and Resistance to Oxidative Stress 49. Stress, Alcohol, and Hippocampal Genes 50. Genes and Alcoholism: Taste, Addiction, and Metabolism 51. Ethanol Exposure During Development, and Brain Oxidative Stress 52. Alcohol-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Brain: Suggested Mechanisms, Associated Disorders, and Therapeutic Strategies 53. Lead Exposure and Ethanol Intake: Oxidative Stress as a Converging Mechanism of Action
PART V: ALCOHOL AND OTHER ADDICTIONS 54. Alcohol and Gambling Addiction 55. Neuroscience of Alcohol and Crack Cocaine Use: Metabolism, Effects and Symptomatology 56. The Impact of Ethanol Plus Caffeine Exposure on Cognitive, Emotional, and Motivational Effects Related to Social Functioning
PART VI: BIOMARKERS AND SCREENING 57. Biomarkers of Alcohol Misuse 58. Phosphatidylethanol Homologs in Blood as Biomarkers for the Time Frame and Amount of Recent Alcohol Consumption 59. Metabolomics to Differentiate Alcohol Use Disorders From Social Drinkers and Alcohol-Naive Subjects 60. Meconium Biomarkers of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure 61. Applications of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) in Distinct Health Areas 62. Craving Measurement and Application of the Alcohol Craving Experience Questionnaire
PART VII: TREATMENTS, STRATEGIES AND RESOURCES 63. Negative Emotions and Alcohol Use Disorder Treatment 64. Use of Baclofen in Alcohol Use Disorder: A Clinical Approach 65. Baclofen-Induced Neurotoxicity 66. Treatment With Nalmefene in Alcoholism 67. Dual Therapy for Alcohol Use Disorders: Combining Naltrexone With Other Medications 68. The Avermectin Family as Potential Therapeutic Compounds for Alcohol Use Disorder: Implications for Using P2X4 Receptor as a Drug-Screening Platform 69. Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome: Clinical Picture and Therapeutic Options 70. Resources for the Neuroscience of Alcohol
Victor R. Preedy BSc, PhD, DSc, FRSB, FRSPH, FRCPath, FRSC is a staff member of the Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine within King's College London. He is also a member of the Division of Diabetes and Nutritional Sciences (research) and the Department of Nutrition and Dietetics (teaching). Professor Preedy is also Director of the Genomics Centre of King's College London.
Professor Preedy graduated in 1974 with an Honours Degree in Biology and Physiology with Pharmacology. He gained his University of London PhD in 1981. In 1992, he received his Membership of the Royal College of Pathologists and in 1993 he gained his second doctorate (DSc), for his outstanding contribution to protein metabolism in health and disease. Professor Preedy was elected as a Fellow to the Institute of Biology in 1995 and to the Royal College of Pathologists in 2000. Since then he has been elected as a Fellow to the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health (2004) and The Royal Institute of Public Health (2004). In 2009, Professor Preedy became a Fellow of the Royal Society for Public Health and in 2012 a Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry. Professor Preedy has carried out research when attached to Imperial College London, The School of Pharmacy (now part of University College London) and the MRC Centre at Northwick Park Hospital. He has collaborated with research groups in Finland, Japan, Australia, USA and Germany. Prof Preedy is a leading expert on the science of health and has a long standing interest in neurological disease and tissue pathology. He has lectured nationally and internationally. To his credit, Professor Preedy has published over 600 articles, which includes peer-reviewed manuscripts based on original research, abstracts and symposium presentations, reviews and numerous books and volumes.