Introduction to the Chemistry of Food describes the molecular composition of food and the chemistry of its components. It provides students with an understanding of chemical and biochemical reactions that impact food quality and contribute to wellness. This innovative approach enables students in food science, nutrition and culinology to better understand the role of chemistry in food. Specifically, the text provides background in food composition, demonstrates how chemistry impacts quality, and highlights its role in creating novel foods. Each chapter contains a review section with suggested learning activities. Text and supplemental materials can be used in traditional face-to-face, distance, or blended learning formats.
- Describes the importance of water to food attributes, including texture, flavor and preservation
- Includes the major and minor components of food
- Explains the functional properties contributed by proteins, carbohydrates and lipids in food
- Explores the chemical and enzymatic reactions affecting food attributes e.g., color, flavor and nutritional quality
- Discusses the chemistry of concerns relating to healthfulness of food in today's society
- Presents novel foods created by chemical and physical processes
Topic Outline Water and Fundamentals of Acid Base Chemistry . Water and its molecular structure . Chemical and physical properties of water . Water dispersions -surfactants, micelles, colloids . Chemistry of acids and bases, Weak acids and buffering . pH Definition . Acids in foods, how they function- chemical leavening, preservation, fermented food, and flavor . Health Aspects (bottled water, sports drinks) . Learning Activity/Questions-(Examples-Why do I burp when drinking soda pop? What makes a solute soluble? What are the pros and cons of sports drinks?)
Proteins . Structure and definition of terms . Chemical properties of proteins . Functional properties-solubility, foaming, emulsification, and gelation . Enzymes and their importance to foods. Examples include protease, lipase, LOX, enzymatic browning . Processing changes -denaturation, chemical modification . Composition in foods-(milk, meat, egg, soy) . Health aspects- acrylamide, food allergy, wheat gluten, . Learning Activity/Questions (Examples- Why does boiling cause an egg to become solid? Why does an apple turn brown after cutting? What properties does a good foaming protein have?)
Carbohydrates . Structure and nomenclature of carbohydrates . Carbohydrate chemistry- Maillard browning reaction, color and flavor . Polysaccharide structure and chemistry-starch, cellulose, and gums . Functional properties of carbohydrates- solubility, gelation, viscosity, sweetness . Health aspects-glycemic index, sugar vs fructose . Learning Activity/Questions (Examples -What role does Maillard reaction have in chocolate flavor? How do polysaccharides make thick smoothies? What causes a baked potato to be soft?)
Lipids . Structure and nomenclature of lipids . Chemistry of lipids-lipolysis, hydrogenation . Functional and physical properties- emulsification, texture, crystalline structure . Lipid composition in foods . Autoxidation and antioxidants-(free radical chemistry and inhibition) . Health aspects-polyunsaturated versus saturated lipids, cis -trans fatty acids, ?3 . Learning Activity/Questions (Examples- How is butter different from margarine? What are the pros and cons of lipid hydrogenation? What gives chocolate its unique melting properties? What is Crisco and how is it made?)
Minor Molecules of Major Importance . Vitamins . Colorants (anthocyanin, chlorophyll, carotenoids, myoglobin, carmine, and certified colorants) . Flavors, aromas and you . Additives . Health Aspects -preservatives, adverse reactions to additives . Learning Activity/Questions (Examples- Why do green beans turn olive brown when canned? Why does red cabbage turn blue when vinegar is added? Why does ground beef turn brown? Which additives are being removed from fast food and why? Is there a connection between flavor and the brain)
Foods and Food Processing-Explaining chemical of processing on food components . Milk, cheese, yoghurt . Processed meats . Protein ingredients . Learning Activity/Questions (Examples- How is milk made into cheese? What's in protein powders? What's in hot dogs and how are they made?)
Novel Foods and Technologies-Explaining role of chemistry in creating new foods . Molecular Gastronomy . Modernist Food Chemistry and Culinology . Food Physics-Pressure processing, sous vide cooking, novel ingredients . Learning Activity/Questions (Examples- What is cola caviar and how is it made? Liquid nitrogen and ice cream, how does that work.)
Current Issues in food-Explaining role of chemistry in current food controversies . Hydrogenation and trans fat . Sugar vs Fructose vs non-nutritive sweeteners . Food allergy . Future Food-test tube meat, insects as food, designer veggies . Learning Activity/Questions (Examples- What is food allergy? Are insects good a food? Can sugar be addictive? Are GMOs safe?)
Dr. Zeece's research expertise is focused on hot topics related to the Food Chemistry area, including Proteomics, Electrophoretic Separations, Chromatography, Proteases, Protein Degradation, Animal & Plant Protein Purification, Characterization and Allergen Characterization. His large teaching background makes him the perfect author for a textbook in the Food Chemistry area.