The Handbook of Silicon Based MEMS Materials and Technologies, Third Edition, is a comprehensive guide to MEMS materials, technologies, and manufacturing that examines the state-of-the-art with a particular emphasis on silicon as the most important starting material used in MEMS.
The book explains the fundamentals, properties (mechanical, electrostatic, optical, etc.), materials selection, preparation, manufacturing, processing, system integration, measurement, and materials characterization techniques, sensors, and multi-scale modeling methods of MEMS structures, silicon crystals, and wafers, also covering micromachining technologies in MEMS and encapsulation of MEMS components.
This new edition provides coverage of innovative 3D packaging technologies and process knowledge for silicon direct bonding, anodic bonding, glass frit bonding, and related techniques, shows how to protect devices from the environment, and provides tactics to decrease package size for a dramatic reduction in costs. The new edition includes coverage of new processing techniques, emerging water bonding techniques, and reliability, that were not included in the previous edition. A new section on process integration features numerous case studies, showing how MEMS technology is being used in industry.
- Provides vital packaging technologies and process knowledge for silicon direct bonding, anodic bonding, glass frit bonding, and related techniques
- Shows how to protect devices from the environment and decrease package size for a dramatic reduction in packaging costs
- Discusses properties, preparation, and growth of silicon crystals and wafers
- Explains the many properties (mechanical, electrostatic, optical, etc.), manufacturing, processing, measuring (including focused beam techniques), and multiscale modeling methods of MEMS structures
- Geared towards practical applications rather than theory
Part I Impact of Silicon MEMS 1. Properties of silicon; Fracture toughness 2. Czochralski Growth of Silicon Crystals 3. Properties of Silicon Crystals 4. Silicon Wafers: Preparation and Properties; Modern technologies 5. Epi Wafers: Preparation and Properties 6. Thin Films on Silicon 7. Thick-Film SOI Wafers: Preparation and properties
Part II 8. Multiscale Modeling Methods 9. Mechanical Properties of Silicon Microstructures 10. Electrostatic and RF-Properties of MEMS Structures 11. Optical Modeling of MEMS 12. Modeling of Silicon Etching 13. Gas Damping in Vibrating MEMS Structures 14. Recent Progress in Large-scale Electronic State Calculations and Data-driven Sciences
Part III 15. MEMS Lithography 16. Deep Reactive Ion Etching; update 17. Wet Etching of Silicon 18. Porous Silicon Based MEMS 19. Surface Micromachining 20. Vapor Phase Etch Processes for Silicon MEMS 21. Inkjet Printing, Laser-Based Micromachining and Micro 3D Printing Technologies for MEMS 22. Microfluidics and BioMEMS in Silicon
Part IV 23. Silicon Direct Bonding 24. Anodic Bonding 25. Glass Frit Bonding 26. Metallic Alloy Seal Bonding 27. Emerging Wafer Bonding Technologies 28. Bonding of CMOS Processed Wafers 29. Wafer-Bonding Equipment 30. Encapsulation by Film Deposition 31. Dicing of MEMS Devices 32. 3D Integration of MEMS 33. Own chapter for eWLP 34. Through-Substrate Via Technologies for MEMS 35. Outgassing and Gettering
Part V 36. Silicon Wafer and Thin Film Measurements 37. Oxygen and Bulk Microdefects in Silicon 38. Optical Measurement of Static and Dynamic Displacement in MEMS 39. MEMS Residual Stress Characterization: Methodology and Perspective 40. Microscale deformation analysis 41. Strength of Bonded Interfaces 42. Hermeticity Tests 43. MEMS testing and calibration 44. MEMS Reliability
Part VI 45. Case Accelerometer 46. Case Gyroscope 47. Case Pressure Sensor 48. Case Microphone 49. Case Micromirror 50. Case Optical MEMs
Markku Tilli obtained a degree in Materials Science (Physical Metallurgy) at Helsinki University of Technology (HUT) in 1974. Since 1985 he has had various managing positions at Okmetic in research, development and customer support areas, now he holds a position of Senior Vice President, Research. His MEMS related activities started in 1982 when he developed a process to make double side polished silicon wafers for bulk micromachined sensors. Since then he has developed advanced new silicon wafer types for MEMS, including special epitaxial wafers, SOI and SOI wafers with buried cavities. His publication topics include oxygen precipitation in silicon, silicon crystal growth, wafer cleaning as well as silicon wafer manufacturing technologies and applications in MEMS.
Mervi Paulasto-Kröckel chairs Electronics integration and Reliability in the School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University, Finland. She has broad experience in microelectronics packaging development specifically for automotive and power electronics market.
Teruaki Motooka received PhD degree in 1981 in Applied Physics from Kyushu University. He was a research scientist in the Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi Ltd. for 1971-1984, a visiting research assistant professor at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA for 1984-1988, an associate professor in the Institute of Applied Physics at University of Tsukuba, Japan for 1988-1993, and became a full professor at Kyushu University in 1993. He retired from Kyushu University in 2010.
He has published more than 150 scientific papers on various international journals and these papers have been cited more than 2000 times.
Matthias Petzold is Professor, Fraunhofer Institute for Microstructure of Materials and Systems IMWS, Germany. His research focuses on physical failure analysis of semiconductor materials, on strength and reliability properties of MEMS, on material diagnostics in microelectronics packaging and on innovative methods and instrumentation for microstructure diagnostics and mechanical testing. He is currently heading the institute's Center for Applied Microstructure Diagnostics (CAM) and is deputy director of the Fraunhofer institute for Microstructure of Materials and Systems IMWS in Halle.
Horst Theuss is Lead Principal, Infineon Technologies AG, Germany, where he is today responsible for Backend predevelopments focusing on new packages for MEMS and sensors. Since 2000, he has worked on a variety of assembly technologies and concepts in the field of discrete semiconductors, wafer level packaging, cavity packaging, materials and integration concepts.
Veikko Lindroos is Professor Emeritus, Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science, Aalto University, Finland. His research covers a broad spectrum of materials science and technology, such as metallic materials, silicon technology and MEMS materials magnetic, electronic and composite materials as well as shape memory effect and materials.